Journal 3, March 2006pages: 155-158
Background: The evaluation of influenza vaccine activity and potency are based on the immune response to hemagglutinin, and protection is indicated when a ≥ 1:40 titer of hemagglutination inhibition serum antibody is present. Neuraminidase, the second surface glycoprotein, may also have a role in protection, but little information on the immunologic response to this component is available.
Objectives: To determine whether any response to neuraminidase is evoked by intranasal immunization with a novel, whole, inactivated anti-influenza vaccine.
Methods: This study was part of a more comprehensive study of mucosal and serum immune response to this vaccine. Fifty-four young adults were immunized intranasally, 9 intramuscularly and 18 received a placebo. Twenty-three elderly people were immunized intramuscularly, and 21 elderly and 17 children were immunized intranasally. Serum and nasal antibodies to antigens N1 and N2 were determined by the lectin neuraminidase test.
Results: Serum response following intranasal vaccination was lower than after intramuscular vaccination, and ranged from 21.4 to 35.3% and 33.3 to 64.7% following intranasal vaccination and 52.2 to 77.8% and 47.8 to 88.9% after intramuscular vaccination, to N1 and N2 respectively. Nasal antibody response was low and was found only after intranasal vaccination, and response to N2 was better than to the N1 antigen.
Conclusions: It may be beneficial if future vaccines would include competent hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, which would afford a higher level of protection.