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עמוד בית
Sat, 20.07.24

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April 2022
Daniel Erez MD, Zamir Dovrish MD, Tanya Zahavi MD, Keren Cohen-Hagai MD, and Ze'ev Korzets MD
March 2018
Ilan Rozenberg MD, Andres Kotliroff MD, Tania Zahavi MD and Sydney Benchetrit MD

Background: Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) is one of the most common causes of nephrotic syndrome (NS) in Caucasian adults. Most patients have good renal prognosis, but 30–40% may progress to end stage renal disease (ESRD). 

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of immunosuppressive treatment (IST) in high-risk patients.

Methods: All IMN patients diagnosed by kidney biopsy from 2004–2010 were included. Clinical and laboratory data were collected at each follow-up visit. Risk assessment for renal progression classified patients as high risk if: 24 hour protein excretion > 6 g/day, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, and severe disabling or life-threatening clinical symptoms of NS were present.

Results: Among 290 biopsies, 37 patients (12.7%) were IMN. They were allocated to the high-risk IST group (n=16) or low-risk supportive treatment (ST) group (n=21) according to the likelihood of developing renal failure. Mean follow-up was 47 ± 17.3 months. Complete and partial remission rate was 68.7% for high-risk IST vs. 90.4% for low-risk ST. In the high-risk IST group, eGFR was significantly lower at 30 months (65.5 ± 28.6 vs. 85.3 ± 21.6 at baseline, P < 0.05). Four high-risk patients reached ESRD. In the low-risk ST group, eGFR remained stable at 30 and 60 months. 

Conclusions: This study showed a high remission rate for IMN. IST with prednisolone and cyclophosphamide provided favorable renal outcomes in most high-risk patients. The very high remission rate obtained in the low-risk patients confirms the adequacy of supportive treatment in this group.

December 2015
Eleonora Plotkin MD, Sydney Benchetrit MD, Tanya Zahavi MD, Oded Kimhi MD and Ze'ev Korzets MBBS
June 2014
Tal Zilberman MD, Tanya Zahavi MD, Alexandra Osadchy MD, Naomi Nacasch MD and Ze'ev Korzets MBBS
July 2012
S. Giryes, E. Leibovitz, Z. Matas, S. Fridman, D. Gavish, B. Shalev, Z. Ziv-Nir, Y. Berlovitz and M. Boaz
Background: Depending on the definition used, malnutrition is prevalent among 20¨C50% of hospitalized patients. Routine nutritional screening is necessary to identify patients with or at increased risk for malnutrition. The Nutrition Risk Screening (NRS 2002) has been recommended as an efficient tool to identify the risk of malnutrition in adult inpatients.

Objectives: To utilize the NRS 2002 to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition among newly hospitalized adult patients, and to identify risk factors for malnutrition.

Methods: During a 5 week period, all adult patients newly admitted to all inpatient departments (except Maternity and Emergency) at Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, were screened using the NRS 2002. An answer of yes recorded for any of the Step 1 questions triggered the Step 2 screen on which an age-adjusted total score ¡Ý 3 indicated high malnutrition risk.

Results: Data were obtained from 504 newly hospitalized adult patients, of whom 159 (31.5%) were identified as high risk for malnutrition. Malnutrition was more prevalent in internal medicine than surgical departments: 38.6% vs. 19.1% (P < 0.001). Body mass index was within the normal range among subjects at high risk for malnutrition: 23.9 ¡À 5.6 kg/m2 but significantly lower than in subjects at low malnutrition risk: 27.9 ¡À 5.3 kg/m2 (P < 0.001). Malnutrition risk did not differ by gender or smoking status, but subjects at high malnutrition risk were significantly older (73.3 ¡À 16.2 vs. 63.4 ¡À 18.4 years, P < 0.001). Total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, hemoglobin and %lymphocytes were all significantly lower, whereas urea, creatinine and %neutrophils were significantly higher in patients at high malnutrition risk.

Conclusions: Use of the NRS 2002 identified a large proportion of newly hospitalized adults as being at high risk for malnutrition. These findings indicate the need to intervene on a system-wide level during hospitalization.
April 2009
Shlomo Cohen-Katan, B Med Sc, Nitza Newman-Heiman, MD, Orna Staretz-Chacham, MD, Zahavi Cohen, MD, Lily Neumann, PhD and Eilon Shany, MD.

Background: Despite progress in medical and surgical care the mortality rate of congenital diaphragmatic hernia remains high. Assessment of short-term outcome is important for comparison between different medical centers.

Objectives: To evaluate the short-term outcome of infants born with symptomatic CDH[1] and to correlate demographic and clinical parameters with short-term outcome.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study in which demographic, obstetric and perinatal characteristics were extracted from infants' files. For comparison of categorical variables chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used and for continuous variables with categorical variables the Mann-Whitney test was used. Sensitivity and specificity were estimated by receiver operator curve.

Results: The study group comprised 54 infants with CDH, of whom 20 (37%) survived the neonatal period. Demographic characteristics were not associated with survival. Regarding antenatal characteristics, absence of polyhydramnion and postnatal diagnosis were correlated with better survival. Apgar scores (above 5 at 1 minute and 7 at 5 minutes), first arterial pH after delivery (above 7.135) and presence of pulmonary hypertension were significantly correlated with survival. Also, infants surviving up to 6 days were 10.71 times more likely to survive the neonatal period.

Conclusions: The survival rate of symptomatic newborns with CDH at our center was 37% for the period 1988–2006. Prenatal diagnosis, Apgar score at 5 minutes and first pH after delivery were found to be the most significant predictors of survival. Prospective work is needed to evaluate the long-term outcome of infants with CDH.






*This work was part of the MD thesis of Shlomo Cohen-Katan

[1] CDH = congenital diaphragmatic hernia


March 2003
Z. Cohen, O. Kleimer, F. Finaly, J. Mordehai, N. Newmn, E. Kurtzbart and A.J. Mares

Background: Intestinal malrotation is usually observed in the neonatal period with signs of acute high intestinal obstruction due to midgut volvulus. However, malrotation presenting beyond the neonatal period and well into adult life is associated with a variety of atypical and frequently non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that may often cause prolonged delay in diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Objectives: To emphasize the difficulty in predicting the risk of midgut volvulus based on age or symptoms, and to recommend surgery in all patients found to have intestinal malrotation even if they are considered asymptomatic.

Methods: We reviewed 41 patients with malrotation treated over a period of 24 years at the Soroka University Medical Center.

Results: In our series, 27 patients (66%) had acute midgut volvulus while 14 (34%) had malrotation found during investigation of various long-term gastrointestinal non-specific symptoms. Two patients died of total parenteral nutrition-related sepsis following extensive resection of small bowel. A total of 28 patients was available for long-term follow-up and are asymptomatic.

Conclusions: We recommend elective laparotomy and Ladd procedure in all patients found to have intestinal malrotation. This will prevent the catastrophic results of midgut volvulus and a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms wrongly attributed to other conditions in the span of a lifetime.

February 2000
Ilan Zahavi MD, Olga Rosezki MD, Yerah Stolkarts MD, Raanan Shamir MD, Bruria Heckelman BSc, Hedva Marcus MSc and Gabriel Dinari MD

Background: Cholestasis is a frequent problem in patients on total parenteral nutrition. Cisapride has a prokinetic effect on the biliary system, but its effect on hepatic excretory function is unknown.

Objectives: To study the effect of cisapride on TPN-induced cholestasis in a rat model.

Methods: Bile flow and bile salt secretion rate were measured in rats given TPN. There were four groups of 8 to 13 animals each. After a one hour baseline period during which all four groups received i.v. saline infusion, two groups received a TPN solution for another 2 hours, while saline was infused in the two control groups.

At the beginning of the second hour, 2 mg/kg cisapride was injected i.v. as a bolus into one experimental and one control group. Bile was collected from the common bile duct.

Results: At the end of the third hour, TPN caused a significant reduction in bile flow (P<0.02) and bile salt secretion rate (P<0.001) (61.24 vs. 50.74 µl/min/kg, and 1.173 vs. 0.799 µmol/min/kg, respectively). Addition of cisapride abolished the cholestatic effect of TPN.

Conclusions: Cisapride has a protective effect against TPN-associated cholestasis. This may have clinical significance, and further studies are warranted.

________________________________

 

TPN= total parenteral nutrition
 

Amir Kimia MD, Ilan Zahavi MD, Rivka Shapiro MD, Yoram Rosenbach MD, Akiva Hirsh MD1, Tamara Druzd MD, Jacob Yahav MD and Gabriel Dinari MD

Background: Recurrent abdominal pain is a common pediatric diagnostic problem.  Endoscopy is sometimes performed as part of the evaluation. Although gastritis and/or Helicobacter pylori infection is often present, it is not known if they contribute to the symptomatology.

Objectives: To evaluate the role of either gastritis or H. pylori infection in the symptomatology of children with RAP.

Patients and Methods: We retrospectively studied two groups of patients, 70 children in each, who had undergone endoscopy. One group was evaluated endoscopically for RAP and the other was a heterogeneous group that underwent endoscopy for indications other than RAP. Biopsies were taken during endoscopy and Giemsa staining was performed for the presence of H. pylori. Triple therapy was given as indicated, and the children were followed for an average of 6 months.

Results: Microscopic gastritis was diagnosed in 39 patients (55.7%) of the RAP group and in 31 of the heterogeneous group (44.2%) (NS), and H. pylori was found in 32 patients of the RAP group and in 16 of the heterogeneous group (45.7% vs. 22.8%, P<0.01). All children with H. pylori, except one in the heterogeneous group, had accompanying gastritis. On the other hand, gastritis without H. pylori infection was seen in 7 children in the RAP group and in 15 of the other. Endoscopy revealed macroscopic abnormalities in 52 of the 70 children with microscopic gastritis. There was a clinical improvement after triple therapy in 28 of 33 children with H. pylori-associated gastritis (84.85%), in 4 of 8 children with gastritis unassociated with H. pylori (50%), and in 8 of 15 without gastritis or H. pylori (53.3%) (P<0.01 between the H. pylori-associated gastritis and each of the other groups).

Conclusions: H. pylori infection and gastritis may be associated with RAP in a selected subgroup of children. We recommend a complete work-up, including endoscopy and invasive or non-invasive diagnostic modalities for H. pylori, and treatment of the infection.

__________________________________

 

RAP = recurrent abdominal pain

Ronit Neudorf-Grauss MD, Yoram Bujanover MD, Gabriel Dinari MD, Efrat Broide MD,Yehezkiel Neveh MD, Ilan Zahavi MD and Shimon Reif MD

Objective: To describe the clinical and epidemiological features of hepatitis B virus infection in Israeli children, and to evaluate their response and compliance to therapy.

Methods: We retrospectively studied 51 patients (34 males, 17 females), aged 2–18 years, from several medical centers in Israel.

Results: Of the 51 patients, 38 with elevated transaminase, positive hepatitis B e antigen and/or HBV DNA, and histologic evidence of liver inflammation were treated. Interferon was administered by subcutaneous injections three times a week for 3-12 months (dosage range 3–6 MU/m2). Only 16% were native Israelis, while 78% of the children were of USSR origin. A family history of HBV infection was recorded in 25 of the 51 patients (9 mothers, 16 fathers or siblings). Five children had a history of blood transfusion. The histological findings were normal in 3 patients, 24 had chronic persistent hepatitis, 14 had chronic active hepatitis and 2 had chronic lobular hepatitis. Five children also had anti-hepatitis D virus antibodies. Twelve of the 38 treated patients (31.5%) responded to IFN completely, with normalization of the transaminase levels and disappearance of HBeAg and HBV DNA. In no patient was there a loss of hepatitis B surface antigen. The main side effects of IFN were fever in 20 children, weakness in 10, headaches in 9, and anorexia in 6; nausea, abdominal pain, and leukopenia were present in 3 cases each. The response rate was not affected by age, country of origin, alanine/aspartate aminotransferase levels, or histological findings. However, a history of blood transfusion was a predictor of good response, 60% vs 27% (P<0.05).

Conclusions: We found IFN to be a safe and adequate mode of treatment in children with chronic HBV infection, regardless of their liver histology and transaminase levels. Therefore, in view of the transient side effects associated with this drug, we recommend considering its use in all children with chronic hepatitis B. 

_______________________________

HBV = hepatitis B virus

IFN = interferon

HBeAg = hepatitis B e antigen

September 1999
Hertzel Salman, MD, Pearl I. Herskovitz, MD, Simcha Brandis, MD, Michael Bergman, MD, Dror Dicker, MD, and Izhar Zahavi, MD.
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