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עמוד בית Mon, 19.08.19

March 2013


Focus
R. Kory, A. Carney and S. Naimer
 Background: Following the 2005 evacuation of Gush Katif, a community of Jewish settlements located in the greater Gaza Strip, many evacuees reported a deterioration in their health status.

Objectives: To determine if and to what degree the evacuation of Gush Katif caused a worsening in the health status of the evacuees.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study we assessed the medical records of 2962 evacuees for changes in prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and ischemic heart disease in the period beginning 1 year before and ending 5 years after the evacuation. The findings were compared to those for the general Israeli population. A questionnaire was distributed to 64 individuals to assess lifestyle and social change.

Results: An increase in diabetes and hypertension was found in men aged 45–64. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the 45–54 male group rose from 8.7% in 2004 to 12.6% in 2007 to 18.7% in 2010; in the 55–64 age group it rose from 24.6% in 2004 to 29.9% in 2007 to 32.9% in 2010. Hypertension in 45–64 year old men rose from 27.1% in 2004 to 35.12% in 2010. The increases in diabetes were significant and higher than those in the general population. The increases in hypertension were of similar magnitude. The prevalence of heart disease did not change and is similar to that in the general population. The questionnaire sample showed an increase in depression and overweight.

Conclusions: The Gush Katif evacuation appears to be associated with increased morbidity of chronic disease. This may be attributed to any of several mechanisms, with unemployment, depression, inactivity and overweight playing significant roles. Preventive medical interventions and measures should be employed to screen and treat this population which underwent a major stressful event and as a result seem at greater risk than their peers.

 

A.M. Madsen, R. Pope, A. Samuels and C.Z. Margolis
 Background: Due to the war in Gaza in 2009, Ben-Gurion University’s Medical School for International Health with a student body of 165 international multicultural students canceled a week of classes. Third-year students continued clerkships voluntarily and fourth-year students returned to Israel before departing for clerkship in a developing country. A debriefing session was held for the entire school.

Objectives: To assess the academic and psychological effects of political conflict on students.

Methods: We asked all students to fill out an anonymous Google electronic survey describing their experience during the war and evaluating the debriefing. A team of students and administrators reviewed the responses.

Results: Sixty-six students (40% of the school) responded (first year 26%, second year 39%, third year 24%, fourth year 8%, taking time off 3%, age 23–40 years old). Eighty-three percent were in Israel for some portion of the war and 34% attended the debriefing. Factors that influenced individuals’ decision to return/stay in the war zone were primarily of an academic and financial nature. Other factors included family pressure, information from peers and information from the administration. Many reported psychological difficulties during the war rather than physical danger, describing it as “draining” and that it was difficult to concentrate while studying. As foreigners, many felt their role was undefined. Although there is wide variation in the war’s effect on daily activities and emotional well-being during that time, the majority (73%) reported minimal residual effects.

Conclusions: This study lends insight to the way students cope during conflict and highlights academic issues during a war. Open and frequent communication and emphasis on the school as a community were most important to students.

 

S. Luria, G. Rivkin, M. Avitzour, M. Liebergall, Y. Mintz and R. Mosheiff
 Background: Explosion injuries to the upper extremity have specific clinical characteristics that differ from injuries due to other mechanisms.

Objectives: To evaluate the upper extremity injury pattern of attacks on civilian targets, comparing bomb explosion injuries to gunshot injuries and their functional recovery using standard outcome measures.

Methods: Of 157 patients admitted to the hospital between 2000 and 2004, 72 (46%) sustained explosion injuries and 85 (54%) gunshot injuries. The trauma registry files were reviewed and the patients completed the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (DASH) and Short Form-12 (SF-12) after a minimum period of 1 year.

Results: Of the 157 patients, 72 (46%) had blast injuries and 85 (54%) had shooting injuries. The blast casualties had higher Injury Severity Scores (47% over a score of 16 vs. 22%, P = 0.02) and higher percent of patients treated in intensive care units (47% vs. 28%, P = 0.02). Although the Abbreviated Injury Scale score of the upper extremity injury was similar in the two groups, the blast casualties were found to have more bilateral and complex soft tissue injuries and were treated surgically more often. No difference was found in the SF-12 or DASH scores between the groups at follow up.  

Conclusions: The casualties with upper extremity blast injuries were more severely injured and sustained more bilateral and complex soft tissue injuries to the upper extremity. However, the rating of the local injury to the isolated limb is similar, as was the subjective functional recovery.

 

Original Articles
S. Eilat-Tsanani, H. Tabenkin, J. Shental, I. Elmaleh and D. Steinmtz
 Background: Radical prostatectomy is one option for treating localized prostate cancer, but it can cause functional impairment of the urogenital system.

Objectives: To describe the outcomes of radical prostatectomy as perceived by the patients, and their ways of coping with them.

Methods: We conducted a qualitative study of 22 men with localized prostatic cancer 1 year after surgery. The key questions related to the effect of the disease and the surgery on their lives and their view on the value of the surgery.

Results: The surgery was perceived as a necessary solution for the diagnosed cancer. All the participants suffered from varying degrees of urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Urinary incontinence caused severe suffering. The impaired sexual ability affected relations with partners and led to feelings of shame and guilt and a decreased sense of self-esteem. In retrospect, the participants still viewed the surgery as a life-saving procedure. Faith in the surgeon contributed to their affirmation of the decision to undergo surgery despite the difficulties.

Conclusions: Patients were prepared to suffer the inevitable physical and psychological sequelae of radical prostatectomy because they believed the surgery to be a definitive solution for cancer. Surgeons advising patients with localized prostatic cancer on treatment options should address these difficult issues and provide psychological support, either themselves or in collaboration with professionals.

 

B. Knyazer, N. Bilenko, J. Levy, T. Lifshitz, N. Belfair, I. Klemperer and R. Yagev
 Background: Open globe injury (OGI) is a common cause of unilateral visual loss in all age groups.


Objectives: To describe and identify clinical characteristics, prognostic factors and visual outcome in a group of patients with OGI in southern Israel.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all cases of OGI examined in the ophthalmology department at Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel, from 1996 to 2005. A total of 118 eyes with OGI were detected and analyzed statistically. We recorded demographic data, cause of injury, initial visual acuity (VA), associated globe morbidity and injuries, Ocular Trauma Score (OTS), surgical procedures, postoperative complications, and final VA.

Results: The mean age of the study group was 36.1 years and included 84% males. The median follow-up was 13.3 months (range 6–66 months). The annual incidence of open globe injuries was 3.1 cases/100,000. In 84 cases (71%) the mechanism of open eye injury was laceration. Most of the injuries were work related (45%). Bilateral injury was observed in two patients. An intraocular foreign body was observed in 45 eyes (38%). Primary surgical repair was performed in 114 eyes. Six patients (5.1%) had complications with post-traumatic endophthalmitis and 12 patients (10.1%) underwent evisceration or enucleation. Clinical signs associated with poor visual outcomes included reduced initial VA, eyelid injury, and retinal detachment at presentation.

Conclusions: In our study population the most important prognostic factors in open globe injury were initial VA, eyelid injury and retinal detachment.

 

A. Ber and D.S. Seidman
 Background: The insertion of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) requires experience and is associated with a low failure rate.

Objectives: To assess the reasons given by gynecologists why they failed to insert a LNG-IUS.

Methods: We obtained data from the sole distributor in Israel that prospectively recorded these cases when contacted by gynecologists following an insertion failure.

Results: The mean rate of failed insertions was 0.95% (range 0.77–1.03%) for the 5 year study period 2006–2010. The most common reasons reported by gynecologists for LNG-IUS insertion failure were loss of sterility of the device, inability to insert the device due to a stenotic cervical canal, accidental removal of the device following a successful insertion due to hasty removal of the inserter or the use of blunt scissors, and removal of the newly inserted LNG-IUS following ultrasound evidence that it was misplaced.

Conclusions:  Gynecologists should be aware of the common pitfalls associated with insertion of an LNG-IUS. Several techniques that may aid in avoiding these mishaps are described.

E. Scheier and S. Aviner
 Background: Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a prevalent childhood illness rarely complicated by secondary bacterial sepsis. Although there are case reports of septicemia after rotavirus infection, there are no recent reviews on this topic.

Objectives: To add new cases of septicemia after rotavirus to the literature, review the few cases of septicemia after rotavirus that have been reported, calculate the incidence of septicemia in children hospitalized for rotavirus gastroenteritis, and discuss the characteristics of septicemia after rotavirus infection and implications for current pediatric practice.

Methods: We identified children whose illness was complicated by septicemia from among all hospitalizations at our facility for rotavirus gastroenteritis from May 1999 through May 2010. We also review the few cases reported in the English literature. 

Results: We identified two cases of septicemia from among 632 hospitalizations for rotavirus gastroenteritis in this time period, for an incidence rate of 0.32%, which is comparable to other estimates in the English literature. The typical course for cases of bacterial superinfection involves a second peak of high fever; other clinical signs are variable.

Conclusions: Septicemia after rotavirus gastroenteritis is a rare but dangerous entity. Early identification of a child developing bacterial superinfection after rotavirus, as in any case of sepsis, is of the utmost importance, as is obtaining blood cultures in a child with a rotavirus infection and a second fever spike. 

A. Elkayam, E. Peleg, E. Grossman, Z. Shabtay and Y. Sharabi
 Background: Allium sativum, the active ingredient in garlic, is known to have a beneficial effect on major cardiovascular risk factors, including dyslipidemia, blood pressure, blood glucose and insulin levels. However, the data on the significance of these effects are inconsistent due to methodological limitations, especially the use of whole garlic cloves which does not allow controlled dosing of the active compound.

Objectives: To study the effects of purified allicin on the cardiovascular system.

Methods: Spontaneously hypertensive rats treated for 6 weeks with a daily dose of 80 mg/kg/day of purified allicin added to their chow were compared to control rats that were fed regular chow. Weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP), triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin and adiponectin were measured at baseline and at the end of the study.

Results: Allicin had no effect on body weight whereas it reduced SBP significantly from 190 ± 7.5 mmHg to 168 ± 5.7 (P < 0.0001) and triglyceride levels from 96 ± 25 mg/dl to 71 ± 19 (P =0.009). Allicin had no effect on plasma cholesterol, insulin and adiponectin levels.

Conclusions: Allicin lowers blood pressure and triglyceride levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats. This effect is not mediated through weight loss.

 

Reviews
A. Shauer, I. Gotsman, A. Keren, D.R. Zwas, Y. Hellman, R. Durst and D. Admon
 Acute myocarditis is one of the most challenging diseases to diagnose and treat in cardiology. The true incidence of the disease is unknown. Viral infection is the most common etiology. Modern techniques have improved the ability to diagnose specific viral pathogens in the myocardium. Currently, parvovirus B19 and adenoviruses are most frequently identified in endomyocardial biopsies. Most patients will recover without sequelae, but a subset of patients will progress to chronic inflammatory and dilated cardiomyopathy. The pathogenesis includes direct viral myocardial damage as well as autoimmune reaction against cardiac epitopes. The clinical manifestations of acute myocarditis vary widely – from asymptomatic changes on electrocardiogram to fulminant heart failure, arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Magnetic resonance imaging is emerging as an important tool for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients, and for guidance of endomyocardial biopsy. In the setting of acute myocarditis endomyocardial biopsy is required for the evaluation of patients with a clinical scenario suggestive of giant cell myocarditis and of those who deteriorate despite supportive treatment. Treatment of acute myocarditis is still mainly supportive, except for giant cell myocarditis where immunotherapy has been shown to improve survival. Immunotherapy and specific antiviral treatment have yet to demonstrate definitive clinical efficacy in ongoing clinical trials. This review will focus on the clinical manifestations, the diagnostic approach to the patient with clinically suspected acute myocarditis, and an evidence-based treatment strategy for the acute and chronic form of the disease.

 

Book Corner
הבהרה משפטית: כל נושא המופיע באתר זה נועד להשכלה בלבד ואין לראות בו ייעוץ רפואי או משפטי. אין הר"י אחראית לתוכן המתפרסם באתר זה ולכל נזק שעלול להיגרם. כל הזכויות על המידע באתר שייכות להסתדרות הרפואית בישראל. מדיניות פרטיות
ז'בוטינסקי 35 רמת גן, בניין התאומים 2 קומות 10-11, ת.ד. 3566, מיקוד 5213604. טלפון: 03-6100444, פקס: 03-5753303