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עמוד בית Mon, 26.08.19

May 2007


Focus
L. Aharonson-Daniel, M. Avitzour, A. Giveon and K. Peleg
Perspective
A. Wincewicz, M. Sulkowska and S. Sulkowski

Ludwik Zamenhof (1859-1917) lived in Poland under Russian and later German rule. He invented and propagated Esperanto – an artificial, easy-to-learn language. Literally meaning “language of hope,” Esperanto was constructed to avoid misunderstandings, establish communication and facilitate harmony among different nationalities. Simply, he wanted people to accept one another despite observed differences. He was a skilled ophthalmologist, but figuratively, he wished to heal the eyes of humankind to look without hate, just as the biblical Tobias removed the cataract from the corners of his father’s eyes to restore his sight.

Original Articles
E. Segal, M. J. Menhusen and S. Simmons

Background: Invasive fungal infections by Mucorales or Aspergillus spp. are lethal infections in immune compromised patients. For these infections a multimodal approach is required. One potential tool for treating these infections is hyperbaric oxygen.

Objectives: To evaluate the clinical course and utility of hyperbaric oxygen in patients with invasive fungal infections by Mucorales or Aspergillus spp.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 14 patients treated with HBO[1] as part of their multimodal therapy over a 12 year period.

Results: Most patients had significant immune suppression due to either drug treatment or their underlying disorder. Thirteen of the 14 underwent surgery as part of the treatment and all were receiving antifungal therapy while treated with the hyperbaric oxygen. The number of HBO sessions ranged between 1 and 44. Seven of the patients survived the infection. No patient developed complications due to HBO therapy.

Conclusions: HBO is a potentially significant adjunct in the treatment of invasive fungal infections. Evidence on its usefulness as a standard of care in these infections is still lacking. Since it will be difficult to generate conclusive data regarding the importance of HBO in these infections, the value of HBO in these patients should be considered on an individual basis.






[1]HBO = hyperbaric oxygen


D. Starobin, M. Bargutin, I. Rosenberg, A. Yarmolovsky, T. Levi and G. Fink

Background: Asthma control and treatment compliance are widely investigated issues around the world. Studies have demonstrated relatively low asthma compliance and control in 40–90% of asthma patients in different countries. There are no available data on the Israeli adult asthmatic population

Objectives: To investigate the level of asthma control and compliance in adult asthmatic patients.

Methods: This cross-sectional study of consecutive adult asthmatic patients visiting the pulmonary clinic used a combined questionnaire that included demographics, data on asthma severity and management, and asthma control and compliance scores. Each patient was interviewed and questionnaires were filled out during a routine visit.

Results: The study group comprised 142 males (35.4%) and 259 females (64.6%). Compliance was found optimal in 8 patients (2%), fair in 146 (36%), partial in 156 (39%) and poor in 92 (23%) of the participating asthmatic patients. Asthma control was found optimal in 26 (7%), fair in 124 (31%), partial in 122 (30%) and poor in 129 (32%) patients. Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jewish origin, higher level of education, and treatment protocol including either single fixed-dose inhalers or short-acting beta-agonist bronchodilators significantly improved compliance in our cohort. Socioeconomic status and compliance were found to positively affect asthma control, whereas active smoking negatively affected asthma control in the study patients.

Conclusions: The figures of optimal asthma control and compliance to treatment in Israeli adult asthmatics are low and worse than reported in other studies abroad.
 

R. Lev-Tzion, T. Friedman, T. Shochat, E. Gazala and Y. Wohl

Background: Numerous studies have shown an association between asthma and mental disorders. While elevated rates of asthma have been noted among psychiatric patients with anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder, several studies have found elevated rates of mental disorders among asthma patients. Such studies, however, have generally relied upon questionnaires and assessment by non-specialist physicians to diagnose mental disorders and asthma.

Objectives: To examine a possible association between asthma and psychiatric diagnoses in Israeli military recruits and soldiers.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study we compared the prevalence of mental diagnoses in asthmatic recruits and soldiers to that in non-asthmatic recruits and soldiers. A total of 195,903 recruits and soldiers were examined by Israel Defense Forces recruiting offices and fitness boards. Diagnoses of asthma were based on a pulmonologist's diagnosis, including spirometry at rest and exercise testing as indicated; diagnoses of mental disorders were based on examination by a psychiatrist.

Results: The prevalence of asthma was found to be 7.8% (current) and 9.8% (lifetime). The prevalence of mental disorders was 13.4%. Current asthma was associated with an increased likelihood of any mental disorder (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.15–1.26), and specifically with mood and anxiety disorders (1.31, 1.19–1.46), introvert personality disorders (1.20, 95% 1.12–1.28) and adjustment disorder (1.43, 1.26–1.62). Lifetime asthma was associated with an increased likelihood of the same disorders, but the association was not as powerful.

Conclusions: The results validate the previously documented association between asthma and mental disorders, using a sample of unprecedented size and improved methodology. A multidisciplinary approach to asthma that incorporates mental health professionals in the treatment of poorly controlled asthma and perhaps of asthma in general is recommended.
 

I. Gotsman, A. Meirovitz, N. Meizlish, M. Gotsman, C. Lotan and D. Gilon

Background: Infective endocarditis is a common disease with significant morbidity and mortality.

Objectives: To define clinical and echocardiographic parameters predicting morbidity and in-hospital mortality in patients with infective endocarditis hospitalized in a tertiary hospital from 1991 to 2000.

Methods: All patients with definite IE diagnosed according to the Duke criteria were included. We examined relevant clinical features that might influence outcome.

Results: The study group comprised 100 consecutive patients, 77 with native valve and 23 with prosthetic valve endocarditis. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 8%. There was a higher mortality in the PVE[1] group compared to the NVE[2] group (13% vs. 7%, P = 0.07). The mortality rate in each group, with or without surgery, was not significantly different. Clinical predictors of mortality were older age and hospital-acquired endocarditis. The presence of vegetations and their size were significant predictors of major embolic events and mortality. Staphylococcus aureus was a predictor of mortality (25% vs. 5%, P < 0.005) and abscess formation. Multivariate logistic analysis identified vegetation size and S. aureus as independent predictors of mortality.

Conclusions: Mortality is higher in older hospitalized patients. S. aureus is associated with a poor outcome. Vegetation size is an independent predictor of embolic events and of a higher mortality.







[1]PVE = prosthetic valve endocarditis

[2]NVE = native valve endocarditis


N. Yarom, N. Dagon, E. Shinar and M. Gorsky

Background: Oral lichen planus is a cell-mediated immune condition of unknown etiology. A possible association of OLP[1] with hepatitis C virus infection has been documented in specific populations. However, no such possible association has been studied in Israel.

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of HCV[2] antibodies among patients with OLP in Israel.

Methods: The prevalence of HCV seropositivity was studied in OLP patients (n=62) and compared with that of a control group (n=65) and with the prevalence among healthy volunteer blood donors (n=225,452) as representatives of the general population.

Results: The prevalence of HCV, as detected by the presence of anti-HCV antibodies screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and confirmed by recombinant immunoblot assay, was 4.8%, 1.5% and 0.1%, respectively. HCV seropositivity in the OLP patients was significantly higher than in the healthy blood donors (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: A possible association between OLP and HCV is suggested. Therefore, screening OLP patients for antibodies to HCV is recommended.







[1] OLP = oral lichen planus

[2] HCV = hepatitis C virus


L. Kogan, P. Gilbey, A. Samet and Y. Talmon

Background: Surgery for the closure of nasal septal perforation is challenging. Numerous techniques have been described.

Objectives: To assess whether nasal septal perforations heal more consistently if a connective tissue scaffold is placed between the repaired septal flaps.

Methods: We performed closure of a septal perforation via a closed approach using oral mucosal flaps without the interposition of a connective tissue graft in seven patients.

Results: Complete perforation closure was achieved in 5 cases (83.3%). There was no significant donor site morbidity.

Conclusions: These initial results suggest that this is an effective technique for closing nasal septal perforations; it obviates the morbidity of the open approach and the added operating time and morbidity associated with the harvesting of a connective tissue graft.

 
 

R. Grossman, Z. Ram, A. Perel, Y. Yusim, R. Zaslansky and H. Berkenstadt

Background: Pain following brain surgery is a significant problem. Infiltration of the scalp with local intradermal anesthetics was suggested for postoperative pain control but was assessed only in the first hour postoperatively.


Objectives: To evaluate wound infiltration with a single dose of metamizol (dipyrone) for postoperative pain control in patients undergoing awake craniotomy.


Methods: This open, prospective, non-randomized observational study, conducted in anesthesiology and neurosurgical departments of a teaching hospital, included 40 patients undergoing awake craniotomy for the removal of brain tumor. Intraoperative anesthesia included wound infiltration with lidocaine and bupivacaine, conscious sedation using remifentanil and propofol, and a single dose of metamizol (dipyrone) for postoperative pain control. Outcome was assessed by the Numerical Pain Scale on arrival at the postoperative care unit, and 2, 4 and 12 hours after the end of surgery.


Results: On arrival at the postoperative care unit, patients reported NPS[1] scores of 1.2 ± 1.1 in a scale of 0–10 (mean ± SD) (median = 1, range 0–4). The scores were 0.8 ± 0.9, 0.9 ± 0.9, and 1 ± 0.9 at 2 hours, 4 hours, and 12 hours after the end of surgery, respectively. Based on patients' complaints and NPS lower then 3, 27 patients did not require any supplementary analgesia during the first 12 postoperative hours, 11 patients required a single dose of oral metamizol or intramuscular diclofenac, one patient was given 2 mg of intravenous morphine, and one patient required two separate doses of metamizol.

Conclusions: Although the clinical setup prevents the use of placebo local analgesia as a control group, the results suggest the possible role of local intradermal infiltration of the scalp combined with a single dose of metamizol to control postoperative pain in patients undergoing craniotomy.







[1] NPS = Numerical Pain Scale


S. Vinker, V. Elihayu and J. Yaphe

Background: The patient package insert, an information leaflet included by law in the packaging of prescription drugs, contains information for the user on the specific medication.

Objectives: To explore how patient information leaflets influence patient anxiety and adherence.

Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted in the practices of 15 family physicians. All patients receiving a new prescription for antibiotics, analgesics or antihypertensives were included. Physicians completed a questionnaire containing demographic data, assessment of the patient’s anxiety, a prediction about adherence to the treatment, and response to the information leaflet. Patients were contacted by telephone for a follow-up structured interview. Patients' reactions to the information leaflet, adherence to treatment, and use of other sources of information on medication were assessed.

Results: The study group comprised 200 patients. The patient information leaflet was read by 103 of them (51.5%). A higher educational level and a chronic medication were associated with reading the leaflet (P = 0.02 and 0.01 respectively). In 36 (34.9%), an increase in anxiety was reported after reading the leaflet. Among those who read the leaflet, 9.7% had decreased adherence. Patients who stated that reading the leaflet caused anxiety were more likely to reduce their use of the medication – 7/36 (19.5%) vs. 3/67 (4.5%), P = 0.01.

Conclusions: The proportion of patients reading the drug information leaflet is about 50%, lower than that found in previous studies. Reading the leaflet did not greatly affect adherence but aroused anxiety and decreased adherence in some patients.
 

Reviews
A. Ornoy

Seroconversion to cytomegalovirus occurs in 1%-4% of pregnant women, most of whom are seropositive prior to pregnancy. In 0.2%-2.5% of their newborn infants there is evidence of intrauterine infection; most are born without any clinical findings The typical clinical symptoms of symptomatic congenital CMV[1] are observed in 10-20% of infected neonates. They include intrauterine growth restriction, microcephaly, hepatosplenomegaly, petechiae, jaundice, thrombocytopenia, anemia, chorioretinitis, hearing loss and/or other findings. Long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae include mental retardation, motor impairment, sensorineural hearing loss and/or visual impairment. These may occur even in infants who are free of symptoms at birth. Most infants born with severe neonatal symptoms of congenital CMV are born to mothers with primary infection during pregnancy. However, since about half of the infants infected with CMV in utero, including those with severe neonatal symptoms, are born to mothers with preconceptional immunity, we have to conclude that congenital CMV may be a significant problem even in children born to mothers with pre-pregnancy immunization. This may justify the use of invasive methods for the detection of possible fetal infection even in cases of non-primary CMV infection. This should also be a consideration when deciding upon population screening or immunization for CMV.






[1]CMV = cytomegalovirus


M. Witz and Z. Korzets

Renal vein occlusion in adults is usually a result of vein thrombosis, which is frequently associated with the nephrotic syndrome. The anatomy of renal vascularization is of primary importance for understanding its pathophysiological responses and the clinical and diagnostic presentation of patients with this condition. The reaction of the kidney to its vein occlusion is determined by the balance between the acuteness of the disease, extent of the development of collateral circulation, involvement of one or both kidneys and the origin of the underlying disease. Renal vein occlusion is generally a complication of some other condition, but may also occur as a primary event. The main goals of therapy should be to conserve renal parenchyma in order to maintain renal function and prevent thromboembolic phenomena.

הבהרה משפטית: כל נושא המופיע באתר זה נועד להשכלה בלבד ואין לראות בו ייעוץ רפואי או משפטי. אין הר"י אחראית לתוכן המתפרסם באתר זה ולכל נזק שעלול להיגרם. כל הזכויות על המידע באתר שייכות להסתדרות הרפואית בישראל. מדיניות פרטיות
ז'בוטינסקי 35 רמת גן, בניין התאומים 2 קומות 10-11, ת.ד. 3566, מיקוד 5213604. טלפון: 03-6100444, פקס: 03-5753303