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עמוד בית Thu, 20.06.19

December 2016


Israel's Humanitarian aid to wounded syrian cilivians
Faris Issa BSW and Salman Zarka MD MPH MA
Focus
Peter Gilbey MD, Mary C.J. Rudolf MD, Sivan Spitzer-Shohat MA and Anthony Luder MD

The unique characteristics of the next generation of medical professionals in Israel and the current model of physician employment in the country may pose a real threat to the high quality of both public clinical care and medical education in the near future, and to the continued flourishing of clinical research. According to the Israel Medical Association’s general obligations for Israeli physicians, the doctor should place the patient's interests foremost in his or her mind, before any other issue. This has led many to believe that selflessness or altruism should be among a physician’s core values. Is the application and realization of these obligations compatible with the realities of 21st century medicine? Is altruism still a legitimate part of the modern medical world? The Y generation, those born in the 1980s and 1990s, now comprise the majority of the population of residents and young specialists. They have been characterized as ambitious, self-focused, entrepreneurial, lacking loyalty to their employer, and seeking immediate gratification. Under these circumstances, is it possible to encourage or even teach altruism in medical school? Demands on physicians' time are increasing. The shortage of doctors, the growth of the population, the way in which health care is consumed, and the increasing administrative burden have all gnawed away at the time available for individual patient care. This time needs to be protected. The altruism of physicians could become the guarantee of first-rate care in the public sector. The continued existence of clinical research and high level clinical teaching also depends on the allocation of protected time. In light of the emerging generation gap and the expected dominance of Y generation physicians in the medical workforce in the near future, for whom altruism may not be such an obvious value, solutions to these predicaments are discussed.

Original Articles
Eyal Klang MD, Michal M. Amitai MD, Stephen Raskin MD, Noa Rozendorn, Nicholas Keddel MD, Jana Pickovsky MD and Miri Sklair-Levy MD

Background: Silicone breast augmentation is a common cosmetic surgery. Previous case reports demonstrated lymphadenopathy in the presence of implant ruptures.

Objectives: To investigate the association between enlarged axillary lymph nodes and silicone implant ruptures as seen on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods: Two groups were derived retrospectively from breast MRI reports in our institution for the period December 2011–May 2014. A search of our hospital records for "silicone" and "lymph node" was performed (group A), and the relationship between the presence of enlarged nodes and ruptures was evaluated. The prevalence of ruptures in the presence of nodes was calculated and the association between MRI imaging features and ruptures evaluated. A search for "silicone" and "implant rupture" was performed (group B) and, as for group A, the relationship between the presence of ruptures and nodes was evaluated and the prevalence of enlarged nodes in the presence of ruptures calculated.

Results: Group A comprised 45 women with enlarged nodes. Intracapsular ruptures were associated with nodes (P = 0.005), while extracapsular ruptures showed a trend of association with nodes (P = 0.08). The prevalence of ruptures in the presence of nodes was 31.4%. Nodes associated with ruptures showed a strong silicone signal (P = 0.008) and absent enhancement (P = 0.005). Group B comprised 73 women with ruptures. Enlarged nodes were associated with both intra- and extracapsular ruptures (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002 respectively). The prevalence of nodes in the presence of ruptures was 22.2%.

Conclusions: Enlarged axillary nodes were associated with ruptures in two groups of patients. This finding can guide clinical decisions when either enlarged nodes or ruptures are encountered in patients with silicone implants. The association between silicone lymphadenopathy and implant rupture raises concerns regarding the role of rupture in silicone-induced systemic disease.

 

Yasmin Abu-Ghanem MD, Nir Kleinmann MD, Harry Z. Winkler MD and Dorit E. Zilberman MD

Background: The prevalence and etiology of nephrolithiasis vary, depending on geography, gender and ethnicity. 

Objectives: To analyze the demographic data of return nephrolithiasis patients in a tertiary care center.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our prospective registry database of return patients seen at our outpatient clinic for nephrolithiasis. Data included gender, age at first visit, age at first stone event, body mass index (BMI), self-reported hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), and hyperlipidemia. All patients were seen at least twice and had undergone a metabolic workup. 

Results: A total of 260 return patients were seen during the period 2010–2015. The male:female ratio was 3.1:1. Mean age at the first stone event was 44.1 years. Median time elapsed since the first stone event to medical evaluation was 5 years (interquartile range 1–12 years). Hypertension was reported by 33.1% of the patients, DM by 23.5% and hyperlipidemia by 30.4%. All three diseases were reported by 11.5% of patients. The metabolic abnormalities detected were hypocitraturia (60%), low urine volume (LUV) (60%), hypercalciuria (40.8%), hyperoxaluria (24.2%), hyperuricosuria (16.5%) and hyperuricemia (13.5%). Stone compositions from most to least frequent were calcium-oxalate (81%), calcium-phosphate (11.9%) and uric acid (7.1%). We also found that 24.6% were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) and showed higher rates of hypertension, DM, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia and hyperuricosuria compared with non-obese patients. Significantly higher rates of obesity and LUV were detected in females compared with males. Patients over age 45 had lower rates of hyperuricemia compared with patients ≥ 45 years old (P = 0.038).

Conclusions: Factors related to nephrolithiasis can potentially differ among populations and countries. Our findings emphasize the significance of individualized national health programs to address local issues.

 

Najwan Nasrallah MD, Yael Shachor-Meyouhas MD, Zipi Kra-Oz PhD, Tania Mashiach MA, Moran Szwarcwort-Cohen PhD, Eynat Shafran MSc and Imad Kassis MD

Background: In March 2009 the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) strain was identified. The disease initially appeared to be accompanied by complications and high mortality rates. It became an endemic virus during the influenza season in our region, along with the classical seasonal H3N2.

Objectives: To identify the burden of pandemic influenza, its effect in pediatric patients, and complicated hospitalizations, compared to seasonal influenza years after the pandemic.

Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary hospital. Data were collected from the medical records of all children who were hospitalized from April 2009 to 2011 with laboratory-confirmed influenza.

Results: Of 191 patients with influenza, 100 had the 2009 pandemic influenza, 62 had seasonal influenza, and 29 had H1N1 in 2010–2011. Patients with the 2009 H1N1 were characterized by older age, more co-morbidity conditions and more symptoms including fever, cough and rhinitis on admission. No significant differences in outcomes between the groups were recorded. Of patients hospitalized with pandemic influenza in 2009, 28% had complicated hospitalizations, compared with 17.7% of patients hospitalized with seasonal influenza in 2010–11. Children with pandemic influenza received more oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) (94% vs. 19.4%, P < 0.001) and more antibiotics than the other groups.

Conclusions: The type of influenza had no effect on outcome. There were no significant differences between groups in the percentages of in-hospital mortality, admission to intensive care units, prolonged hospitalization (> 9 days), or the development of complications during hospitalization.

 

Amit Dagan MD and Ovadia Dagan MD

Background: Early surgical correction of congenital heart malformations in neonates and small infants may be complicated by acute kidney injury (AKI), which is associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates, especially in patients who require dialysis. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is considered the best measurement of renal function which, in neonates and infants, is highly dependent on heart function. 

Objective: To determine whether measurements of creatinine clearance after open heart surgery in neonates and young infants can serve as an early indicator of surgical success or AKI.

Method: We conducted a prospective observational study in 19 neonates and small infants (body weight < 5 kg) scheduled for open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Urine collection measurement of creatinine clearance and albumin excretion was performed before and during surgery and four times during 48 hours after surgery.

Results: Mean creatinine clearance was lowest during surgery (25.2 ± 4. ml/min/1.73 m2) and increased significantly in the first 16 hours post-surgery (45.7 ± 6.3 ml/min/1.73 m2). A similar pattern was noted for urine albumin which was highest during surgery (203 ± 31 µg/min) and lowest (93 ± 20 µg/min) 48 hours post-surgery. AKI occurred in four patients, and two patients even required dialysis. All six showed a decline in creatinine clearance and an increase in urine albumin between 8 and 16 hours post-surgery. 

Conclusions: In neonates and small infants undergoing open heart surgery, a significant improvement in creatinine clearance in the first 16 hours postoperatively is indicative of a good surgical outcome. This finding has important implications for the early evaluation and treatment of patients in the intensive care unit on the first day post-surgery.

 

Yael Shahal-Zimra PhD, Zohar Rotem MSc, Judith Chezar PhD, Tzippy Shochat MSc, Liron Ross MSc, Itai Pickholtz PhD and Esther Rabizadeh PhD

Background: Reference ranges for adult peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets have been established in a few countries. To the best of our knowledge no broad lymphocyte subset analysis of the Israeli population has been reported. 

Objectives: To establish reference ranges for healthy adults in Israel and to describe age- and gender-specific differences, if present.

Methods: Lymphocyte subsets CD3, CD3/CD4, CD3/CD8, CD3-/CD16+/CD56+, CD3/TCRαβ, CD3/TCRγδ, and CD19 were examined by flow cytometry in 326 subjects. Samples were subdivided according to age and gender.

Results: Women of all ages had a significantly higher percentage and absolute counts of CD3/CD4 cells than their male counterparts. Higher CD3/CD4 cells were observed also in the older population (> 50 years). CD3/CD8 and CD3-/CD16+/CD56+ were higher in males. Older males had a lower total lymphocyte percentage and CD19 cells compared to younger men. No significant gender-related differences were observed in percent and number of CD19, CD3/TCRαβ or CD3/TCRγδ at all ages.

Conclusions: These reference values could be useful in further studies for assessing changes that occur in different populations in human pathology.

 

Yuval Konstantino MD, Dana Zelnik Yovel BSc, Michael D. Friger PhD, Gideon Sahar MD, Boris Knyazer MD and Guy Amit MD MPH

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common complication of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, occurring in 20%–40% of patients, mostly during the first week after surgery. It is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, but data are limited. 

Objectives: To assess the correlation between new-onset in-hospital AF following CABG and long-term AF, cerebrovascular accident (CVA), or death.

Methods: We conducted an analysis of 161 consecutive patients who underwent isolated CABG surgery in a tertiary center during the period 2002–2003. 

Results: Patients’ mean age was 72 years, and the majority were males (77%). Approximately half of the patients experienced prior myocardial infarction, and 14% had left ventricular ejection fraction < 40%. Postoperative AF (POAF) occurred in 27% of the patients. Patients were older and had larger left atrium diameter. POAF was strongly correlated with late AF (OR 4.34, 95%CI 1.44–13.1, P = 0.01) during a mean follow-up of 8.5 years. It was also correlated with long-term stroke but was not associated with long-term mortality. 

Conclusions: POAF is a common complication of CABG surgery, which is correlated with late AF and stroke. Patients with POAF should be closely monitored to facilitate early administration of anticoagulant therapy in a high risk population upon recurrence of AF. 

 

Reviews
Antonis Fanouriakis MD, Irini Gergianaki MD, Prodromos Sidiropoulos MD PhD, George Bertsias MD PhD and Dimitrios T. Boumpas MD PhD
Clinical Pathological Conference
Eli Ben-Chetrit MD, Ayman Abu Rmeileh MD, Karine Atlan MD and Eldad Ben-Chetrit MD
Case communications
Claudia Brogna MD, Raffaele Manna MD PhD, Ilaria Contaldo MD, Domenico M. Romeo MD, Maria Chiara Stefanini MD, Antonio Chiaretti MD, Eugenio Mercuri MD PhD and Paolo Mariotti MD
Imaging
Roni Peleg MD and Yulia Treister-Goltzman MD
Noam Behr MD, Evan A. Alpert MD, Shuli Silberman MD and Daniel Fink MD
Letters
D.J. Aframian, N. Keshet, B. Koplewitz and C. Nadler
הבהרה משפטית: כל נושא המופיע באתר זה נועד להשכלה בלבד ואין לראות בו ייעוץ רפואי או משפטי. אין הר"י אחראית לתוכן המתפרסם באתר זה ולכל נזק שעלול להיגרם. כל הזכויות על המידע באתר שייכות להסתדרות הרפואית בישראל. מדיניות פרטיות
ז'בוטינסקי 35 רמת גן, בניין התאומים 2 קומות 10-11, ת.ד. 3566, מיקוד 5213604. טלפון: 03-6100444, פקס: 03-5753303