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עמוד בית
Mon, 23.05.22

January 2022


CORONAVIRUS (COVID-19)
Brice Nguedia Vofo MD, Ana Navarrete MD, Jaime Levy MD, and Itay Chowers MD

Background: In response to the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, routine clinical visits to the ophthalmic emergency department (OED) were deferred, while emergency cases continued to be seen.

Objectives: To assess the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for ophthalmic emergencies.

Methods: A retrospective chart analysis of patients who presented to the OED during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic was conducted. The proportions of traumatic, non-traumatic-urgent, and non-traumatic-non-urgent presentations in 2020 were compared to those of the same time period in 2019. Duration of chief complains and best-corrected visual acuity were also assessed.

Results: There were 144 OED visits in 2020 compared to 327 OED visits during the same 3-week-period in 2019. Lower mean age of OED patients was present in 2020. Logarithmic expression (LogMAR) best corrected visual acuity (BVCA) was similar in both years. In 2020 there was a reduction in traumatic, non-traumatic-urgent, and non-traumatic-non-urgent cases compared to 2019 (15.4% reduction, P = 0.038; 57.6% reduction, P = 0.002; 74.6% reduction, P = 0.005, respectively). There was a higher proportion of same-day presentations at commencement of symptoms in 2020 compared with 2019 (52.8% vs. 38.8%, respectively P = 0.006).

Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of OED visits at a tertiary hospital dropped by more than half. Although the drop in visits was mostly due to decrease in non-traumatic-non-urgent cases, there was also decrease in non-traumatic-urgent presentations with possible important visual consequences. Additional studies should elucidate what happened to these patients

Giuliana Galassi MD, Vittorio Rispoli MD, Erika Iori MD, Alessandra Ariatti MD, and Alessandro Marchioni MD PhD

The Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine ChAdOx1 (AZD1222, Vaxzevria) is playing a crucial role in counteracting the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic [1]. Since March 2021, reports of unexpected thrombotic events associated with thrombocytopenia and vaccination have been published [2]. To the best of our knowledge there is only one report about vaccination-associated myasthenia gravis (MG) occurring after a second dose of BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech)

ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Yehuda Hershkovitz MD, Yaniv Zager MD, Batia Segal MD, and Yoram Klein MD

Background: Emergency surgical repair is the standard approach to the management of an incarcerated abdominal wall hernia (IAWH). In cases of very high-risk patients, manual closed reduction (MCR) of IAWH may prevent the need for emergency surgery.

Objectives: To evaluate the safety, success rate, and complications of MCR in the management of IAWH conducted in an emergency department.

Methods: The data of all patients who underwent MCR between 2012 and 2018 were retrospectively collected. Patient demographics, presenting symptoms, clinical parameters, and management during the hospitalization were retrieved from the medical charts.

Results: Overall, 548 patients underwent MCR during the study period. The success rate was 25.4% (139 patients). One patient had a complication that required a laparotomy 2 days after his discharge. A recurrent incarceration occurred in 23%, 60% of them underwent successful repeated MCR and the others underwent emergency surgery. Six patients (1.4%) had a bowel perforation after a failed MCR.

Conclusions: MCR can be performed safely in the emergency department and should be consider as an option to treat IAWH, especially in high operative risk patients

Tamar Tzur MD, Yossi Tzur MD, Shaul Baruch MD, Noam Smorgick MD, and Yaakov Melcer MD

Background: A paraovarian cyst (POC) is located between the ovary and the fallopian tube. In many cases POCs are diagnosed and managed as ovarian cysts. But since POC are a distinct entity in their clinical presentation and surgical intervention, they should be better defined.

Objectives: To describe the clinical perioperative and operative characteristics of patients with POCs in order to improve pre-operative diagnosis and management.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients with an operative diagnosis of POC between 2007 and 2019 in a single university-affiliated tertiary care medical center was included. Demographic characteristics as well as symptoms, sonographic appearance, surgery findings, and histology results were retrieved from electronic medical records.

Results: During the study period 114 patients were surgically diagnosed with POC, 57.9% were in their reproductive years and 24.6% were adolescents. Most presented with abdominal pain (77.2%). Preoperative sonographic exams accurately diagnosed POC in only 44.7% of cases, and 50.9% underwent surgery due to suspected torsion, which was surgically confirmed in 70.7% of cases. Among women with confirmed torsion, 28.9% involved the fallopian tube without involvement of the ipsilateral ovary. Histology results showed benign cysts in all cases, except two, with a pathological diagnosis of serous borderline tumor.

Conclusions: POC should always be part of the differential diagnosis of women presenting with lower abdominal pain and sonographic evidence of adnexal cysts. If POC is suspected there should be a high level of suspicion for adnexal torsion and low threshold for surgical intervention, especially in adolescent, population who are prone to torsion

Nardin Elias MD, Roman Rysin MD, Samuel Kwartin MD, and Yoram Wolf MD

Background: The purpose of mastectomy for the transgender patient is to produce a masculine appearance of the chest. A number of algorithms have been proposed for selecting the surgical technique. A holistic and surgical approach to transgender men includes our experience-based classification system for selecting the correct surgical technique.

Objectives: To present and discuss the Transgender Standard of Care and our personal experience.

Methods: Data were collected from the files of female-to-male transgender persons who underwent surgery during 2003–2019. Pictures of the patients were also analyzed.

Results: Until May 2021, 342 mastectomies were performed by the senior author on 171 patients. The 220 mastectomies performed on 110 patients until November 2019 were included in our cohort. Patient age was 13.5 to 50 years (mean 22.5 ± 6.1). The excision averaged 443 grams per breast (range 85–2550). A periareolar approach was performed in 14 (12.7%), omega-shaped resection (nipple-areola complex on scar) in 2 (1.8%), spindle-shaped mastectomy with a dermal nipple-areola complex flap approach in 38 (34.5%), and a complete mastectomy with a free nipple-areola complex graft in 56 (50.9%). Complications included two hypertrophic scars, six hematomas requiring revision surgery, three wound dehiscences, and three cases of partial nipple necrosis.

Conclusions: A holistic approach to transgender healthcare is presented based on the World Professional Association for Transgender Health standard of care. Analysis of the data led to Wolf's classification for female-to-male transgender mastectomy based on skin excess and the distance between the original and the planned position of the nipple-areola complex

Gergana Marincheva MD, Tal Levi MD, Olga Perelshtein Brezinov MD, Andrei Valdman MD, Michael Rahkovich MD, Yonatan Kogan MD, and Avishag Laish-Farkash MD PhD

Background: Endocardial leads of permanent pacemakers (PPM) and implantable defibrillators (ICD) across the tricuspid valve (TV) can lead to tricuspid regurgitation (TR) or can worsen existing TR with subsequent severe morbidity and mortality.

Objectives: To evaluate prospectively the efficacy of intraprocedural 2-dimentional-transthoracic echocardiography (2DTTE) in reducing/preventing lead-associated TR.

Methods: We conducted a prospective randomized controlled study comparing echocardiographic results in patients undergoing de-novo PPM/ICD implantation with intraprocedural echo-guided right ventricular (RV) lead placement (Group 1, n=56) versus non-echo guided implantation (Group 2, n=55). Lead position was changed if TR grade was more than baseline in Group 1. Cohort patients underwent 2DTTE at baseline and 3 and/or 6 months after implantation. Excluded were patients with baseline TR > moderate or baseline ≥ moderate RV dysfunction.

Results: The study comprised 111 patients (74.14 ± 11 years of age, 58.6% male, 19% ICD, 42% active leads). In 98 patients there was at least one follow-up echo. Two patients from Group 1 (3.6%) needed intraprocedural RV electrode repositioning. Four patients (3.5%, 2 from each group, all dual chamber PPM, 3 atrial fibrillation, 2 RV pacing > 40%, none with intraprocedural reposition) had TR deterioration during 6 months follow-up. One patient from Group 2 with baseline mild-moderate aortic regurgitation (AR) had worsening TR and AR within 3 months and underwent aortic valve replacement and TV repair.

Conclusions: The rate of mechanically induced lead-associated TR is low; thus, a routine intraprocedural 2DTTE does not have a significant role in reducing/preventing it

Yael Feferman MD, Melinda Katz MD, Natalia Egorova PhD MPH, Umut Sarpel MD MSc, and Nina A. Bickell MD MPH

Background: Potentially preventable readmissions of surgical oncology patients offer opportunities to improve quality of care. Identifying and subsequently addressing remediable causes of readmissions may improve patient-centered care.

Objectives: To identify factors associated with potentially preventable readmissions after index cancer operation.

Methods: The New York State hospital discharge database was used to identify patients undergoing common cancer operations via principal diagnosis and procedure codes between the years 2010 and 2014. The 30-day readmissions were identified and risk factors for potentially preventable readmissions were analyzed using competing risk analysis.

Results: A total of 53,740 cancer surgeries performed for the following tumor types were analyzed: colorectal (CRC) (42%), kidney (22%), liver (2%), lung (25%), ovary (4%), pancreas (4%), and uterine (1%). The 30-day readmission rate was 11.97%, 47% of which were identified as potentially preventable. The most common cause of potentially preventable readmissions was sepsis (48%). Pancreatic cancer had the highest overall readmission rate (22%) and CRC had the highest percentage of potentially preventable readmissions (51%, hazard ratio [HR] 1.42, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.28–1.61). Risk factors associated with preventable readmissions included discharge disposition to a skilled nursing facility (HR 2.22, 95%CI 1.99–2.48) and the need for home healthcare (HR 1.61, 95%CI 1.48–1.75).

Conclusions: Almost half of the 30-day readmissions were potentially preventable and attributed to high rates of sepsis, surgical site infections, dehydration, and electrolyte disorders. These results can be further validated for identifying broad targets for improvement

Nariman Saba Khazen MD, Andrew Brash MD, Miri Steier MD, Dennis Kunichoff MsC, and Ronit Wollstein MD

Background: Identifying and treating patients with fragility fractures may be effective in prevention of subsequent fractures because a first fragility fracture often predicts a second fracture.

Objectives: To evaluate a multidisciplinary anti-osteoporotic clinic for patients with prior distal radius fragility fractures (DRFF). To assess whether addressing this early fracture may prevent a second fracture.

Methods: A retrospective case-control study was performed. Cases included patients treated surgically for DRFF who were assessed at a tertiary, multidisciplinary, fracture-prevention clinic. Controls were a series of similarly treated patients who did not attend the clinic. The primary outcome measure was a second fracture.

Results: Average follow-up was 42 months for the treated group and 85 months for the untreated group. The treated group received more treatment for osteoporosis than controls; however, despite one new fracture in the treated group and six new fractures in the control group, there was no significant difference in fracture occurrence.

Conclusions: This pilot study supports the effectiveness of our multidisciplinary anti-osteoporotic clinic in treating osteoporosis but not in reducing subsequent fractures. Further study with larger cohorts and longer follow-up is needed to improve our ability to implement effective prevention of fragility fractures.

Muhamad Abu Ahmed MD, Wasiem Abu Nasra MD, Ali Safadi MD, Alexander Visoky MD, Ibrahim Elias MD, and Ran Katz MD

Background: Ureteroscopy is becoming the primary treatment for ureteral stones. As a standard of care, ureteroscopy is performed under the supervision of fluoroscopy. Recent advances in endourological technology make the need for fluoroscopy questionable.

Objectives: To summarize our experience with a no-fluoroscopy technique for selected cases of ureteral stones.

Methods: Patients were considered suitable for fluoroless ureteroscopy if they had one or two non-impacted stones, in any location in the ureter, 5–10 mm size, with a normal contralateral renal unit and no urinary tract infection. Procedures were performed using rigid scopes, nitinol baskets/forceps for stone retrieval, and Holmium:YAG laser for lithotripsy. Stents were placed per surgeon's decision.

Results: During an 18-month period, 103 patients underwent fluoroless ureteroscopy. In 94 patients stones were removed successfully. In six, the stones were pushed to the kidney and treated successfully on a separate session by shock wave lithotripsy. In three patients no stone was found in the ureter. In five patients, miniature perforations in the ureter were noted and an indwelling double J stent was placed.

Conclusions: Fluoroless ureteroscopy resulted in a high rate of success. We believe that in selected cases it can be used with minimal adverse events

Zach Rozenbaum MD, Ilan Merdler MD MHA, Itamar Loewenstein MD, Keren Lee-Rozenfeld MD, Shmuel Banai MD, and Yacov Shacham MD

Background: The extent and impact of obesity as an isolated risk factor for coronary artery disease is not clear since co-morbidities serve as confounders and may mask this association.

Objectives: To examine whether obesity is associated with extensive coronary artery disease among metabolically healthy patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and to explore the outcomes according to body mass index (BMI).

Methods: We stratified STEMI patients who had a metabolically healthy phenotype and available weight and height data according to BMI: 18.5–25 kg/m² (lean), 25.01–30 kg/m² (overweight), and > 30 kg/m² (obese).

Results: Overall 381 patients were included, 42% lean, 41% overweight, and 17% obese. Patients with increased BMIs had higher levels of low-density proteins and triglycerides (P < 0.05). Obese patients presented with the lowest rates of multi-vessel disease (12.9% vs. 22.9% for overweight and 28% for lean). In a univariable analysis, obese patients were 60% less likely to be diagnosed with multi-vessel disease (odds ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval 0.2–0.9, P = 0.021) compared to lean patients. The association remained significant in a multivariable model adjusted for baseline characteristics (P = 0.029). There were no differences in 30-day or long-term mortality (median follow-up 3.2 years) among the groups (P > 0.1 for all comparisons).

Conclusions: Metabolically healthy phenotype obesity was associated with lower rates of multi-vessel disease despite higher levels of triglycerides. However, this association did not translate into increased mortality.

EDITORIAL
Abdulla Watad MD, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi MD PhD, and Yehuda Shoenfeld MD FRCP MaACR
CASE COMMUNICATIONS
Ron Skorochod B MED Sc, Daniel Fink MD, Victoria Doviner MD, and Gideon Nesher MD
Nissim Arish MD, Ariel Rokach MD MHA, Amir Jarjou'i MD, Naama Bogot MD, Irith Hadas Halperen MD, Maher Deeb MD, Eli Golomb MD, and Gabriel Izbicki MD
Tzlil Mordechay-Heyn MD, Haggi Mazeh MD, Yair Elitzur MD, and Auryan Szalat MD
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