I. Hadas-Halpern, M. Patlas, M. Knizhnik, I. Zaghal and D. Fisher
Background: The mainstay of therapy for acute cholecystitis is cholecystectomy, which has a mortality of 14–30% in high risk patients. An alternative approach in patients suffering from acute cholecystitis with contraindications to emergency surgery is percutaneous cholecystostomy.
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous cholecystostomy as the initial treatment of acute cholecystitis in high risk patients.
Methods: Eighty consecutive patients (42 men, 38 women) underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous cholecystostomy over a 5 year period. Sixty-five patients suffered from acute calculous cholecystitis, 4 patients had acalculous cholecystitis, and 11 patients had sepsis of unknown origin.
Results: Sixty-eight patients improved after the percutaneous gallbladder drainage, 10 patients died from co-morbid disease and 2 patients died from biliary peritonitis. During a 1 year follow-up, 32 of the patients underwent interval cholecystectomy, 4 additional patients died from a co-morbid disease, 18 patients did not suffer from any gallbladder symptoms, and 14 were lost to follow-up.
Conclusions: Percutaneous cholecystostomy is an effective contribution to the treatment of acute cholecystitis in high risk patients.
Z. Cohen, O. Kleimer, F. Finaly, J. Mordehai, N. Newmn, E. Kurtzbart and A.J. Mares
Background: Intestinal malrotation is usually observed in the neonatal period with signs of acute high intestinal obstruction due to midgut volvulus. However, malrotation presenting beyond the neonatal period and well into adult life is associated with a variety of atypical and frequently non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that may often cause prolonged delay in diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Objectives: To emphasize the difficulty in predicting the risk of midgut volvulus based on age or symptoms, and to recommend surgery in all patients found to have intestinal malrotation even if they are considered asymptomatic.
Methods: We reviewed 41 patients with malrotation treated over a period of 24 years at the Soroka University Medical Center.
Results: In our series, 27 patients (66%) had acute midgut volvulus while 14 (34%) had malrotation found during investigation of various long-term gastrointestinal non-specific symptoms. Two patients died of total parenteral nutrition-related sepsis following extensive resection of small bowel. A total of 28 patients was available for long-term follow-up and are asymptomatic.
Conclusions: We recommend elective laparotomy and Ladd procedure in all patients found to have intestinal malrotation. This will prevent the catastrophic results of midgut volvulus and a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms wrongly attributed to other conditions in the span of a lifetime.
N. Werbin, R. Haddad, R. Greenberg, E. Karin and Y. Skornick
Background: Free bowel perforation is one of the indications for emergency surgery in Crohn’s disease. It is generally accepted that 1–3% of patients with Crohn’s disease will present with a free perforation initially or eventually in their disease course.
Objective: To evaluate the incidence and treatment results of free perforation in patients with Crohn’s disease and based on our experience to suggest recommendations.
Methods: Between 1987 and 1996, 160 patients with Crohn's disease were treated in our department and were followed for a mean period of 5 years.
Results: Of the 83 patients (52%) requiring surgical intervention, 13 (15.6%) were operated due to free perforation. The mean age of the perforated CD was 33 ± 12 years and the mean duration of symptoms to surgery was 6 years. The location of the free perforation was the terminal ileum in 10 patients, the mid-ileum in 2 patients, and the left colon in 1 patient. Surgical treatment included 10 ileocecectomies, 2 segmental resections of small bowel, and resection of left colon with transverse colostomy and mucus fistula in one patient. There was no operative mortality. Postoperative hospital stay was 21 ± 12 days (range 8–55 days). All patients were followed for 10–120 months (mean 58.0 ± 36.7). Six patients (42%) required a second operation during the follow-up period.
Conclusion: The incidence of free perforation in Crohn’s disease in our experience was 15.6%. We raise the question whether surgery should be offered earlier to Crohn’s disease patients in order to lower the incidence of free perforation
R. Eliakim and F. Karmeli
Background: Chronic nicotine administration has a dual effect on inflammatory bowel disease: augmentation of jejunitis and amelioration of colitis. We previously showed that chronic nicotine administration has divergent regional effects on small bowel and colonic mucosal mediators and blood flow.
Objective: To examine the effects of nicotine administration on cytokine levels in normal rat small bowel mucosa, colonic mucosa, and blood.
Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200–250 g were given nicotine (12.5 μg/ml) that was dissolved in tap water. Rats were sacrificed on days 1, 2, 7 and 14 after nicotine initiation; blood was withdrawn, and small bowel and colon were resected, washed and weighed. Mucosal scrapings were extracted in 2 ml Krebs-Hemselest buffer for determination of interleukins-2, 6 and 10 using the Biosource International Immunoassay Kit.
Results: Nicotine decreased IL-10 and increased IL-6 levels in small bowel mucosa (from 3.5 ± 0.5 to 0.4 ± 0.1 pg/ml and from 1.9±0.4 to 13.6±0.4 pg/ml respectively; P < 0.05). Nicotine decreased IL-2 levels in the colon (from 15.8±3.0 to 7.9±1.0 pg/ml; P < 0.05), having no effect on IL-10 or IL-6 levels. Rats treated with nicotine had lower IL-6 and IL-2 blood levels compared to control rats.
Conclusions: Nicotine has different regional effects on small bowel and colonic cytokine mucosal levels, which might explain some of its opposite effects on small bowel and colonic inflammation.