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עמוד בית
Sat, 27.02.21

May 2009

Original Articles
L.S. Avnon, A. Smolikov and Y. Almog

Background: The most common and most serious complication of varicella (chickenpox) in adults is pneumonia, which can lead to severe respiratory failure. Varicella pneumonia is associated with considerable morbidity and even death.

Objectives: To summarize our experience with varicella pneumonia in terms of clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics as well as risk factors, management and outcome.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort survey in our facility from 1995 to 2008.

Results: Our cohort comprised 21 patients with varicella pneumonia, of whom 19 (90%) were men; their mean age was 35 ± 10.5 years. Nineteen patients (90%) were Bedouins and 18 (86%) were smokers. Eleven (52%) were admitted to the Medical Intensive Care Unit; 3 of them required mechanical ventilation and the remaining 10 (48%) were admitted to the general medical ward. Median length of stay was 6 ± 7.7 days. Hypoxemia and elevated lactate dehydrogenase on admission were associated with respiratory failure. Radiological manifestations were variable and nine patients exhibited characteristic findings. All but one patient were treated with acyclovir. All patients fully recovered.

Conclusions: In southern Israel varicella pneumonia is primarily a disease of young male Bedouins who are smokers. Severity ranges from mild disease to severe, resulting at times in respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Prognosis is favorable with complete recovery.

S. Heller, I. Fenichel, M. Salai, T Luria and S. Velkes

Background: Unicompartmental knee replacement has become a surgical alternative for treating isolated medial or lateral osteoarthritis of the knee or avascular necrosis of the femoral condyls.

Objectives: To evaluate the short-term results of the Oxford Phase 3® unicompartmental knee replacement for unicompartmental knee arthrosis or avascular necrosis of the medial

femoral condyle.

Methods: During the period 2003–2005 a total of 59 patients (59 knees) underwent medial Oxford Phase 3® unicompartmental knee replacement in our unit. The patients were interviewed and examined, and standing anteroposterior and lateral X-rays were taken. All patients completed the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index of Osteoarthritis and the Short Form 12 questionnaire, and the International Knee Society score was evaluated. The data were collected and statistical analysis was performed.

Results: X-rays were performed and scores for the WOMAC[1] and IKS[2] were assessed for 42 patients (31 females, 11 males). At an average of 32 months after surgery, the total WOMAC score was 30. The mean SF[3]12 physical score was 38 and the mean SF12 mental score was 51. The mean IKS score was 166. Ninety-one percent of the patients had active flexion of 120 degrees or more. Of 59 knees 7 were converted to total knee arthroplasty – all of them within the first 2 years of starting the procedure and all of them in relatively young patients.

Conclusions: Despite the higher revision rate to TKR[4] in this study, our findings confirm the short-term results reported in other studies of the Oxford medial unicompartmental knee and our early failure rate could be explained by a performance learning curve. This study confirms that this bone-preserving procedure should be considered in end-stage isolated unicompartmental osteoarthritis or avascular necrosis by surgeons who have the adequate training and experience.

[1] WOMAC = Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index of Osteoarthritis

[2] IKS = International Knee Society

[3] SF = short form

[4] TKR = total knee arthroplasty


L. Shema, L. Ore, R. Geron and B. Kristal

Background: Acute kidney injury remains a common significant clinical problem. Yet there are scant data in Israel on the incidence of hospital-acquired AKI[1] and on diagnosis validity.

Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of AKI among hospitalized patients in the Western Galilee Hospital, Nahariya, compare discharge summaries to laboratory diagnosis, and investigate the impact of AKI on mortality and length of stay.

Methods: Computerized medical and laboratory data of 34,802 hospitalized subjects were collected. AKI was diagnosed according to three different definitions. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of AKI based on ICD-9 diagnosis compared to patient's laboratory data as the gold standard.

Results: The overall AKI annual incidence rate was 1–5.1%, depending on the AKI definition used. The incidence of AKI based on ICD-9 diagnosis was significantly lower compared to the laboratory-based diagnosis. Average in-hospital length of stay was 2.4 times longer among patients with AKI compared to subjects without this condition. Furthermore, the in-hospital death rate among AKI patients was 14 times higher than among non-AKI hospitalized subjects, with a positive association between AKI severity and risk of death.

Conclusions: Using AKI laboratory diagnosis as the gold standard revealed ICD-9 diagnosis to be 9.1% sensitive and 99.4% specific. Hospital-acquired AKI is a major contributor to prolonged length of stay and high mortality rates; therefore, interventions to reduce in-hospital disease incidence are required.

[1] AKI = acute kidney injury

R. Eliahou, T. Sella, T. Allweis, S. Yaacov, E. Libson and M. Sklair-Levy

Background: Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast has emerged as a valuable imaging tool in addition to conventional imaging modalities. It has high sensitivity for malignant lesions, and can detect mammographically, sonographically and clinically occult cancers. “MR only” lesions are best biopsied under MR guidance; however, this may be a challenging task.

Objectives:  To evaluate our initial clinical experience with MR-guided core needle breast biopsy and MR-guided needle localization.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 81 women with 97 lesions, who were scheduled for guided core needle biopsy or MR-guided needle localization followed by surgery. Lesions were categorized as malignant, high risk, or benign according to the BI- RADS MR classification system. MR findings were compared with final histopathology or with follow-up imaging findings.

Results: Fifteen (16%) lesions were malignant (9 invasive ductal carcinoma, 2 invasive lobular carcinoma, 4 ductal carcinoma in situ); 7 (7%) lesions were high risk (4 atypical ductal hyperplasia, 3 radial scars); 75 (77%) lesions were benign, mainly fibrocystic changes. Other benign findings were sclerosing adenosis, pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia, fat necrosis, intraductal papilloma, fibroadenoma, capillary hemangioma, and florid ductal hyperplasia. No major complications were encountered.
Conclusions: MR-guided interventional procedures of the breast are accurate, safe and feasible methods for sampling breast lesions detected only by MR and have become a significant tool in the management of certain patients.

S. Frenkel, K. Hendler and J. Pe’er

Background: Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular tumor in adults. In the last two decades the Hadassah-Hebrew University ocular oncology clinic has become a referral center for uveal melanoma patients.

Objectives: To describe the characteristics of uveal melanoma patients in Israel, their treatment modalities and outcomes during the years 1988–2007.

Methods: Data were collected from the files of uveal melanoma patients in the departments of ophthalmology and oncology in our facility. Statistical analysis was performed using JMP statistical software.

Results: Data were available for 558 patients. The annual incidence of uveal melanoma in the last 5 years was 47.2 ± 7.1 new cases per year (mean ± standard error). There were 309 women (55.4%). The age at diagnosis was 60.8 ± 16.5 years (range 5–95). Overall, 6.6%, 16.8% and 86.9% involved the iris, ciliary-body and choroid, respectively. Tumors were classified as small, medium and large (9.0%, 64.5% and 17.9%, respectively) according to the COMS grouping criteria. The most common primary treatment was brachytherapy (74%), followed by enucleation (17.9%). Local recurrence was noted in 11.1% of patients, while metastases developed in 13.3%. The 5, 10 and 15 year melanoma-related mortality rate was 11.4%, 17.0% and 23.3%, respectively. Of the overall study population 9.3% died of metastatic uveal melanoma.

Conclusions: Uveal melanoma patients in Israel have tumors with characteristics similar to those in other countries. Brachytherapy is the predominant treatment, the local recurrence rate is low, and survival is comparable to that reported in the medical literature.

S. Fatum, A. Trevino and A. Ophir

Background: The causative role of diffuse macular edema in various etiologies is often undetermined.

Objectives: To describe an association between extrafoveal vitreous traction and non-diabetic diffuse macular edema secondary to various ocular entities.

Methods: In a retrospective study of eyes with non-diabetic diffuse macular edema, charts and optical coherence tomography scans demonstrating extrafoveal vitreous traction were analyzed. Excluded were diabetic patients and eyes that had vitreofoveal traction. A control group (n=12) allowed for mapping of normal macular thickness.

Results: Five eyes with macular edema were associated with extrafoveal traction, each secondary to and representing a different etiology. The causes were penetrating injury, cataract extraction, branch retinal vein occlusion, central retinal vein occlusion, and idiopathic. Vitreous traction was detected either at the papillomacular bundle (n=3), superonasally to the fovea (n=1), and at the optic nerve head (n=1). The associated retinal edema (all eyes) and serous retinal detachment (four eyes) at the traction sites were in continuum with the foveal edema in each eye, manifesting as diffuse macular edema. Of the two modalities, the OCT[1]-Line group program and the OCT-Automatic central program, only the former enabled detection of extrafoveal traction in each.

Conclusions: Diffuse macular edema secondary to various ocular diseases may be associated with extrafoveal vitreous traction. The OCT-Automatic central program may omit some of these extrafoveal traction sites. Further studies are required to validate these findings and to assess whether early vitrectomy may improve visual prognosis in these eyes.

[1] OCT = optical coherence tomography

H. Mazeh, A. Greenstein, K. Swedish, S. Arora, H. Hermon, I. Ariel, C. Divino, H.R Freund and .K. Weber

Background: Fine needle aspiration is the main diagnostic tool used to assess thyroid nodules.

Objectives: To correlate FNA[1] cytology results with surgical pathological findings in two teaching medical centers across the Atlantic.

Methods: We retrospectively identified 484 patients at Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem and Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, by means of both preoperative FNA cytology and a final histopathological report. Results compared FNA diagnosis, histological findings and frozen section results (Mt. Sinai only).

Results: The sensitivity value of FNA at Hadassah was 83.0% compared with 79.1% at Mt. Sinai (NS). Specificity values were 86.6 vs. 98.5% (P < 0.05), negative predictive value 78.7 vs. 77.6% (NS) and positive predictive value 89.7 vs. 98.6% (P < 0.05), respectively. "Follicular lesion" was diagnosed on FNA in 33.1% of the patients at Hadassah and in 21.5% at Mt Sinai (P < 0.005) with a malignancy rate of 42.5 vs. 23.1% (P < 0.05), respectively. Frozen section was used in 190 patients at Mt. Sinai (78.5%) with sensitivity and specificity values of 72.3% and 100%. Frozen section results altered the planned operative course in only 6 patients (2.5%). Follicular carcinoma was diagnosed in 12 patients at Hadassah vs. 2 patients at Mt. Sinai (P p <0.05).

Conclusion: The sensitivity of FNA at the two institutions was comparable. While malignancy on frozen section is highly specific, it should be used selectively for suspicious FNA results. Follicular lesions and the rate of malignancy in such lesions were more common at Hadassah, favoring a more aggressive surgical approach.

[1] FNA = fine needle aspiration

Z. Gil and D.M. Fliss

Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. HNCs[1] can originate in the skin or soft tissue, in the upper aerodigestive tracts (oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands), or in the thyroid. In each of these sites, tumors vary not only by the primary site but also by pathophysiology, biological behavior and sensitivity to radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Management should be planned according to the tumor's characteristics, patient factors and expertise of the medical team. The main goals of therapy are ablation of the cancer while minimizing morbidity and preserving function and cosmesis. A multidisciplinary team is needed to achieve these goals. Early-stage HNC (stage I and II) should be managed with a single modality, and advanced tumors (stage III and IV) with multimodality therapy. Treatment should be directed to the primary tumor and the area of its lymphatic drainage – the neck lymph nodes. Evidence of metastases in the neck necessitates comprehensive clearance of regional lymphatic basins. However, even if there is no evidence of lymph nodes metastases, when the risk for positive neck lymph nodes exceeds 15–20% elective neck dissection is indicated. Advances in minimally invasive techniques now enable reliable microscopic and endoscopic procedures that mimic the open approaches. Development of contemporary surgical techniques and reconstructive means will help improve the quality of life of patients and prolong survival.

[1] HNC = head and neck cancer

A. Blum

Experimental and clinical data suggest a causal relationship between immunological and inflammatory processes and heart failure. Inflammatory processes may be involved in the pathogenesis of heart failure and may play a role in the progression of ventricular dysfunction. In the last decade several immunological methods were developed that tried to address these questions and overcome the inflammatory and immunological insults. We hope that the present review will increase awareness of new treatment options and encourage researchers and physicians to investigate this novel approach to treat patients with heart failure.

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