V. Pinsk, J. Levy, D. A. Moser, B. Yerushalmi and J. Kapelushnik.
Background: Iron deficiency is the most common single cause of anemia worldwide. Treatment consists of improved nutrition along with oral, intramuscular or intravenous iron administration.
Objectives: To describe the efficacy and adverse effects of intravenous iron sucrose therapy in a group of children with iron deficiency anemia who did not respond to oral iron therapy.
Methods: We conducted a prospective investigation of 45 children, aged 11 months to 16 years, whose oral iron therapy had failed. The children attended the Pediatric Ambulatory Care Unit where they received intravenous iron sucrose infusion.
Results: Forty-four of the 45 patients were non-compliant. Nine had Helicobacter pylori gastritis and 16 patients suffered from intestinal malabsorption from different causes. Before treatment, the blood mean hemoglobin concentration was 7.43 g/dl (range 5–10.1 g/dl). Fourteen days after treatment the mean hemoglobin concentration increased to 9.27 g/dl (SD 1.23) and 6 months later to 12.40 g/dl (SD 1.28). One patient demonstrated a severe side effect with temporary and reversible reduced blood pressure during treatment.
Conclusions: These preliminary data suggest that administration of intravenous iron in pediatric patients is well tolerated and has a good clinical result, with minimal adverse reactions.
T. Safra , J. Greenberg, I.G. Ron, R. Ben-Yosef, M. Inbar, D. Sarid and N. Yaal-Hahoshen
A. Bogdanov-Berezovsky, L. Rosenberg, E. Cagniano, and E. Silberstein.
Background: Skin basal and squamous cell carcinomas together account for over half of all newly diagnosed cancer cases. Frozen section control of surgical margins is often required in the head and neck region. A paraffin permanent section does not always confirm the results of a frozen section.
Objectives: To test the diagnostic accuracy of frozen section histopathological analysis in determining the free margins of excised tumors.
Methods: This was a retrospective study of 169 cutaneous basal and squamous cell carcinomas excised with surgical margins diagnosed by frozen section and confirmed by permanent paraffin sections. The data included patients' age, gender, clinical and histopathological diagnosis, as well as characteristics of the lesions.
Results: There were 149 (88%) basal cell carcinomas and 20 (12%) squamous cell carcinomas. False negative margins were found in 19 cases (11.2%) and false positive margins in 11 cases (6.6%). We did not find any correlation between false positive or false negative margins and patients' age, gender, tumor size, tumor location, or the presence of sun-damaged skin. A significantly lower rate of false negative results was found in the residual tumor group.
Conclusions: Our findings show support the use of frozen section margin control in selected patients suffering from non-melanoma skin cancer of the head and neck.
H. Tessler, R. Gorodischer, J. Press and N. Bilenko
Background: Parental fear and misconceptions about fever are widespread in western society. Ethnicity and sociodemographic factors have been suggested as contributing factors.
Objectives: To test the hypothesis that undue parental concern about fever is less in traditional than in western cultural-ethnic groups.
Methods: Bedouin (traditional society) and Jewish (western society) parents of children aged 0–5 years with fever were interviewed in a pediatric emergency unit. Interviews were conducted in the parents' most fluent language (Hebrew or Arabic). A quantitative variable (a 9 item “fever phobia” scale) was constructed.
Results: The parents of 101 Jewish and 100 Bedouin children were interviewed. More Bedouin parents were unemployed, had less formal education and had more and younger children than the Jewish parents. Parents of both groups expressed erroneous beliefs and practices about fever; quantitative but not qualitative differences in fever phobia variables were documented. Compared with their Jewish counterparts, more Bedouin parents believed that fever may cause brain damage and death, administered antipyretic medications for temperature ≤ 38ºC and at excessive doses, and consulted a physician within 24 hours even when the child had no signs of illness other than fever (all P values < 0.001). The mean fever phobia score was higher in the Bedouin than in the Jewish group (P < 0.001). By multivariate analysis, only the cultural-ethnic origin correlated with fever phobia.
Conclusions: A higher degree of fever phobia was found among parents belonging to the traditional Bedouin group as compared to western society parents.
A. Khalaileh, I. Matot, C. Schweiger, L. Appelbum, R. Elazary and A. Keidar
Background: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is currently considered the gold standard surgical option for the treatment of morbid obesity. Open RYGB is associated with a high risk of complications. Laparoscopic RYGB has been shown to reduce perioperative morbidity and improve recovery.
Objectives: To review our experience with laparoscopic RYGB during a 19 month period.
Methods: The data were collected prospectively. The study group comprised all patients who underwent laparoscopic RYGB for treatment of morbid obesity as their primary operation between February 2006 and July 2007. The reported outcome included surgical results, weight loss, and improved status of co-morbidities, with follow-up of up to 19 months.
Results: The mean age of the 50 patients was 36.7 years. Mean body mass index was 44.7 kg/m2 (range 35–76 kg/m2); mean duration of surgery was 171 minutes. There was no conversion to open surgery. The mean length of stay was 4 days (range 2–7 days). Five patients (10%) developed a complication, but none of them required early reoperation and there were no deaths. Mean follow-up was 7 months (range 40 days–19 months). The excess body weight loss was 55% and 61% at 6 and 12 months respectively. Diabetes resolved completely or significantly improved in all five patients with this condition, as did hypertension in eight patients out of nine.
Conclusions: Laparoscopic RYGB is feasible and safe. The results in terms of weight loss and correction of co-morbidities are comparable to other previously published studies. However, only surgeons with experience in advanced laparoscopic as well as bariatric surgery should attempt this procedure.
M. Shani, J. Dresner, and S. Vinker.
Background: The introduction of more potent statins such as atorvastatin and rosuvastatin in Israel was accompanied by massive advertising about their superiority.
Objectives: To assess the need for switching therapy from older statins to more potent ones among diabetic patients with uncontrolled hypercholesterolemia.
Methods: Data on all diabetic patients over 30 years old attending two urban clinics were extracted and analyzed. For each patient we checked the last low density lipoprotein-cholesterol measurements for the year 2006, the brand and the dose of cholesterol-lowering medications, prescriptions and actual purchasing over a 4 month period prior to the last LDL-C measurement, and whether treatment changes were necessary to achieve the LDL-C target (100 mg/dl or 70 mg/dl).
Results: The study population comprised 630 patients, age 66.7 ± 12.6 years, of whom 338 (53.6%) were women. Of the 533 (84.6%) patients whose LDL-C was measured in 2006, 45 (8.1%) had levels < 70 mg/dl and 184 (33.3%) had levels of 70 mg/dl < LDL-C < 100 m/dl. The reasons for LDL-C > 100 mg/dl were patients not prescribed cholesterol-lowering drugs (38.3%), partial compliance (27.2%), and under-dosage of statins (15.4%); only 7.7% needed to switch to a more potent statin. Reasons for LDL-C > 70 mg/dl were patients not prescribed cholesterol-lowering drugs (34.3%), partial compliance (22.0%), and under-dosage of statins (26.6%); only 8.7% needed to switch to a more potent statin.
Conclusions: Only a small minority of diabetic patients with uncontrolled hypercholesterolemia need one of the potent statins as the next treatment step. More emphasis on compliance and dose adjustment is needed to achieve the target LDL-C level.
S. Padeh, N. Stoffman, Y. Berkun.
Background: The new syndrome, known as PFAPA, of periodic fever characterized by abrupt onset of fever, malaise, aphthous stomatitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenopathy has been described only in pediatric patients. It usually begins before the age of 5 years and in most cases resolves spontaneously before age 10.
Objectives: To describe a series of adults with PFAPA syndrome.
Methods: This 6 year retrospective descriptive study includes all newly diagnosed incident adult cases aged 18 years and over referred to our center with symptomatology suggestive of PFAPA syndrome. Patients’ medical records were reviewed for past history of the disease, demographic characteristics, symptoms and signs, course of the disease, laboratory findings, and outcome following corticosteroid therapy. The comparison group included our pediatric cohort children (N=320, age 0–18 years) followed for the last 14 years (1994–2008).
Results: Fifteen adult patients were diagnosed with PFAPA syndrome. Episodes of fever occurred at 4.6 ± 1.3 week intervals, beginning at the age of 20.9 ± 7.5. All patients had monthly attacks at the peak of the disease, with attacks recurring at 4–8 week intervals over the years. Between episodes the patients were apparently healthy, without any accompanying diseases. Attacks were aborted by a single 60 mg dose of oral prednisone in all patients.
Conclusions: This study reports the presence of PFAPA syndrome in adult patients. Although the disease is rare, an increased awareness by both patients and family physicians of this clinical syndrome has resulted in more frequent diagnosis in adult patients.
C. Milgrom, V. Novack, Y. Weil, S. Jaber, D. R. Radeva-Petrova, and A. Finestone
Background: Idiopathic frozen shoulder is a self-limiting regional skeletal problem of unknown etiology. Clinically, patients first experience a phase of pain, progressing to a freezing stage when glenohumeral motion is lost, followed by a thawing phase when pain gradually subsides and most of the lost motion returns.
Objectives: To identify possible specific and non-specific risk factors for idiopathic frozen shoulder.
Methods: We compared the medical histories, drug treatment, previous hospital as well as health management organization blood tests of 126 new consecutive frozen shoulder patients from a shoulder clinic to those of an age-matched control group of 98 consecutive patients from an orthopedic foot and ankle clinic and to the regional population disease prevalence registry. Frozen shoulder was classified as idiopathic only if there was no history of trauma and no evidence of a rotator cuff tear.
Results: Among the frozen shoulder patients 29.4% had diabetes and 13.5% had thyroid disorders. The risk ratio for diabetes in the frozen shoulder group was 5.9 for males (95% confidence interval 4.1–8.4, P < 0.001) and 5.0 for females (95% CI 3.3–7.5, P < 0.001). The risk ratio for thyroid disorders among females with frozen shoulder was 7.3 (95% CI 4.8–11.1, P = 0.001). No significant difference was found in the prevalence of thyroid disorders between frozen shoulder and the control group, but there was a significantly higher prevalence of diabetes in males and a trend for higher prevalence in females in the frozen shoulder group.
Conclusions: Physicians should be aware that diabetes is a specific risk factor for idiopathic frozen shoulder in both males and females and thyroid disorders are a non-specific risk factor in females only.
L. Gaal, Jozsef Varga, PhD, Zoltan Szekanecz, MD PhD DSci, Julia Kurko, MD, Andrea Ficzere, MD PhD, Edit Bodolay, MD PhD DSci and Tamás Bender
Background: Balneotherapy is an established treatment modality for musculoskeletal disease. However, few studies have examined the efficacy of spa therapy in elderly patients with degenerative spine and joint diseases.
Objectives: To assess the effects of balneotherapy on chronic musculoskeletal pain, functional capacity, and quality of life in elderly patients with osteoarthritis of the knee or chronic low back pain.
Methods: A total of 81 patients enrolled and the results of 76 were analyzed. Subjects underwent a 1 day course of 30 minute daily baths in mineral water. Changes were evaluated in the following parameters: pain intensity, functional capacity, quality of life, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory or analgesic drugs, subjective disease severity perceived by the patients, investigator-rated disease severity, and severity of pain perceived by the patients.
Results: Compared to baseline, all monitored parameters were significantly improved by balneotherapy in both investigated groups. Moreover, the favorable effect was prolonged for 3 months after treatment.
Conclusions: This study showed that balneotherapy is an effective treatment modality for elderly patients with osteoarthritis of the knee or with chronic low back pain, and its benefits last for at least 3 months after treatment.