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עמוד בית Wed, 26.06.19

August 2009

Original Articles
S. Ariad, I. Lipshitz, D. Benharroch, J. Gopas and M. Barchana

Background: Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a distinct primary solid tumor of the immune system that shows wide variation in incidence among different geographic regions and among various races. It was previously suggested that susceptible people living in certain parts of Israel had a higher risk of HL[1] because of exposure to unidentified environmental factors in these regions. Compared with other parts of Israel, these regions were characterized by a higher proportion of Israeli-born Jews.

Objectives: To study time trends in the incidence rate of HL in Israeli-born Jews of all age groups during the years 1960–2005.

Results: A total of 4812 Jewish cases of HL were reported to the Israel Cancer Registry during the study period 1960–2005. There has been a persistent increase in the age-standardized incidence rate of HL, all subtypes pooled, in Israeli-born Jews in both men and women. The age distribution pattern in both genders was bimodal in all periods. The highest incidence was observed in the 20–24 year age group: for women (9.13 per 100,000 per year) during the period 1988–1996, and for men (6.60 per 100,000 per year) during the period 1997–2005.

Conclusions: The reported incidence level of HL in Israeli-born young adult Jews in Israel has increased in recent years to high levels compared with other western countries. Our findings suggest a cohort effect to unidentified factors affecting Israeli-born young adult Jews in Israel.

[1] HL = Hodgkin’s lymphoma

A. Lahat, M. Nadler, C. Simon, M. Lahav, B. Novis and S. Bar-Meir

Background: Double balloon enteroscopy is a new technique that enables deep intubation of the endoscope into the small bowel lumen. Through a channel in the endoscope, invasive procedures such as biopsy, polypectomy and hemostasis can be performed, avoiding the need for surgery.

Objectives: To prospectively analyze our results of the first 124 DBEs[1] performed since February 2007.

Methods: The study group comprised all patients who underwent DBE at the Sheba Medical Center between February 2007 and February 2009. Recorded were the patients' demographic data, comorbidities, indications for the examination, results of previous non-invasive small bowel imaging (computed tomography enterography, capsule endoscopy, etc), investigation time, and results of the procedure including findings, endoscopic interventions, complications and pathological report.

Results: A total of 124 procedures were performed in 109 patients. Of the 124 examinations, 57 (46%) were normal and 67 (54%) showed pathology. The main pathologies detected on DBE were polyps (14%), vascular lesions (17.6%) and inflammation (12%). Endoscopic biopsies and therapeutic interventions were required in 58 examinations (46%). A new diagnosis was established in 15% of patients, diagnosis was confirmed in 29% and excluded or corrected in 12%. One complication was observed: a post-polypectomy syndrome that was treated conservatively.

Conclusions: DBE is a safe procedure and has a high diagnostic and therapeutic yield. Most of the examinations were performed under conscious sedation, and only a minority of patients required deeper sedation. 

[1] DBE = double balloon enteroscopy

L. Shema, L. Ore, R. Geron and B. Kristal

Background: Radiological procedures utilizing intravascular contrast media are being widely applied for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This has resulted in increasing incidence of procedure-related contrast-induced nephropathy. In Israel, data on the incidence of CIN[1] and its consequences are lacking.

Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of CIN among hospitalized patients in the Western Galilee Hospital, Nahariya (northern Israel), and to explore the impact of CIN on mortality and length of stay.

Methods: The study group was a historical cohort of 1111 patients hospitalized during the year 2006 who underwent contrast procedure and whose serum creatinine level was measured before and after the procedure. Data were electronically extracted from different computerized medical databases and merged into a uniform platform using visual basic application.

Results: The occurrence of CIN among hospitalized patients was 4.6%. Different CIN rates were noticed among various high risk subgroups such as patients with renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus (14.1%–44%). Average in-hospital length of stay was almost twice as long among patients with CIN compared to subjects without this condition. Furthermore, the in-hospital death rate among CIN patients was 10 times higher. A direct association was observed between severity of CIN based on the RIFLE classification and risk of mortality.

Conclusions: Low CIN occurrence was demonstrated in the general hospitalized patients (4.6%), and high rates (44%) in selected high risk subgroups of patients (with renal insufficiency or diabetes mellitus). Furthermore, prolonged length of stay and high in-hospital mortality were directly related to CIN severity.

[1] CIN = contrast-induced nephropathy

G. Aviram, R. Mohr, R. Sharony, B. Medalion, A. Kramer and G. Uretzky

Background: Injury to patent grafts or cardiac chambers may occur during reoperation after coronary artery bypass grafting. Preoperative spatial localization of bypass grafts with computed tomography may improve the safety of these procedures.

Objectives: To characterize patients who undergo CT before repeat operations after previous coronary artery bypass grafting, and evaluate its benefit in terms of surgical outcome.

Methods: We compared 28 patients who underwent cardiac gated CT angiography before reoperation (CT group) to 45 re-do patients who were not evaluated with CT (no‑CT group).

Results: The two groups were similar in most preoperative and operative characteristics. The CT group, however, included more patients with patent saphenous vein grafts and fewer with emergency operations, acute myocardial infarction and need for intraaortic balloon pump support. During mid-sternotomy, there was no injury to grafts in the CT group, while there were two patent grafts and three right ventricular injuries in the no-CT group. There was no significant difference in perioperative mortality (3.6% vs. 8.9%). The overall complication rate in the CT group was 21.4% compared to 42.2% in the no‑CT group (P = 0.07). The only independent predictors of postoperative complications were diabetes mellitus, preoperative stroke and preoperative acute MI[1].

Conclusions: The patency and proximity of patent grafts to the sternum are well demonstrated by multidetector CT and may provide the surgeon with an important roadmap to avoid potential graft injury. A statistical trend towards reduced complications rate was demonstrated among patients who underwent CT angiography before their repeat cardiac operation. Larger series are required to demonstrate a statistically validated complication-free survival benefit of preoperative CT before repeat cardiac surgery.

[1] MI = myocardial infarction

T. Friedman, J. Golan, A. Shalom and M. Westreich

Background: Due to the absence of accurate tools and appropriate photographic material there is a paucity of objective studies on facial aging in the modern literature.

Objectives: To measure changes in two elements of the face: brow ptosis and cheek mass migration, using an objective tool that we developed, which we then used to evaluate facial aging in two subjects, studying serial professional photographs over a 25 year period.

Methods: We studied the photographic atlas of the "Brown Sisters," a record of the yearly group photograph of four sisters, taken by the photographer Nicolas Nixon. For technical reasons, only two of the sisters fulfilled the criteria we set for the study. We used the interpupillary distance of each photograph studied to standardize the brow height and cheek mass distance from the interpupillary line.

Results: We observed progressive medial brow descent occurring at about the age of 30, with apparent stabilization thereafter. In contrast, there was a continuous process of lateral brow descent through the years. A process of gradual cheek mass descent was noted in the second half of the third decade.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that the dynamic brow changes start in the second half of the third decade, with more significant lateral brow descent than medial brow descent. The cheek mass reflective point moves in an inferior-lateral direction. The tool we developed can be used to follow aging changes and postoperative results, thereby helping the surgeon achieve true rejuvenation surgery.

L. Dotan, M. Icekson, R. Yanko-Arzi, A. Ofek, R. Neuman and A. Margulis

Background: Tissue expansion is a well-recognized technique for reconstructing a wide variety of skin and soft tissue defects. Its application in the pediatric population has enabled the plastic surgeon to achieve functional and aesthetic goals that were previously unobtainable.

Objectives: To review the use of tissue expansion in the pediatric population, with particular emphasis on indication, operative technique, regional considerations and how to avoid complications.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data on 103 expanded flap reconstructions performed in 41 pediatric patients during the period 2003–2006. Tissue expanders were placed on a subcutaneous plane above the fascia and inflated weekly. The expanded skin was used as a transposition flap or a full thickness skin graft for the reconstruction of the involved area. Forty-three tissue expanders were inserted to the head and neck in 21 patients, 45 were inserted to the trunk in 13 patients and 15 were inserted to the groin and lower extremity in 8 patients. Twenty-eight patients had one round of tissue expansion, while 13 patients had two to six rounds. A plastic surgeon, medical student and a lawyer reviewed the patients' photographs and evaluated their aesthetic outcome:

Results: Eighty-six percent of the head and neck reconstructions and 40% of the trunk and extremity reconstructions were graded as having excellent aesthetic outcome, and 11% of the head and neck reconstructions and 37% of the trunk and extremity reconstructions were graded with good aesthetic outcome. The remaining patients were graded with moderate outcome. None of our patients was graded as poor aesthetic outcome. Complications included infection in 6 patients (6%), extrusion in 3 (3%), hematoma in 2 (2%), flap ischemia in one patient (1%), and expander perforation after percutaneous stabbing in one patient (1%).

Conclusions: Tissue expansion is an efficient and valuable technique for reconstruction of large skin lesions and scars.

M. Kulikovsky, T.Gil, I. Mettanes, R. Karmeli and Y. Har-Shai
M. García-Carrasco, C. Mendoza-Pinto, R.O. Escárcega, M. Jiménez-Hernández, I. Etchegaray Morales, P. Munguía Realpozo, J. Rebollo-Vázquez, E. Soto-Vega, M. Delezé and R. Cervera

In recent years the survival of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus has increased markedly. Consequently, long-term complications, such as osteoporosis, are currently of paramount importance. SLE[1] is known to increase the risk of bone fractures, and numerous studies have found that SLE patients have osteoporosis. Of the various risk factors associated with osteoporosis in SLE, disease duration, the use of corticosteroids and chronic disease-related damage are consistently reported, with differences between studies probably due to the different populations studied. The role of chronic inflammation in osteoporosis is also important. On the other hand, little attention has been paid to osteoporotic fractures, especially of the vertebra, which are associated with reduced quality of life, increased mortality rates and increased risk of new vertebral and non-vertebral fractures in the general population.

[1] SLE = systemic lupus erythematosus

S. Godfrey, C. Springer and E. Bar-Yishay
Case Communications
Y. Tal, G. Haber, M.J. Cohen, M. Phillips, A. Revel, D. Varon and A. Ben-Yehuda
G. Rajz, D. Simon, M. Bakon, O. Goren, J. Zauberman, Z. Zibly, E. Zimlichman and S. Harnof
G. Faris, M. Nashashibi, B. Friedman, A. Stein, Y. Sova and Y. Mecz
J. Freire de Carvalho, A.C. de Medeiros Ribeiro, J.C. Bertacini de Moraes, C. Gonçalves, C. Goldenstein-Schainberg and E. Bonfá
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