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עמוד בית
Sun, 16.06.24

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February 2021
Mordehay Cordoba MD, Roi Anteby MD, Yaniv Zager MD, Yiftach Barash MD, Eyal Klang MD, Roy Nadler MD, Imri Amiel MD, Mordechai Gutman MD FACS, Nir Horesh MD, Nimrod Aviran MD, and Yoram Klein MD

Background: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic changed medical environments worldwide.

Objectives: To evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on trauma-related visits to the emergency department (ED).

Methods: A single tertiary center retrospective study was conducted that compared ED attendance of patients with injury-related morbidity between March 2020 (COVID-19 outbreak) and pre-COVID-19 periods: February 2020 and the same 2 months in 2018 and 2019.

Results: Overall, 6513 patients were included in the study. During the COVID-19 outbreak, the daily number of patients visiting the ED for acute trauma declined by 40% compared to the average in previous months (P < 0.01). A strong negative correlation was found between the number of trauma-related ED visits and the log number of confirmed cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Israel (Pearson's r = -0.63, P < 0.01). In the COVID-19 period there was a significant change in the proportion of elderly patients (7% increase, P = 0.002), admissions ratio (12% increase, P < 0.001), and patients brought by emergency medical services (10% increase, P < 0.001). The number of motor vehicle accident related injury declined by 45% (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: A significant reduction in the number of trauma patients presenting to the ED occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, yet trauma-related admissions were on the rise

September 2020
Naftali Justman MD, Gilad Shahak MD, Ola Gutzeit MD, Dikla Ben Zvi MD, Yuval Ginsberg MD, Ido Solt MD, Dana Vitner MD, Ron Beloosesky MD, Zeev Weiner MD and Yaniv Zipori MD

Background: The World Health Organization classified coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) as a pandemic and recommends strict restrictions regarding most aspects of daily activities.

Objectives: To evaluate whether the pandemic has changed the prenatal care and pregnancy outcome in pregnant women without COVID-19.

Methods: The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to describe changes in outpatient clinic visits and to compare the rates of cesarean and instrumental deliveries between two periods of time: March–April 2020 (during the COVID-19 outbreak) with March–April of the preceding year, 2019.

Results: During the COVID-19 outbreak, visits to obstetric triage, gynecologic triage, high-risk clinic, and ultrasound units decreased by 36.4%, 34.7%, 32.8%, and 18.1%, respectively. The medical center experienced a 17.8% drop in the total number of births (610 births) compared with March and April 2019 (742 births). During the outbreak women were more likely to be nulliparous (33.3% vs. 27.6%, P = 0.02) and present with hypertensive disorders during pregnancy (7.5% vs. 4%, P = 0.005) or gestational diabetes (13% vs. 10%, P = 0.03). More epidural analgesia was used (83.1% vs. 77.1%, P = 0.006). There were more operative vaginal deliveries during the outbreak (16.7% vs. 6.8%, P = 0.01). All other maternal and neonatal outcomes were comparable between the two periods.

Conclusions: The medical facility experienced a major decline in all aspects of the routine obstetrics activities during the time of the pandemic. The higher rate of operative vaginal deliveries among nulliparous may be associated with the pandemic effect on the rate of high-risk patients

February 2020
Hussein Zaitoon MD, Ellen Bamberger MD, Liat Yaniv MD, Bracha Mendelson MD, Isaac Srugo MD and Irina Chistyakov MD

Background: The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-13 (PCV-13) has reduced the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease.

Objective: To characterize true positive blood cultures of children who presented to our hospital following implementation of the PCV-13 vaccine.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on positive blood cultures of children presenting with fever from 2010–2017. Subjects were divided into two age groups: a younger group 3–36 months and an older group 3–18 years. Patients were classified as either having or not having a focus of infection at the time of their bacteremia. Pneumococcal isolates were typed at Israel's Streptococcal Reference Laboratory.

Results: The samples included 94 true positive blood cultures. Focal infection with concomitant bacteremia was more common than bacteremia without a focus both overall: 67/94 (71%) vs. 27/94 (28.7%), P <0.001 as well as in the two groups: 32/48 (66%) vs. 16/48 (33%), P = 0.02 in the younger group and 35/46 (76%) vs. 11/46 (24%), P = 0.001 in the older group. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common pathogen overall, 27/94 (29%), and in the younger group, 21/48 (44%), but rare in the older group, 6/46 (13%). In the latter, Brucella species predominated, 12/46 (26%), along with Staphylococcus aureus 12/46 (26%).

Conclusions: Our findings are consistent with other studies reporting decreased pneumococcal bacteremia, bacteremia primarily accompanying focal infection, and changing etiological agents among PCV-13-vaccinated children. Brucella species was prominent in older children with osteoarticular infections. Ongoing surveillance is warranted to better understand the implications of PCV-13.

November 2019
Nir Horesh MD, Aviad Hoffman MD, Yaniv Zager MD, Mordechai Cordoba MD, Marat Haikin MD, Danny Rosin MD, Mordechai Gutman MD and Alexander Lebedeyev MD

Background: Evaluation of low rectal anastomosis is often recommended prior to ostomy closure, but the efficacy of such evaluations is uncertain.

Objectives: To assess whether routine colonic preoperative evaluation has an effect on postoperative ileostomy closure results.

Methods: We performed a retrospective study evaluating all patients who underwent ileostomy closure over 9 years. Patient demographics, clinical, surgical details, and surgical outcomes were recorded and analyzed.

Results: The study comprised 116 patients who underwent ileostomy closure, of them 65 were male (56%) with a mean age of 61 years (range 20–91). Overall, 98 patients (84.4%) underwent colonic preoperative evaluation prior to ileostomy closure. A contrast enema was performed on 61 patients (62.2%). Abnormal preoperative results were observed in 12 patients (12.2%). The overall complication rate was 35.3% (41 patients). No differences in postoperative outcome was observed in patient gender (P = 1), age (P = 0.96), body mass index (P = 0.24), American Society of Anesthesiologists score (P = 0.21), and the Charlson Comorbidity Index score (P = 0.93). Among patients who had postoperative complications, we did not observe a difference between patients who underwent preoperative evaluation compared to those who did not (P = 0.42). No differences were observed among patients with preoperative findings interpreted as normal or abnormal (P = 1). The time difference between ileostomy creation and closure had no effect on the ileostomy closure outcome (P = 0.34).

Conclusions: Abnormal findings in preoperative colonic evaluation prior to ileostomy closure were not associated with worse postoperative outcome.

March 2018
Avinoam Nevler MD, Yaniv Berger MD, Avital Rabinovitz MD, Oded Zmora MD, Moshe Shabtai MD, Danny Rosin MD and Mordechai Gutman MD FACS

Background: Acute appendicitis (AA) is one of the most common indications for emergency abdominal surgery.

Objective: To assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of serum bilirubin and liver enzyme levels in the management of acute appendicitis.

Methods: Consecutive emergency department patients referred for a surgical consult for suspected AA were prospectively enrolled in the study. Data regarding demographic, clinical and laboratory results were recorded. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed for all evaluated parameters. Clinical and laboratory markers were evaluated for diagnostic accuracy and correlation to the clinical severity, histology reports, and length of hospital stay.

Results: The study was comprised of 100 consecutive patients. ROC curve analysis revealed white blood cell count, absolute neutrophils count (ANC), C-reactive protein, total-bilirubin and direct-bilirubin levels as significant factors for diagnosis of AA. The combination of serum bilirubin levels, alanine transaminase levels, and ANC yielded the highest area under the curve (0.898, 95% confidence interval 0.835–0.962, P<0.001) with a diagnostic accuracy of 86%. In addition, total and direct bilirubin levels significantly correlated with the severity of appendicitis as described in the operative and pathology reports (P < 0.01). Total and direct bilirubin also significantly correlated with the length of hospital stay (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: Serum bilirubin levels, alone or combined with other markers, may be considered as a clinical marker for AA correlating with disease existence, severity, and length of hospital stay. These findings support the routine use of serum bilirubin levels in the workup of patients with suspected AA.

November 2017
Talia Levy, Salim Bader, Kay-Geert Hermann MD, Gal Yaniv MD, Gahl Grinberg MD, Oshry Mozes MD, Merav Lidar MD and Iris Eshed MD

Background: Enthesopathy may lead to calcification of the stylohyoid ligament and can cause elongation of the styloid process (SP).

Objectives: To evaluate whether SP elongation is associated with two common enthesitis-related diseases: ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).

Methods: Cervical spine computed tomography (CT) examinations of patients with DISH (n=64, Resnick criteria), AS (n=24, New York criteria) and a controls (no radiological signs of DISH or AS, n=54) were retrospectively evaluated. The DISH group was further divided into patients with and without cervical DISH. The length of right and left SP was measured independently by two readers on coronal and sagittal curved reformats. The average right and left styloid length and average length per person were compared among the groups.

Results: Demographic characteristics were similar between the DISH and control groups (average age 68.2 ± 15.7, 69.2 ± 12.7 years, male:female ratio 48:16 and 35:19, respectively, P > 0.05), whereas age was significantly lower (average age: 53 ± 15 years, P < 0.0001) in the AS group, which was also composed mainly of men. The AS and DISH groups had significantly longer SP compared to controls (AS 37.9 ± 9.6 mm, DISH 34.4 ± 9 mm, control 30.3 ± 10.1 mm, P < 0.05). There was no correlation between age and SP length. Inter-reader reliability of SP measurements was excellent in all groups (ICC = 0.998, P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: SP elongation is associated with both AS and DISH substantiating the enthesopathy-related pathophysiology of this finding.

June 2017
Yaniv Levi MD, Aaron Frimerman MD, Avraham Shotan MD, Michael Shochat MD PhD, David S Blondheim MD, Amit Segev MD, Ilan Goldenerg MD, Mark Kazatsker MD, Liubov Vasilenko MD, Nir Shlomo PhD and Simcha R Meisel MD MSc

Background: Trials have shown superiority of primary percutaneous intervention (PPCI) over in-hospital thrombolysis in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated within 6-12 hours from symptom onset. These studies also included high-risk patients not all of whom underwent a therapeutic intervention. 

Objectives: To compare the outcome of early-arriving stable STEMI patients treated by thrombolysis with or without coronary angiography to the outcome of PPCI-treated STEMI patients.

Methods: Based on six biannual Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Surveys comprising 5474 STEMI patients, we analyzed the outcome of 1464 hemodynamically stable STEMI patients treated within 3 hours of onset. Of these, 899 patients underwent PPCI, 383 received in-hospital thrombolysis followed by angiography (TFA), and 182 were treated by thrombolysis only.

Results: Median time intervals from symptom onset to admission were similar while door-to-reperfusion intervals were 63, 45 and 52.5 minutes for PPCI, TFA and thrombolysis only, respectively (P < 0.001). The 30-day composite endpoint of death, post-infarction angina and myocardial infarction occurred in 77 patients of the PPCI group (8.6%), 64 patients treated by TFA (16.7%), and 36 patients of the thrombolysis only group (19.8%, P < 0.001), with differences mostly due to post-infarction angina. One-year mortality rate was 27 (3%), 13 (3.4%) and 11 (6.1%) for PPCI, TFA and thrombolysis only, respectively (P = 0.12).

Conclusions: PPCI was superior to thrombolysis in early-arriving stable STEMI patients with regard to 30-day composite endpoint driven by a decreased incidence of post-infarction angina. No 1 year survival benefit for PPCI over thrombolysis was observed in early-arriving stable STEMI patients.

 

July 2016
David Yardeni MD, Ori Galante MD, Lior Fuchs MD, Daniela Munteanu MD, Wilmosh Mermershtain MD, Ruthy Shaco-Levy MD and Yaniv Almog MD
May 2016
Shahar Grunner MD, Pavel Kotlarsky MD, Yaron Berkovich MD, Adi Givon BSc and Yaniv Keren MD

Background: Kite surfing is one of the trendiest water sports worldwide. With its growing popularity evidence has begun to accumulate regarding its potential for injuries which range from minor insults to death. 

Objectives: To define the epidemiology and distribution of common kite surfing injuries among recreational athletes. 

Methods: An open letter was published on the web calling for surfers to report injuries inflicted during recreational kite surfing. In addition, we received data from the National Center for Trauma and Emergency Medicine Research. 

Results: Our survey yielded only a small series of 48 injuries. Most kite surfing injuries are isolated injuries, although some are life threatening as occurred in two surfers who died due to severe head injuries. Among the injuries, 72.9% are related to the musculoskeletal system, followed by head and chest injuries (18.7% and 14.6%, respectively). Of the orthopedic injuries 48.6% are fractures, the majority in the lower limbs (58.8%). 

Conclusions: Our findings combined with those of previous articles on kite surfing-associated injuries contribute to a better understanding of such injuries, raise awareness in emergency department personnel, and indicate precautions needed to avoid or lessen incapacitating and potentially life-threatening injuries. 

 

October 2015
Avraham Ebenstein PhD, Eyal Frank and Yaniv Reingewertz PhD

Background: Exposure to air pollution in the form of particulate matter smaller than 10 µm in diameter (PM10) has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, since air pollution is correlated with confounding factors that might otherwise affect health, identifying the causal link has proven challenging. 

Objectives: To identify the effect of PM10 on hospital admissions due to respiratory illnesses. 

Methods: We used the Instrumental Variable (IV) methodology to control for confounding factors affecting hospital admissions. Exploiting the timing of sandstorms as an instrumental variable allows for a better estimate of the relationship between PM10 and hospital admissions. Data on PM concentrations and hospital admissions rates were compiled for Israel’s two largest cities, Jerusalem and Tel Aviv, for 2007–2009. We compared our IV estimates to those derived from a Poisson regression, which is commonly used in the existing literature. 

Results: Sandstorms led to an increase of 307 µg/m3 of PM10 concentrations. A 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10 is associated with a 0.8% increase in hospital admissions due to respiratory conditions, using Poisson regression. The same finding was noted using the IV methodology. 

Conclusions: The association between PM10 and hospital admission reflects a primarily causal relationship. Instrumental variable methodology could be applied to analysis of the effect of air pollution on hospital admissions. 

 

September 2015
Rina Elimelech BDS, Yaniv Mayer DMD, Yolanda Braun-Moscovici MD, Eli E. Machtei DMD and Alexandra Balbir-Gurman MD

Background: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic disease with prominent vasculopathy, inflammation, production of autoantibodies, and tissue fibrosis. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory oral condition manifesting as microbial infection, inflammation and destruction of the alveolar bone. In both conditions tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and other pro-inflammatory cytokines play an important role in pathogenesis. 

Objectives: To assess the periodontal status in SSc patients and compare these parameters to TNFα level in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of SSc patients and healthy controls.

Methods: Twenty SSc patients and 20 controls underwent periodontal examination, including probing depth (PD), plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), and measurement of TNFα levels in collected GCF. 

Results: SSc patients had a greater PD (3.74 ± 0.32 mm vs. 3.35 ± 0.31 mm, P > 0.003), GI (1.53 ± 0.34 vs. 1.12 ± 0.54, P > 0.049), and non-significantly higher BOP than controls. TNFα levels in GCF were higher in SSc patients (1.63 ± 0.36 vs. 1.15 ± 0.34 pg/ml, P = 0.001). Periodontitis parameters correlated with several SSc variables; PI in particular was higher in patients with longer disease duration, sclerodactyly, more severe skin involvement, and SSc activity score.

Conclusions: Patients with SSc have higher indices of periodontal inflammation and higher TNFα level in GCF than did healthy individuals. These changes probably reflect the complexity of factors that influence oral health in SSc. Common pathologic pathways may be responsible for the association between SSc and periodontitis, which requires further study.

 

Dana Ben-Ami Shor MD MHA, Guy A. Weiss MD, Ori Barzilai MD, Maya Ram MD, Juan-Manuel Anaya MD, Yehuda Shoenfeld MD and Yaniv Sherer MD

Background: The association between antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) and multiple sclerosis (MS) has been suggested previously, but prior studies provided contradicting findings. 

Objectives: To characterize the expression profile of eight classic and non-classic aPL in patients diagnosed with MS.

Methods: Using the BioPlex™ 2200 immunoassay, we measured the levels of serum immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG isotypes of three classic aPL and five non-classic aPL in 98 subjects with MS and 237 healthy controls. 

Results: Three non-classic aPL were significantly more prevalent among MS patients in comparison to the control group. These antibodies included IgM and IgG against phosphatidylserine-β2GPI (PS-B2), IgG prothrombin complex (PT-PT) and IgM prothrombin (PT). The positive results according to Bonferroni correction are PS-B2 IgG and PT-PT IgG. The remaining aPL profiles did not differ significantly between the two groups.

Conclusions: An association between certain non-classic aPL and MS has been established. The specific role of these autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of the condition remains uncertain.  

 

January 2015
Zohar Mor MD MPH MPH, Orly Weinstein MD MHA, Dini Tischler-Aurkin MD MPA, Alex Leventhal MD MPH MPA, Alon Yaniv and Itamar Grotto MD PhD MPH

Background: Since 2006 more than 60,000 migrants arrived in Israel from the Horn of Africa (HoA: Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia). They were detained in prison and screened for tuberculosis (TB) by means of an interview and chest X-ray (CXR).

Objectives: To evaluate the yield of this screening process.

Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated the validity of CXR in a random sample of 1087 of the 5335 HoA migrants (20.4%) who arrived in 2009, and assessed its related costs.

Results: Sixty-two migrants (5.7%) had CXRs with TB-suspicious findings, and 11 of them were finally diagnosed with TB (17.7% of all TB-suspicious CXRs). TB point-prevalence was 1000 cases per 100,000 migrants (1.0%). As no additional TB cases were diagnosed on arrival, CXR sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value were 100%, 96.1% and 17.7%, respectively. The interview did not contribute to the detection of migrants with TB. Direct costs related to the detection of single TB cases in prison was 17,970 shekels (US$ 4585), lower than the treating cost of 28,745 shekels ($ 7335). During 2008–2010, 88 HoA migrants who had been screened at the prison after crossing the border were later diagnosed with TB in the community. The average annual TB incidence was 132 cases/100,000 migrants. We traced 56 (63.6%) of the CXRs that were performed during detention. Of those, 41 (73.2%) were unremarkable, 8 (14.2%) were TB suspicious and 7 (12.5%) had non-TB-related abnormalities.

Conclusions: CXR-based screening is a valid and cost-saving tool for screening  HoA migrants for TB; the interview has significant limitations. 

Eugeny Radzishevsky MD, Nabeeh Salman MD, Hagar Paz, Dina Merhavi, Nisan Yaniv MD, Roni Ammar MD, Uri Rosenschein MD and Offer Amir MD FACC

Background: The prevalence of heart failure (HF) is increasing rapidly with high readmission rates, mainly due to fluid retention. Ultrafiltration (UF) is a mechanical method for removing fluids. Introduced only recently in Israel, the skill and experience required for outpatient congested HF patients are scarce.

Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of UF therapy in congested HF patients in outpatient clinics under a strict protocol of monitoring and therapy that we developed.

Methods: Between April and September 2013 we applied UF in our outpatient clinic to seven chronically congested HF patients with NYHA III-IV who did not respond adequately to diuretics. We administered a total of 38 courses.

Results: On average, 1982 ml fluid per course was removed without significant adverse events and with patients' subjective feeling of improvement. Only two courses were interrupted prematurely due to mechanical problems but were completed without harm to the patients.

Conclusions: Under appropriate professional medical supervision, UF therapy in an outpatient setting is a safe and effective procedure and serves as an additional tool for managing congested HF patients who do not respond adequately to diuretics.

Yaniv Berger MD, Riccardo A Superina MD, Andrew P. Zbar MD, Nora Balint-Lahat MD, Nir Horesh MD and Ron Bilik MD

Background: Congenital hepatic hilar cysts are rare. Some are simple and do not require intervention, but some biliary cystic malformations impose the risk of morbidity and mortality. Objectives: To assess a series of five patients presenting with congenital hepatic hilar cysts. 

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all cases presenting to our pediatric surgical service between January 2010 and December 2012 and found to have a congenital hepatic hilar cyst. Data regarding clinical, radiological, operative and pathological features were analyzed.

Results: Five children with congenital cyst of the hepatic hilum were identified; four of them were diagnosed prenatally. Four children had undergone surgical intervention: one with intrahepatic choledochal cyst, one with epidermoid cyst, and two with biliary atresia and an associated cyst of the common bile duct. In another case of choledochal cyst the treatment was conservative. All children except one had a good prognosis; one child with biliary atresia required liver transplantation.

Conclusions: The differential diagnosis of congenital hepatic hilar cyst includes a broad spectrum of pathologies. It is essential to diagnose biliary atresia as early as possible. Signs such as smaller cysts in association with a hypoplastic gallbladder and direct hyperbilirubinemia may be suggestive of biliary atresia.

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