Shira Goldman MD, Oranit Itshaki MD, Tzippy Shochat MSc, Anat Gafter-Gvili MD, Dafna Yahav MD, Bina Rubinovitch MD and Daniel Shepshelovich MD
Background: Recent data regarding polymicrobial bacteremia (PMB) are lacking.
Objectives: To characterize risk factors as well as clinical, microbiological, and prognostic patterns of patients with PMB in a modern hospital setting.
Methods: A single center retrospective study including all patients diagnosed with PMB during 2013 was conducted. PMB was defined as two or more organisms cultured from the blood of the same patient within 72 hours. Patients with monomicrobial infections served as controls.
Results: There were 135 episodes (2% of all bacteremia episodes) of true PMB among 123 patients during the study period. Recent invasive procedures (odds ratio [OR] 3.59, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.41–9.12, P = 0.006) and foreign bodies (OR 1.88, 95%CI 1.06–3.33, P = 0.04) were risk factors for PMB when compared with 79 patients with monomicrobial bacteremia. Central-line-associated infections were the most common infection source among patients with PMB (n=34, 28%). Enterobacteriaceae were the most commonly implicated pathogen (n=95, 77%). Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli were significantly more common than previously reported (n=55, 45%). Although crude 30-day mortality was higher (48% vs. 33%) in PMB patients, adjusted mortality was comparable in the two groups.
Conclusions: PMB rate in our cohort was considerably lower than in previous reports. Central-line-associated infections were more common than classic PMB sources. Mortality remained high. Strategies for early identification and better care for these patients should be pursued.
Yael Peled MD, Eilon Ram MD, Jacob Lavee MD, and Zohar Dotan MD
Background: Heart transplantation (HT) success rate is limited by a high incidence of cancer post-HT. Data on kidney cancer following solid organ transplantation, especially HT, are limited, and only a few cases have been reported.
Objectives: To report a unique case series of detected kidney cancer following HT.
Methods: Between 1997 and 2018, 265 patients who underwent HT were enrolled and prospectively followed in the HT registry of the Sheba Medical Center.
Results: The series included 5 patients, 4 men and a woman (age range 35–50 years at HT). The patients were diagnosed with kidney tumors 6–11 years after HT (age range at diagnosis 40–72 years). Two of the men were identical twin brothers. At HT four patients received induction therapy with anti-thymocyte globulin and all received an initial immunosuppressive regimen based on cyclosporine. All male HT recipients had a history of heavy smoking. Two male patients developed allograft vasculopathy, but all had preserved heart function. The 72-year-old woman developed a kidney tumor of the native kidney 5 years after re-HT and kidney transplantation. Two patients had features of multifocal papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and eventually underwent bilateral nephrectomy, while another patient underwent left partial nephrectomy with preserved renal function.
Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case series study describing kidney tumors following HT. With the improving outcomes and life expectancy of HT patients, a better understanding of the factors that determine cancer risk is of the utmost importance and may have a major impact on the non-cardiac surveillance.
Yolanda Braun-Moscovici MD, Yonit Tavor MD, Doron Markovits MD PhD, Kohava Toledano MD, Alexander Rozin MD, Menahem A. Nahir MD PhD and Alexandra Balbir-Gurman MD
Background: Behçet's disease is a multi-systemic chronic relapsing inflammatory disease, classified among the vasculitides. The heterogeneity of clinical manifestations challenges the disease management.
Objectives: To assess efficacy and safety of adalimumab in patients with active persistent Behçet's arthritis who did not respond to disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and to assess the impact of treatment on the cytokine milieu.
Methods: Our cohort comprised 10 patients with active arthritis who received adalimumab in a 24-week investigator-initiated prospective open-label study. Patients who relapsed within 12 weeks following adalimumab discontinuation could enter a 3-year extension study. The patients underwent a comprehensive assessment including questionnaires and measurement of inflammatory cytokines, adalimumab serum levels, and anti-drug antibodies.
Results: A significant improvement was observed in arthritis, disease activity visual analogue scales, Behçet's disease current activity form, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, but not in health assessment questionnaire and functional assessment of chronic illness therapy fatigue scale questionnaire. Resolution of oral and urogenital ulcers was achieved in all patients. Significant reduction of pain was reported by 40% of patients. The disease relapsed in 9 of 10 patients, within 2–6 weeks following adalimumab discontinuation. Of the 7 patients who continued the study, arthritis was resolved in 5. Two patients with high neutralizing antidrug antibodies titer relapsed.
Conclusions: Adalimumab treatment achieved a significant improvement in arthritis, mucocutaneous manifestations, and IL-6 levels in all study patients but only 40% reported significant pain reduction. The arthritis relapsed in 90% of patients following adalimumab discontinuation and long-term treatment was required.
Amir Mari MD, Mahmud Mahamid MD, Helal Said Ahmad MD, Ahmad Lubany MD, Sami Abu El Hija MD, Nadeem Shorbaji MD, Anas Kadah MD, George Daud MD, Fadi Abu Baker MD, Wisam Sbeit MD and Tawfik Khoury MD
Background: Bariatric surgery has become the most common and effective therapeutic option for obesity. However, it is associated with morbidity and complications. Identification of predictors for surgical complications is an unmet need.
Objectives: To determine a simple non-invasive parameter that predicts early postoperative complications following bariatric surgery.
Methods: In this retrospective study of all patients who underwent elective bariatric surgery at Nazareth Hospital EMMS during a 4-year period (2015–2018). We collected clinical and laboratory parameters and determined predictors of complications.
Results: A total of 345 patients underwent bariatric surgery during the study period. Of the patients, 51 experienced early post-bariatric surgery complications as compared to 294 patients who had no complications. Univariate analysis revealed that neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (odds ratio [OR] 1.912, P < 0.0001) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (OR 1.015, P < 0.0001) were associated with post-bariatric surgery complications. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, only NLR remained a significant predictor (OR 1.751, 95% confidence interval 1.264–2.425, P = 0.0008) with a receiver operating characteristic curve for NLR of 0.8404.
Conclusions: We found that the NLR predicts post bariatric surgery early complications. Further prospective studies are needed to validate our findings.
Michal Natan PhD, Gila Jacobi, Ehud Banin PhD and Shai Ashkenazi MD MSc
Background: Although indwelling catheters are increasingly used in modern medicine, they can be a source of microbial contamination and hard-to-treat biofilms, which jeopardize patient lives. At times 70% ethanol is used as a catheter-lock solution due to its bactericidal properties. However, high concentrations of ethanol can result in adverse effects and in malfunction of the catheters.
Objective: To determine whether low concentrations of ethanol can prevent and treat biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Methods: Ethanol was tested at a concentration range of 0.625–80% against laboratory and clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa for various time periods (2–48 hours). The following parameters were evaluated following ethanol exposure: prevention of biofilm formation, reduction of biofilm metabolic activity, and inhibition of biofilm regrowth.
Results: Exposing P. aeruginosa to twofold ethanol gradients demonstrated a significant biofilm inhibition at concentrations as low as 2.5%. Treating pre-formed biofilms of P. aeruginosa with 20% ethanol for 4 hours caused a sharp decay in the metabolic activity of both the laboratory and clinical P. aeruginosa isolates. In addition, treating mature biofilms with 20% ethanol prevented the regrowth of bacteria encased within it.
Conclusions: Low ethanol concentrations (2.5%) can prevent in vitro biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa. Treatment of previously formed biofilms can be achieved using 20% ethanol, thereby keeping the catheters intact and avoiding complications that can result from high ethanol concentrations.
Ygal Plakht RN PhD, Harel Gilutz MD, Jonathan Eli Arbelle MD, Dan Greenberg PhD and Arthur Shiyovich MD
Background: Survivors of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are at increased risk for recurrent cardiac events and tend to use excessive healthcare services, thus resulting in increased costs.
Objectives: To evaluate the disparities in healthcare resource utilization and costs throughout a decade following a non-fatal AMI according to sex and ethnicity groups in Israel.
Methods: A retrospective study included AMI patients hospitalized at Soroka University Medical Center during 2002–2012. Data were obtained from electronic medical records. Post-AMI annual length of hospital stay (LOS); number of visits to the emergency department (ED), primary care facilities, and outpatient consulting clinics; and costs were evaluated and compared according sex and ethnicity groups.
Results: A total of 7685 patients (mean age 65.3 ± 13.6 years) were analyzed: 56.8% Jewish males (JM), 26.6% Jewish females (JF), 12.4% Bedouin males (BM), and 4.2% Bedouin females (BF). During the up-to 10-years follow-up (median 5.8 years), adjusted odds ratios [AdjOR] for utilizations of hospital-associated services were highest among BF (1.628 for LOS; 1.629 for ED visits), whereas AdjOR for utilization of community services was lowest in BF (0.722 for primary clinic, 0.782 for ambulatory, and 0.827 for consultant visits), compared with JM. The total cost of BF was highest among the study groups (AdjOR = 1.589, P < 0.01).
Conclusions: Long-term use of hospital-associated healthcare services and total costs were higher among Bedouins (especially BF), whereas utilization of ambulatory services was lower in these groups. Culturally and economically sensitive programs optimizing healthcare resources utilization and costs is warranted.
Ilya Polishchuk MD, Demian Halperin MD, Ahmed Algedafy MD, Jorge-Shmuel Delgado MD, Mariana Zamir MD and Doron Zamir MD
Background: There is a lack of information regarding acute pancreatitis in Israel. However, the most prevalent worldwide etiologic causes of acute pancreatitis are biliary stones and alcohol abuse.
Objectives: To delineate the prevalence, main causes, rate of recurrence, mortality, and complications of acute pancreatitis in southern Israel.
Methods: In this retrospective study medical files of all hospitalized patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis during a 13-year period were reviewed.
Results: The study comprised 602 patients with acute pancreatitis (120/100,000 patients or 1.2/1000 admissions). The main causes were: biliary stones (41.5%), alcohol (8.8%), and drugs (8.3%). Disothiazide was the most common drug associated with acute pancreatitis followed by sitagliptin, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and simvastatin. Undetermined etiology made up 33.6% of the cases. Recurrence rate was 33.8% (alcohol 3.7%, hypertriglyceridemia 1.8%). This finding had no implications on mortality rate, which was stable at 4.3%. Bilateral pleural effusion, advanced computed tomography severity index (CTSI) grading, older age, and being single were found to be poor prognostic predictive factors.
Conclusions: Biliary pancreatitis is the main cause of acute pancreatitis in southern Israel, similar to the rest of the world, and constitutes a much more common etiology than alcohol. Furthermore, drug-induced pancreatitis is a common etiology, with disothiazide being the most common drug associated with pancreatitis followed by ACE-Inhibitors, sitagliptin, and simvastatin. Recurrence of pancreatitis is common in this geographic area, and older age, advanced CTSI grading, bilateral pleural effusion, and being single are all poor prognostic predictive factors.
Anas Kadah MD, Tawfik Khoury MD, Wisam Sbeit MD
Background: Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) mostly occurs as a late complication after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) insertion; however, early BBS has been rarely reported, and the treatment of this condition is still unclear.
Objectives: To evaluate the Seldinger technique for treatment of early BBS after PEG insertion.
Methods: We report two cases of early BBS in two consecutive patients who underwent PEG insertion to maintain oral intake. The first patient was an 83-year-old woman showing Alzheimer type dementia, while the other one was a 76-year-old man who presented with maxillary cancer and treated with radiotherapy followed by left maxillectomy. Post-surgery, he developed progressive difficulty of swallowing due to mouth deformation and treatment related nerve toxicity. The first patient presented with fever and purulent discharge from the gastrostomy insertion site, without ability to rotate or slide the tube through the stoma 10 days after the PEG insertion. The man was admitted to the hospital 5 days following PEG insertion due to a fever of 38°C and peritubal swelling with purulent discharge. In addition, the tube could not rotate or slide through the stoma.
Results: Buried bumper syndrome was demonstrated by computed tomography scan. Gastroscopy and gastrostomy tube replacement was performed successfully according to the Seldinger technique (replacement over guidewire) in both cases. Correct intragastric tube positioning was demonstrated radiographically before resuming tube feeding. The two patients were discharged in good physical condition several days later.
Conclusions: External replacement over guide wire should be considered in such cases.
Mayson Abu Raya MD, Amir Klein MD, Edmond Sabo MD, Afif Yaccob MD MSc, Yaacov Baruch MD, Johad Khoury MD and Tarek Saadi MD
Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Several viral and host factors related to viral response have been reported in the era of treatment with pegylated (PEG)-interferon and ribavirin.
Objectives: To quantify histological findings from patients with chronic HCV using computerized morphometry and to investigate whether the results can predict response to medical treatment with peg-interferon and ribavirin.
Methods: We followed 58 patients with chronic HCV infection with METAVIR score F1 and F2 in our liver unit who were grouped according to treatment response sustained viral response (SVR) and non-SVR. Liver needle biopsies from these patients were evaluated and histological variables, such as inflammatory cells, collagen fibers and liver architecture, were quantified using computerized morphometrics. The pathologist who performed the histomorphometric analysis was blinded to previous patient clinical and histological information.
Results: Histomorphometric variables including the density of collagen fibers were collected. The number of inflammatory cells in the portal space and textural variable were found to be statistically significant and could be used together in a formula to predict response to treatment, with a sensitivity of 93% and a 100% specificity.
Conclusions: Histomorphometry may help to predict a patient's response to treatment at an early stage.