Moshe Herskovitz MD and Yitzhak Schiller MD PhD
Background: Resective epilepsy surgery is an accepted treatment option for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). Presurgical evaluation consists of a phase 1 non-invasive evaluation and a phase 2 invasive evaluation, when necessary.
Objectives: To assess the results of phase 1 evaluation in patients with focal DRE.
Methods: This observational retrospective study was performed in all consecutive DRE patients admitted to our clinic from January 2001 to July 2010, and who underwent a presurgical evaluation which included at least magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan and long-term video EEG monitoring (LTVEM).
Results: A total of 253 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of DRE (according to the ILAE recommendations) who underwent presurgical evaluation were extracted from our clinic and department registry. In 45 of these patients either imaging or ictal video EEG data were missing; the final analysis therefore involved 208 patients. The combined result of the LTVEM and the MRI scan were as follows: 102 patients (49% of the cohort) had a lesion on the MRI scan, in 77 patients (37% of the cohort) the LTVEM results were localizing and congruent with the MRI findings, and in 25 patients (12% of the cohort) the LTVEM results were either non-localizing or incongruent with the MRI findings. In 106 patients (51% of the cohort) the MRI scan was normal or had a non-specific lesion. The LTVEM was localizing in 66 of these patients (31.7% of the cohort) and non-localizing in 40 (19.2% of the cohort).
Conclusions: Although some of the patients with focal DRE can be safely treated with resective surgery based solely on the findings of phase 1 evaluation, a substantial percent of patients do need to undergo a phase 2 evaluation before a final surgical decision is made.
Michal Laufer Perl MD, Ariel Finkelstein MD, Miri Revivo MHA, Shlomo Berliner MD, Itzhak Herz MD, Itay Rabinovich MD, Tomer Ziv-Baran PhD, Dalit Gotler, Gad Keren MD, Shmuel Bana MD and Yaron Arbel MD
Background: Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease. Nevertheless, the role of specific biomarkers as indicators for both coronary and carotid diseases is debatable.
Objectives: To evaluate the association of biomarkers with coronary and carotid disease.
Methods: We studied 522 consecutive patients with stable angina. All underwent coronary angiography and carotid duplex study on the same day. Patients with no apparent carotid plaques were evaluated for carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) using an automated system that sampled over 100 samples in each carotid artery. Biochemical markers of cardiovascular disease risk were obtained at the time of coronary angiography, including serum lipid levels, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), white blood cell count, fibrinogen and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP).
Results: The mean age of the patients was 66 ± 11; 73% were males. Significant carotid stenosis was associated with higher hs-CRP (9.4 ± 17 vs. 6.3 ± 13 mg/L, P = 0.001), while high HbA1c (6.7 ± 1.6 vs. 5.8 ± 0.8%, P < 0.001) and low high density lipoprotein levels (40 ± 9 vs. 47 ± 14 mg/dl, P < 0.001) were linked with advanced coronary artery disease severity. In contrast, CIMT was not related to any of the biomarkers evaluated.
Conclusions: Although atherosclerosis is considered a systemic disease, different biomarkers are associated with coronary and carotid artery disease. Identifying the specific biomarkers for each disease is important for both prevention and for exposing the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism.
Uri Farkash MD, Oleg Borisov MD, Iftach Hetsroni MD, Ezequiel Palmanovich MD, Edna Zohar MD and Meir Nyska MD
Background: Cachibol (known as kadureshet in Hebrew) is a team ball game whose characteristics are similar to those of volleyball. The game is becoming increasingly popular, particularly among adult women and is the fastest growing female sport in Israel. Despite its growing popularity, data on the epidemiology of injuries incurred from this sport are sparse.
Objectives: To investigate the incidence and severity of injuries among adult female cachibol players.
Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey and observational cohort study of 612 amateur female cachibol players participating in a 3 day national tournament; 355 players completed questionnaires relating to traumatic injuries incurred during previous cachibol activity (58% response rate). All injuries sustained during the tournament were reported.
Results: Fingers were the most commonly injured part of the body, mostly due to a direct hit by the ball. Finger injuries, though considered mild, may have long-term implications: over 50% of the injured players reported long-term finger discomfort. After finger injuries, ankles and knees were the second most commonly injured parts of the body, with a higher rate of absence from sports activity and work and for a longer time compared to finger injuries.
Conclusions: Due to the unique characteristics of cachibol, the rate of finger injuries is higher in this game than in volleyball. Injuries are a growing cause for concern in view of the rapidly increasing number of cachibol players. Our findings may be useful for developing effective injury prevention programs for cachibol players.
Yuval Nachalon MD, Ohad Hilly MD, Karl Segal MD, Eyal Raveh MD, Dania Hirsch MD, Eyal Robenshtok MD, Ilan Shimon MD, Jacob Shvero MD, Carlos Benbassat MD and Aron Popovtzer MD
Background: Radiation exposure is a well-known risk factor for well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC). However, disease characteristics, optimal treatment, time from exposure to disease appearance, and the effect on outcome of age at initial exposure have yet to be determined.
Objectives: To identify the characteristics of radiation-induced thyroid carcinoma.
Methods: We retrieved the charts of all patients previously exposed to radiation who were diagnosed with WDTC between the years 1985 and 2013 in a tertiary referral center.
Results: Forty-four patients were reviewed. Median time from radiation exposure to diagnosis was 23 years. These patients had higher rates of aerodigestive symptoms and distant metastases on presentation than seen in non-radiated patients. Patients who were exposed to radiation before age 15 years tended to develop the disease at a younger age but had a longer latency period (34.7 ± 15.3 vs. 16.3 ± 10 years, P < 0.001) and none had significantly higher rates of vocal cord palsy, hoarseness on presentation, or aggressive variants on histology compared to patients exposed to radiation at an older age. Disease-specific survival (DSS) was the same for both groups and were similar to that seen in the general population (95% 20 year DSS).
Conclusions: Radiation-induced thyroid cancer has a more aggressive presentation and the age at exposure affects the presentation of disease. Nonetheless, appropriate treatment leads to a favorable prognosis.
Efrat Ben-Shalom MD, Ori Toker MD and Shepard Schwartz MD
Background: Hypernatremic dehydration is a common and potentially life-threatening condition in children. There is currently no consensus as to the optimal strategy for fluid management. Objectives: To describe the relationship between the type, route and rate of fluids administered and the rate of decline in serum sodium (Na+) concentration.
Methods: We reviewed the medical records of all children under the age of 2 years who were hospitalized with hypernatremic dehydration (serum Na+ ≥ 155 mEq/L) in Shaare Zedek Medical Center during the period 2001–2010. Collected data of 62 subjects included initial and subsequent serum Na+ levels, and rate and Na+ concentration of all intravenous and oral fluids administered until the serum Na+ reached ≤ 150 mEq/L.
Results: Median initial serum Na+ was 159.5 mEq/L (IQR 157–163, maximal value 170). The median rate of decline in serum Na+ until serum Na+ reached 150 mEq/L was 0.65 mEq/L/hr (IQR 0.45–0.95). Forty-two children received hypotonic oral fluids which accounted for approximately one-quarter of all fluids they received. There was no significant difference in the rate of decline in serum Na+ between those who consumed oral fluids and those who did not. Neither was there a correlation between the rate of IV fluids, receipt of oral fluids or the degree of dehydration, with the rate of decline in serum Na+. No child experienced an apparent short-term adverse outcome.
Conclusions: A cumulative rate of 5.9 ml/kg/hr of IV fluid administration may reduce the serum Na+ to an acceptable rate (0.65 mEq/L/hr). Fluid therapy comprising up to 25% hypotonic oral fluids and 75% IV fluids high in Na+ concentration was not associated with any short-term adverse outcome in our patient population.
Shirit Kazum MD, Alon Eisen MD, Eli I. Lev MD, Zaza Iakobishvili MD, Alejandro Solodky MD, David Hasdai MD, Ran Kornowski MD and Aviv Mager MD
Background: Concomitant carotid artery disease (CaAD) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with worse cardiac and neurologic outcomes. The reported prevalence and risk factors for concomitant CaAD in CAD patients varied among previous studies.
Objectives: To examine these factors in ambulatory patients with CAD and well-documented cholesterol levels treated with cholesterol-lowering medications.
Methods: We retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data from 325 unselected patients with CAD (89 women, mean age 68.8 ± 9.9 years) undergoing routine evaluation at the coronary clinic of our hospital.
Results: The low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was < 100 mg/dl in 292 patients (90%). Age at onset of CAD symptoms was 59.4 ± 10.8 years. Carotid stenosis ≥ 50% was seen in 83 patients (25.5%) and between 30% and 49% in 55 patients (17%) (duplex method). Carotid stenosis was significantly associated with hypertension (P = 0.032), peripheral arterial disease (P = 0.002) and number of coronary arteries with ≥ 50% stenosis (P = 0.002), and showed a borderline association with age at CAD onset (P = 0.062) and diabetes mellitus (P = 0.053). On linear regression analysis, independent predictors of CaAD were peripheral vascular disease (OR 3.186, 95%CI 1.403–7.236, P = 0.006), number of coronary arteries with ≥ 50% stenosis (OR 1.543, 95%CI 1.136–2.095, P = 0.005), and age at CAD onset (OR 1.028, 95%CI 1.002–1.054, P = 0.003). None of the variables studied predicted freedom from CaAD.
Conclusions: Carotid atherosclerosis is very common in stable ambulatory patients with CAD regularly taking statins. The risk is higher in patients with peripheral arterial disease, a greater number of involved coronary arteries, and older age at onset of CAD.
Alisher Tashbayev MD, Alexander Belenky MD, Sergey Litvin MD, Michael Knizhnik MD, Gil N. Bachar MD and Eli Atar MD
Background: Various vena cava filters (VCF) are designed with the ability to be retrieved percutaneously. Yet, despite this option most of them remain in the inferior vena cava (IVC).
Objectives: To report our experience in the placement and retrieval of three different types of VCFs, and to compare the indications for their insertion and retrieval as reported in the literature.
Methods: During a 5 year period three types of retrievable VCF (ALN, OptEase, and Celect) were inserted in 306 patients at the Rabin Medical Center (Beilinson and Hasharon hospitals). Indications, retrieval rates, median time to retrieval, success and complications rate were viewed and assessed in the three groups of filter types and were compared with the data of similar studies in the literature.
Results: Of the 306 VCFs inserted, 31 (10.1%) were retrieved with equal distribution in the three groups. In most patients the reason for filter insertion was venous thromboembolic events (VTE) and contraindications to anticoagulant therapy. Mean age was 68.38 ± 17.5 years (range 18–99) and was noted to be significantly higher compared to similar studies (53–56 years) (P < 0.0001). Multi-trauma patients were significantly older (71.11 ± 14.99 years) than post-pulmonary embolism patients (48.03 ± 20.98 years, P < 0.0001) and patients with preventive indication (26.00 ± 11.31, P < 0.0001). The mean indwelling time was 100.6 ± 103.399 days. Our results are comparable with the results of other studies, and there was no difference in percentage of retrieval or complications between patients in each of the three groups.
Conclusions: In 1 of 10 patients filters should be removed after an average of 3.5 months. All three IVC filter types used are safe to insert and retrieve.
Yigal Helviz MD, Ilia Dzigivker MD, David Raveh-Brawer MD, Moshe Hersch MD, Shoshana Zevin MD and Sharon Einav MD
Background: Enoxaparin is frequently used as prophylaxis for deep venous thrombosis in critically ill patients.
Objectives: To evaluate three enoxaparin prophylactic regimens in critical care patients with and without administration of a vasopressor.
Methods: Patients admitted to intensive care units (general and post-cardiothoracic surgery) without renal failure received, once daily, a subcutaneous fixed dose of 40 mg enoxaparin, a subcutaneous dose of 0.5 mg/kg enoxaparin, or an intravenous dose of 0.5 mg/kg enoxaparin. Over 5 days anti-activated factor X levels were collected before the daily administration and 4 hours after the injection.
Results: Overall, 16 patients received the subcutaneous fixed dose, 15 received the subcutaneous weight-based dosage, and 8 received the dose intravenously. Around two-fifths (38%) of the patients received vasopressors. There was no difference between anti-activated factor X levels regarding vasopressor administration. However, in all three groups the levels were outside the recommended range of 0.1 IU/ml and 0.3 IU/ml.
Conclusions: Although not influenced by vasopressor administration, the enoxaparin regimens resulted in blood activity levels outside the recommended range.
Oholi Tovia-Brodie MD, Yoav Michowitz MD, Aharon Glick MD, Raphael Rosso MD and Bernard Belhassen MD
Background: Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) arrhythmias are increasingly recognized. Data regarding the distribution of the sites of origin (SOO) of the arrhythmias are sparse.
Objectives: To describe the clinical characteristics of patients with LVOT arrhythmias and the distribution of their SOO.
Methods: All 42 consecutive patients with LVOT arrhythmias who underwent radiofrequency (RF) ablation during the period 2000–2014 were included. SOO identification was based on mapping activation, pace mapping and a 3D mapping system in eight patients.
Results: The study group comprised 28 males (66.7%) and 14 females, the mean age was 55 ±15.4 years. Most patients (76%) were symptomatic. All suffered from high grade ventricular arrhythmias. Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (ejection fraction ≤ 50%) was observed in 15 patients (35.7%), of whom 14 (93.3%) were males. The left coronary cusp (LCC) was the most common arrhythmia SOO (64.3%). Other locations were the right coronary cusp (RCC), the junction of the RCC-LCC commissure, aortic-mitral continuity, endocardial-LVOT, and a coronary sinus branch. Acute successful ablation was achieved in 29 patients (69%) and transient arrhythmia abolition in 40 (95.2%). There was a trend for a higher success rate using cooled tip ablation catheters as compared to standard catheters. The ablation procedure significantly improved LV function in all patients with tachycardiomyopathy.
Conclusions: LVOT arrhythmias mostly originate from the LCC and are associated with LV dysfunction in 36% of patients. Knowledge regarding the prevalence of the anatomic origin of the LVOT arrhythmias may help achieve successful ablation. The use of cooled tip ablation catheters might have beneficial effects on the success rate of the procedure.
Amjad Shalabi MD, Ehud Raanani MD, Amihai Shinfeld MD, Rafael Kuperstein MD, Alexander Kogan MD, Alexander Lipey MD, Eyal Nachum MD and Dan Spiegelstein MD
Background: Prolonged life expectancy has increased the number of elderly high risk patients referred for surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). These referred high risk patients may benefit from sutureless bioprosthesis procedures which reduce mortality and morbidity.
Objectives: To present our initial experience with sutureless aortic bioprotheses, including clinical and echocardiographic results, in elderly high risk patients referred for AVR.
Methods: Forty patients (15 males, mean age 78 ± 7 years) with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis underwent AVR with the 3F Enable™ or Perceval™ sutureless bioprosthesis during the period December 2012 to May 2014. Mean logistic EuroScore was 10 ± 3%. Echocardiography was performed preoperatively, intraoperatively, at discharge and at follow-up.
Results: There was no in-hospital mortality. Nine patients (22%) underwent minimally invasive AVR via a right anterior mini-thoracotomy and one patient via a J-incision. Four patients underwent concomitant coronary aortic bypass graft, two needed intraoperative repositioning of the valve, one underwent valve exchange due to inappropriate sizing, three (7.5%) had a perioperative stroke with complete resolution of neurologic symptoms, and one patient (2.5%) required permanent pacemaker implantation due to complete atrioventricular block. Mean preoperative and postoperative gradients were 44 ± 14 and 13 ± 5 mmHg, respectively. At follow-up, 82% of patients were in New York Heart Association functional class I and II.
Conclusions: Sutureless AVR can be used safely in elderly high risk patients with relatively low morbidity and mortality. The device can be safely implanted via a minimally invasive incision. Mid-term hemodynamic results are satisfactory, demonstrating significant clinical improvement.