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עמוד בית Wed, 26.06.19

August 2012

Original Articles
M. Linder, L. Lev Ari, R. Kurs and Y. Melamed

Background: Patient protection requires the provision of informed consent for participation in medical research. The MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR) is frequently used for screening the capacity of research subjects to consent to participate in research.

Objectives: To evaluate the utility of the Hebrew translation of the MacCAT-CR for the assessment of capacity of patients with chronic schizophrenia to provide informed consent to participate in clinical trials.

Methods: We evaluated the translated MacCAT-CR by comparing the capacity of patients with chronic schizophrenia to provide informed consent to participate in clinical trials. The following standardized neurocognitive assessment tools were used: Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination (ACE) and Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), as well as the attending doctor’s assessment.

Results: Twenty-one patients participated. Mean MacCAT-CR score was12 ¡À 10.57 (range 0¨C32), mean FAB score was 9.9 ¡À 4.77 (range 1¨C18), mean ACE was 59.14 ¡À 16.6 (range 27¨C86) and mean doctor’s assessment was 5.24 ¡À 1.18 (range 3¨C7).

Conclusions: The Hebrew-version of the MacCAT-CR helped identify patients with the capacity to provide informed consent for participation in research. Patients with FAB scores ¡Ý 12 tended to score higher on the Hebrew-version of the MacCAT-CR, thus confirming the utility of the Hebrew version of the MacCAT-CR. During the screening process for clinical trials it may be practical to administer the concise FAB questionnaire, and then administer the MacCAT-CR only to those who scored ¡Ý 12 on the FAB.

S. Ben Shimol, L. Dukhan, I. Belmaker, S. Bardenstein, D. Sibirsky, C. Barrett and D. Greenberg

Background: Human brucellosis is common in southern Israel among the semi-nomadic Bedouin, a population that consumes unpasteurized dairy products. Though camel milk ingestion is a known mechanism for brucellosis acquisition, only a few reports of sporadic cases have been published in the medical literature.

Objectives: To describe a local brucellosis outbreak in 15 extended Bedouin family members, following ingestion of infected camel milk.

Methods: Data regarding patient’s clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, treatment and outcome were collected from the hospital and the health fund clinics’ computerized database. Camel’s blood and milk were tested for Brucella serology and culture. Cases were defined by positive Rose Bengal test, symptoms correlating with brucellosis, and consumption of infected camel milk.

Results: Fifteen patients were diagnosed with acute brucellosis from March to June 2011. Sixty percent of cases had serum agglutination test titers of 1:160 or higher and 4/8 (50%) had positive blood culture for Brucella melitensis. Arthralgia and fever were the most consistent clinical manifestations. Blood and milk serology and milk culture taken from the female camel were positive for Brucella melitensis.

Conclusions: The treating physicians must consider the possibility of infected camel milk ingestion as the mode of infection, both in sporadic cases and in outbreaks of brucellosis.

R. Eichel, D. Arkadir, S.T. Khoury, A. Werber, S. Kahana-Merhavi, J.M. Gomori, T. Ben-Hur, J.E. Cohen and R.R. Leker
Background: Only 0.5% of stroke patients in Israel are treated with endovascular multi-modal reperfusion therapy (MMRT) each year.

Objectives: To assess our experience with MMRT over the last decade.

Methods: We analyzed data from our stroke registry of patients undergoing MMRT during 2002¨C2011. All patients underwent multi-parametric imaging studies including subtraction angiography according to a predetermined algorithm. Stroke severity was measured with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). Disability was measured with the modified Ranking Scale (mRS) and classified as favorable (mRS ¡Ü 2) or unfavorable. Target vessel recanalization was determined with the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) scale.

Results: During the study period 204 patients were treated 166 of them had complete data sets including mRS scores at 90 days and were included in the analysis. Favorable outcomes at 90 days post-stroke were observed in 37% of patients and the mortality rate was 25%. Patients with favorable outcomes were younger, had significantly lower NIHSS scores on admission and discharge, and more often had complete target vessel recanalization (TIMI 3). On regression analysis the only factor associated with favorable outcome was TIMI 3, whereas increasing age and NIHSS scores on admission and discharge were predictors of poor outcome.

Conclusions: Our data show that MMRT can be successfully implemented in patients with severe stroke in Israel. More than a third of our patients with severe ischemic strokes who could not receive acute treatment were functionally independent after MMRT, demonstrating that this procedure is an important alternative for patients who are not candidates for intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) or do not achieve recanalization with tPA.
A. Ballin, Y. Senecky, U. Rubinstein, E. Schaefer, R. Peri, S. Amsel, M. Vol, Y. Amit and M. Boaz

Background: The pathogenesis of anemia associated with acute infection in children has not been well delineated.

Objectives: To characterize this type of anemia in children with acute infection, mainly in relation to iron status.

Methods: These two cross-sectional studies compared the prevalence and severity of anemia between outpatient febrile children and age-matched non-febrile controls.

Results: In part 1 of the study, children with acute infection (n=58) had a significant decrease in hemoglobin levels compared with 54 non-febrile controls. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) did not change this association. Moreover, there was no significant difference in MCV, mean cell hemoglobin or red cell distribution width values between the two groups. Regarding part 2, of the 6534 blood counts obtained in community clinics, 229 were defined as “bacterial infection.” Chart survey confirmed this diagnosis. White blood cell level was significantly inversely associated with hemoglobin level (r = -0.36, P < 0.0001). Anemia was significantly more prevalent among children with bacterial infection compared to those without: 21.4% vs. 14.1% (P = 0.002). Mean values of iron status parameters were all within normal limits.

Conclusions: Acute illness is associated with anemia. The pathogenesis of this anemia does not appear to be associated with disruption of iron metabolism.

E. Kadmon, D. Menachemi, J. Kusniec, M. Haim, M. Geist and B. Strasberg

Background: The implantable loop recorder (ILR) is an important tool for the evaluation of unexplained syncope, particularly in cases of rarely occurring arrhythmia.

Objectives: To review the clinical experience of two Israeli medical centers with the ILR. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of patients with unexplained syncope evaluated with the ILR at Rabin Medical Center (2006–2010) and Wolfson Medical Center (2000–2009).

Results: The study group included 75 patients (44 males) followed for 11.9 ± 9.5 months after ILR implantation. Patients’ mean age was 64 ± 20 years. The ILR identified an arrhythmic mechanism of syncope in 20 patients (17 bradyarrhythmias, 3 tachyarrhythmias) and excluded arrhythmias in 12, for a diagnostic yield of 42.7%. It was not diagnostic in 17 patients (22.7%) at the time of explant 26 patients (34.7%) were still in follow-up. In two patients ILR results that were initially negative were reversed by later ILR tracings. The patients with bradyarrhythmias included 9 of 16 (56.3%) with surface electrocardiogram conduction disturbances and 2 of 12 (16.7%) with negative findings on carotid sinus massage. All bradyarrhythmic patients received pacemakers the seven patients for whom post-intervention data were available had no or mild symptoms.

Conclusions: The ILR has a high diagnostic yield. Pre-ILR findings correlating with the ILR results are conduction disturbances (positive predictor of arrhythmia) and negative carotid sinus massage results (negative predictor of arrhythmia). Proper patient instruction is necessary to obtain accurate results. Caution is advised when excluding an arrhythmia on the basis of ILR tracings, and long-term follow-up is warranted.

A. Shturman, A. Bickel and S. Atar

Background: The prognostic value of P-wave duration has been previously evaluated by signal-averaged ECG (SAECG) in patients with various arrhythmias not associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

Objectives: To investigate the clinical correlates and prognostic value of P-wave duration in patients with ST elevation AMI (STEMI).

Methods: The patients (n=89) were evaluated on the first, second and third day after admission, as well as one week and one month post-AMI. Survival was determined 2 years after the index STEMI.

Results: In comparison with the upper normal range of P-wave duration (< 120 msec), the P-wave duration in STEMI patients was significantly increased on the first day (135.31 ¡À 29.29 msec, P < 0.001), up to day 7 (127.17 ¡À 30.02 msec, P = 0.0455). The most prominent differences were observed in patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ¡Ü 40% (155.47 ¡À 33.8 msec), compared to LVEF > 40% (128.79 ¡À 28 msec) (P = 0.001). P-wave duration above 120 msec was significantly correlated with increased complication rate namely, sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmia (36%), congestive heart failure (41%), atrial fibrillation (11%), recurrent angina (14%), and re-infarction (8%) (P = 0.012, odds ratio 4.267, 95% confidence interval 1.37¨C13.32). P-wave duration of 126 msec on the day of admission was found to have the highest predictive value for in-hospital complications including LVEF < 40% (area under the curve 0.741, P < 0.001).  However, we did not find a significant correlation between P-wave duration and mortality after multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: P-wave duration as evaluated by SAECG correlates negatively with LVEF post- STEMI, and P-wave duration above 126 msec can be utilized as a non-invasive predictor of in-hospital complications and low LVEF following STEMI.

T. Tohami, A. Nagler and N. Amariglio

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal hematological disease that represents 15–20% of all adult leukemia cases. The study and treatment of CML has contributed pivotal advances to translational medicine and cancer therapy. The discovery that a single chromosomal abnormality, the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, is responsible for the etiology of this disease was a milestone for treating and understanding CML. Subsequently, CML became the first disease for which allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is the treatment of choice. Currently, CML is one of the few diseases where treatment targeted against the chromosomal abnormality is the sole frontline therapy for newly diagnosed patients. The use of directed therapy for CML challenged disease monitoring during treatment and led to the development of definitions that document response and predict relapse sooner than the former routine methods. These methods relied on classical cytogenetics through molecular cytogenetics (FISH) and, finally, on molecular monitoring assays. This review discusses the laboratory tools used for diagnosing CML, for monitoring during treatment, and for assessing remission or relapse. The advantages and disadvantages of each test, the common definition of response levels, and the efforts to standardize molecular monitoring for CML patient management are discussed.

S. Bezalel, I. Asher, D. Elbirt and Z.M. Sthoeger

Current treatments for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are effective in reducing morbidity and mortality but are not specific and have severe adverse effects. Based on understanding of the different dysregulated immunological pathways involved in SLE pathogenesis, specific targeted therapies were developed. This review presents the current and the near-future novel biological immune targeted treatments, such as B cell-targeted therapy, cytokine blockade, peptide-based treatments and other novel treatments for SLE.

הבהרה משפטית: כל נושא המופיע באתר זה נועד להשכלה בלבד ואין לראות בו ייעוץ רפואי או משפטי. אין הר"י אחראית לתוכן המתפרסם באתר זה ולכל נזק שעלול להיגרם. כל הזכויות על המידע באתר שייכות להסתדרות הרפואית בישראל. מדיניות פרטיות
ז'בוטינסקי 35 רמת גן, בניין התאומים 2 קומות 10-11, ת.ד. 3566, מיקוד 5213604. טלפון: 03-6100444, פקס: 03-5753303