A. Hamdan, O. Goitein, S. Matetzky, S. Yishay, E. Di Segni, D. Yakubovitch, D. Silverberg, M. Halak, M. Eldar and E. Konen
Background: Over the past few years dobutamine stress magnetic resonance (DSMR) has proven its efficacy as an integral part of the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD).
Objectives: To present the feasibility and safety of DSMR in Israel.
Methods: Thirty patients with suspected or known CAD were studied. DSMR images were acquired during short breath-holds in three short axis views and four-, two-, and three-chamber views. Patients were examined at rest and during a standard dobutamine-atropine protocol. Regional wall motion was assessed in a 16-segment model and the image quality was evaluated using a four-point scale for the visibility of the endocardial border.
Results: In 28 patients (93.4%) DSMR was successfully performed and completed within an average of 55 ± 6 minutes. One patient could not be examined because of claustrophobia and another patient, who was on beta-blockers, did not reach the target heart rate. Image quality was excellent and there was no difference between the rest and stress images in short axis (3.91 ± 0.29 vs. 3.88 ± 0.34, P = 0.13, respectively) and long axis (3.83 ± 0.38 vs. 3.70 ± 0.49, P = 0.09, respectively) views. Segmental intra-observer agreement for wall motion contractility at rest and stress cine images was almost perfect (κ = 0.88, 95% confidence interval = 0.93–0.84, and κ = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.88–0.76) respectively. No serious side effects were observed during DSMR.
Conclusion: The present study confirms the feasibility, safety and excellent image quality of DSMR for the diagnosis of coronary artery diseases.
M. Abu-Gazala, N. Shussman, S. Abu-Gazala, R. Elazary, M. Bala, S. Rozenberg, A. Klimov, A.I. Rivkind, D. Arbell, G. Almogy and A.I. Bloom
Background: Renal artery injuries are rarely encountered in victims of blunt trauma. However, the rate of early diagnosis of such injuries is increasing due to increased awareness and the liberal use of contrast-enhanced CT. Sporadic case reports have shown the feasibility of endovascular management of blunt renal artery injury. However, no prospective trials or long-term follow-up studies have been reported.
Objectives: To present our experience with endovascular management of blunt renal artery injury, and review the literature.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 18 months at a level 1 trauma center. Search of our electronic database and trauma registry identified three patients with renal artery injury from blunt trauma who were successfully treated endovascularly. Data recorded included the mechanism of injury, time from injury and admission to revascularization, type of endovascular therapy, clinical and imaging outcome, and complications.
Results: Mean time from injury to endovascular revascularization was 193 minutes and mean time from admission to revascularization 154 minutes. Stent-assisted angioplasty was used in two cases, while angioplasty alone was performed in a 4 year old boy. A good immediate angiographic result was achieved in all patients. At a mean follow-up of 13 months the treated renal artery was patent in all patients on duplex ultrasound. The mean percentage renal perfusion of the treated kidney at last follow-up was 36% on DTPA renal scan. No early or late complications were encountered.
Conclusions: Endovascular management for blunt renal artery dissection is safe and feasible if an early diagnosis is made. This approach may be expected to replace surgical revascularization in most cases.
E. Nahum, U. Pollak, O. Dagan, G. Amir, G. Frenkel and E. Birk
Background: B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been shown to have prognostic value for morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Less is known about its prognostic value in infants.
Objectives: To investigate the predictive value of BNP levels regarding the severity of the postoperative course in infants undergoing surgical repair of congenital heart disease.
Methods: We conducted a prospective comparative study. Plasma BNP levels in infants aged 1–12 months with congenital heart disease undergoing complete repair were measured preoperatively and 8, 24 and 48 hours postoperatively. Demographic and clinical data included postoperative inotropic support and lactate level, duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospitalization stay.
Results: Cardiac surgery was performed in 19 infants aged 1-12 months. Preoperative BNP level above 170 pg/ml had a positive predictive value of 100% for inotropic score ≥ 7.5 at 24 hours (specificity 100%, sensitivity 57%) and 48 hours (specificity 100%, sensitivity 100%), and was associated with longer ICU stay (P = 0.05) and a trend for longer mechanical ventilation (P = 0.12). Similar findings were found for 8 hours postoperative BNP above 1720 pg/ml. BNP level did not correlate with measured fractional shortening.
Conclusions: In infants undergoing heart surgery, preoperative and 8 hour BNP levels were predictive of inotropic support and longer ICU stay. These findings may have implications for preplanning ICU loads in clinical practice. Further studies with larger samples are needed.
G. Yaniv, O. Mozes, G. Greenberg, M. Bakon and C. Hoffmann
Background: Misinterpretation of head computerized tomographic (CT) scans by radiology residents in the emergency department (ED) can result in delayed and even erroneous radiology diagnosis. Better knowledge of pitfalls and environmental factors may decrease the occurrence of these errors.
Objectives: To evaluate common misinterpretations of head CT scans by radiology residents in a level I trauma center ED.
Methods: We studied 960 head CT scans of patients admitted to our ED from January 2010 to May 2011. They were reviewed separately by two senior neuroradiologists and graded as being unimportant (score of 1), important but not requiring emergent treatment (score of 2), and important requiring urgent treatment (score of 3). We recorded the time of day the examination was performed, the year of residency, the site, subsite and side of the lesion, the pathology, the anatomical mistake, false-positive findings, and the attending neuroradiologists' score.
Results: A total of 955 examinations were interpreted of which 398 had misinterpreted findings that were entered into the database, with the possibility of multiple errors per examination. The overall misinterpretation rate was 41%. The most commonly missed pathologies were chronic infarcts, hypodense lesions, and mucosal thickening in the paranasal sinuses. The most common sites for misdiagnosis were brain lobes, sinuses and deep brain structures. The highest percentage of misinterpretation occurred between 14:30 and 20:00, and the lowest between 00:00 and 08:00 (P < 0.05). The overall percentage of errors involving pathologies with a score of 3 by at least one of the neuroradiologists was 4.7%. Third-year residents had an overall higher error rate and first-year residents had significantly more false-positive misinterpretations compared to the other residents.
Conclusions: The percentage of errors made by our residents in cases that required urgent treatment was comparable to the published data. We believe that the intense workload of radiology residents contributes to their misinterpretation of head CT findings.
E. Glassberg, D. Neufeld, I. Shwartz, I. Haas, P. Shmulewsky, A. Benov and H. Paran
Background: Laparoscopic repair of giant diaphragmatic hernias (GDH) can be challenging, especially when partial or complete volvulus of the herniated stomach is encountered.
Objectives: To review our experience with laparoscopic repair of GDH, emphasizing preoperative investigation, technical aspects, and outcome.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of patients operated on for GDH who were diagnosed when at least half the stomach was found in the mediastinum at surgery. Technical aspects and surgical outcomes were evaluated.
Results: Fifty patients underwent laparoscopic GDH repair during an 8 year period. Four patients admitted with acute symptomatic volvulus of the stomach were initially treated by endoscopic decompression followed by surgery during the same admission. Two cases were converted to open surgery. Initial surgery was successful in 45 patients; 3 had an immediate recurrence, 1 was reoperated for dysphagia during the same admission, and 1 had a mediastinal abscess. During long-term follow-up, six patients required reoperation for recurrent hernias. Another four patients had asymptomatic partial herniation of the stomach. The main reason for failure was incomplete reduction of the hernia sac, especially the posterior component. No correlation was found between the type of repair and surgical failure. Most patients who did not undergo an anti-reflux procedure had postoperative reflux unrelated to their preoperative workup.
Conclusions: Laparoscopic repair of GDH is challenging, but practical and safe. It should be the treatment of choice for this potentially life-threatening condition. Careful attention to pitfalls, such as the posterior element of the sac, and routine performance of an anti-reflux procedure are crucial.
S. Billan, O. Kaidar-Person, F. Atrash, I. Doweck, N. Haim, A. Kuten and O. Ronen
Background: The role of induction chemotherapy in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is under constant debate. Surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapies are part of the treatment strategy in these patients, but their sequence remains to be defined.
Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility of induction chemotherapy with docetaxel-cisplatin-5-flurouracil (TPF) followed by external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with concomitant chemotherapy (CRT) or cetuximab (ERT) in the treatment of patients with advanced SCCHN.
Methods: We reviewed the data of all patients with advanced SCCHN, stage III and IV, treated in 2007–2010. Tolerability was assessed and scored according to the proportion of patients completing the planned study protocol. Toxicity was scored using the U.S. National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (version 4) for classification of adverse events.
Results: The study included 53 patients. TPF was initiated at a reduced dose in 13 patients (25%). Twenty-two patients (41.5%) received primary prophylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) and 42 (77%) completed treatment according to schedule. During the induction phase one patient (2%) died and 24 (45%) had one or more grade 3-4 complications. The number of patients who developed neutropenia was lower in the group that received primary GCSF prophylaxis. Secondary dose reductions were required in 21% of the patients.
Conclusions: Induction TPF was associated with grade 3-4 toxicity. Prophylaxis with GCSF should be part of the treatment regimen.
J.Y. Streifler, G. Raphaeli, N.M. Bornstein, N. Molshatzki and D. Tanne
Background: Patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) at a high risk of stroke can be identified and should be managed urgently.
Objectives: To investigate whether recognized recommendations are being implemented in Israel.
Methods: An Israeli nationwide registry on patients admitted with stroke and TIA was conducted in all acute care hospitals (NASIS registry) within 2 successive months during 2004, 2007 and 2010. A revised ABCD2 score was applied retrospectively. Patients with TIA were divided into a low risk group (LRG, 0–3 points) and a high risk group (HRG, 4–6 points) and were compared to patients with minor ischemic strokes (MIS, NIHSS score ≤ 5 points).
Results: A total of 3336 patients were included (1023 with TIA: LRG 484, HRG 539, and MIS 2313). LRG patients were younger and had lower rates of most traditional risk factors as compared with HRG and MIS patients. Brain imaging was performed in almost all the patients. Ancillary tests (vascular and cardiac) were overall underused, yet were performed more in LRG (53.2% and 26.9% respectively) than in HRG patients (41.6%, 18.9%). Between periods there was no change in usage of ancillary tests for the LRG and a modest increase in both HRG and MIS patients. For performance of vascular investigations overall, the odds ratio was 1.69 (95% confidence interval 1.42–2.00) comparing 2010 with 2004, but 0.7 (95% CI 0.5–0.9) comparing HRG with LRG. Between periods an increase in statin usage was observed in all groups (OR 2.69, 95% CI 2.25–3.21) but was more marked in MIS patients (OR 3.06, 95% CI 2.47–3.8).
Conclusions: The approach to TIA risk stratification and management in Israeli hospitals does not follow standards set by current guidelines. Standardized protocols for TIA should be used to assure effective management.