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עמוד בית
Thu, 18.07.24

Search results

April 2024
Ruba Tuma MD, Marwan Odeh MD, Maya Wolf MD, Inshirah Sgayer MD, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi MD PhD, Rola Khamisy-Farah MD

Background: The cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) is a brain-enclosed cavity located on the midline between the two leaflets of the septum pellucidum that separates the lateral ventricles. This structure develops in the fetus from week 18 and can be seen up to week 37 in almost all cases and then begins to disappear.

Objectives: To measure and determine the normative values of the CSP volume in fetuses between 20 to 40 weeks of gestation.

Methods: The study comprised 161 consecutive pregnant women between 20 to 40 weeks of gestation with single viable fetuses. All patients had normal, disease-free pregnancies. Transvaginal or transabdominal ultrasound was used according to the fetal presentation. The fetal head was assessed in mid-sagittal sections. Once the CSP was visualized, its volume was measured using three-dimensional ultrasound with Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis software. The width of the CSP was also measured at the biparietal diameter (BPD) plane.

Results: Of the 161 fetuses, the CSP volume was measured in 158. In three patients the CSP was not identified. The CSP volume correlated poorly with gestational age (r=0.229) and with the BPD (r=0.295). The mean CSP volume was 0.508 ± 0.372 ml (range: 0.03-1.78 ml). The simple measurement of the CSP width correlated better with gestational age (r=0.535) and the BPD (r=0.484).

Conclusions: The CSP volume had a poor correlation with gestational age; however, the volume did not exceed 2 ml regardless of gestational age. This information can be used to assess pathologies involving the CSP.


February 2024
Idit Tessler MD PhD MPH, Amit Wolfovitz MD, Nir Livneh MD, Nir A. Gecel MD, Vera Sorin MD, Yiftach Barash MD, Eli Konen MD, Eyal Klang MD

Background: Advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) and natural language processing (NLP) have led to the development of language models such as ChatGPT. These models have the potential to transform healthcare and medical research. However, understanding their applications and limitations is essential.

Objectives: To present a view of ChatGPT research and to critically assess ChatGPT's role in medical writing and clinical environments.

Methods: We performed a literature review via the PubMed search engine from 20 November 2022, to 23 April 2023. The search terms included ChatGPT, OpenAI, and large language models. We included studies that focused on ChatGPT, explored its use or implications in medicine, and were original research articles. The selected studies were analyzed considering study design, NLP tasks, main findings, and limitations.

Results: Our study included 27 articles that examined ChatGPT's performance in various tasks and medical fields. These studies covered knowledge assessment, writing, and analysis tasks. While ChatGPT was found to be useful in tasks such as generating research ideas, aiding clinical reasoning, and streamlining workflows, limitations were also identified. These limitations included inaccuracies, inconsistencies, fictitious information, and limited knowledge, highlighting the need for further improvements.

Conclusions: The review underscores ChatGPT's potential in various medical applications. Yet, it also points to limitations that require careful human oversight and responsible use to improve patient care, education, and decision-making.

October 2023
Susana Mikhail Mustafa MD, Raneen Abu Shqara MD, Maya Frank Wolf MD, Oleg Shnaider MD, Sari Nahir Biderman RN MA, Limor Sharabi MA, Lior Lowenstein MD

Background: The French AmbUlatory Cesarean Section (FAUCS) technique was introduced to the Galilee Medical Center in September 2021. FAUCS was performed electively for interested women who meet the criteria.

Objectives: To evaluate the learning curve of senior surgeons performing FAUCS, the procedure short-term outcomes, and complications.

Methods: This retrospective study included 50 consecutive women who underwent FAUCS from September 2021 until March 2022 at our facility. Preoperative, intraoperative, postoperative, and demographic data were retrieved from patient electronic charts.

Results: The mean duration of surgery was 53.26 ± 11.62 minutes. This time decreased as the surgical team's experience increased: from a mean 58.26 ± 12.25 minutes for the first 15 procedures to a mean 51.17 ± 9.73 minutes for subsequent procedures. The mean visual analogue scale score for 24 hours was 1.08 ± 0.84 (on a 10-point scale). The rate of neonatal cord pH < 7.2 was 6%, and there were 11.3% cases of vacuum assisted fetal extraction. In total, 44% of the women were able to mobilize and urinate spontaneously by 4–6 hours. Complications included bladder injury (n=1), endometritis (n=1), and incisional hematoma (n=1). Overall, the maternal satisfaction rate was high; 94% of the women would recommend FAUCS to others.

Conclusions: FAUCS is a feasible procedure with a high satisfaction rate. Following the first 15 procedures performed by one surgical team, the operative time decreased considerably. Further randomized controlled studies are needed to compare this procedure to regular cesarean section and evaluate neonatal outcomes.

April 2022
Yonit Wiener-Well MD, Daniel Tordgman MD, Alon Bnaya MD, Orit Wolfovitz-Barchad MD, Marc V. Assous MD PhD, Amos M. Yinnon MD, and Eli Ben-Chetrit MD

Background: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is an important cause of nosocomial infections. Active surveillance for CRAB carriage to identify and isolate colonized patients is used to reduce transmission.

Objectives: To assess the rate and risks of clinical infection among CRAB-carrier and non-carrier patients.

Methods: Hospitalized patients from whom CRAB screening-cultures were obtained between January and June 2018 were identified retrospectively. All CRAB-carriers were compared to a convenient sample of non-carriers and were followed to detect development of CRAB clinical infection during admission.

Results: We compared 115 CRAB carriers to 166 non-carriers. The median age in the study group was 76 years (IQR 71–87) vs. 65 years (55–79) in the non-carriers group (P < 0.001). Residence in a nursing facility, debilitated state, and admission to medical wards vs. intensive care units were more frequent among CRAB-carriers (P < 0.001). Mechanically ventilated patients included 51 CRAB carriers (44%) and 102 non-carriers (61%). Clinical infection developed in 49 patients (17%), primarily CRAB pneumonia. Of the CRAB-carriers and non-carriers, 26/115 (23%) and 23/166 (14%), respectively, developed a clinical infection (P = 0.05). One-third of the ventilated patients were infected. Debilitated state and antibiotic treatment during hospitalization were linked to higher infection rates (P = 0.01). Adjusted analysis showed that mechanical ventilation and CRAB colonization were strongly associated with clinical infection (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: The rate of CRAB infection among carriers was high. Mechanical ventilation and CRAB colonization were associated with CRAB clinical infection, primarily pneumonia

January 2022
Nardin Elias MD, Roman Rysin MD, Samuel Kwartin MD, and Yoram Wolf MD

Background: The purpose of mastectomy for the transgender patient is to produce a masculine appearance of the chest. A number of algorithms have been proposed for selecting the surgical technique. A holistic and surgical approach to transgender men includes our experience-based classification system for selecting the correct surgical technique.

Objectives: To present and discuss the Transgender Standard of Care and our personal experience.

Methods: Data were collected from the files of female-to-male transgender persons who underwent surgery during 2003–2019. Pictures of the patients were also analyzed.

Results: Until May 2021, 342 mastectomies were performed by the senior author on 171 patients. The 220 mastectomies performed on 110 patients until November 2019 were included in our cohort. Patient age was 13.5 to 50 years (mean 22.5 ± 6.1). The excision averaged 443 grams per breast (range 85–2550). A periareolar approach was performed in 14 (12.7%), omega-shaped resection (nipple-areola complex on scar) in 2 (1.8%), spindle-shaped mastectomy with a dermal nipple-areola complex flap approach in 38 (34.5%), and a complete mastectomy with a free nipple-areola complex graft in 56 (50.9%). Complications included two hypertrophic scars, six hematomas requiring revision surgery, three wound dehiscences, and three cases of partial nipple necrosis.

Conclusions: A holistic approach to transgender healthcare is presented based on the World Professional Association for Transgender Health standard of care. Analysis of the data led to Wolf's classification for female-to-male transgender mastectomy based on skin excess and the distance between the original and the planned position of the nipple-areola complex

December 2021
Galit Hirsh-Yechezkel PhD, Angela Chetrit MHA, Sivan Ben Avraham MSc, Abed Agbarya MD, Alexander Yakobson MD, Noam Asna MD, Gil Bar-Sela MD, Irit Ben-Aharon MD PhD, Noa Efrat Ben-Baruch MD, Raanan Berger MD PhD, Ronen Brenner MD, Maya Gottfried MD, Shani Paluch-Shimon MBBS MSc, Raphael Pfeffer MD, Aron Popovtzer MD, Larisa Ryvo MD, Valeriya Semenisty MD, Ayelet Shai MD PhD, Katerina Shulman MD, Jamal Zidan MD, and Ido Wolf MD

Background: The increased susceptibility of cancer patients to coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infections and complications calls for special precautions while treating cancer patients during COVID-19 pandemics. Thus, oncology departments have had to implement a wide array of prevention measures.

Objectives: To address issues associated with cancer care during the COVID-19 pandemic and to assess the implementation of measures aimed at containment of COVID-19 diffusion while allowing continuation of quality cancer care.

Methods: A national survey among oncology departments in Israel was conducted between 12 April 2020 and 14 April 2020. Eighteen heads of hospital-based oncology departments completed a self-report questionnaire regarding their institute's preparedness for treatment of cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Results: In this national survey, prevention measures against COVID-19 spread were taken prior to patients' arrival and at arrival or while staying in the departments. Most participants (78–89%) reported using a quick triage of patients and caregivers prior to their entrance to the oncology units, limiting the entrance of caregivers, and reducing unnecessary visits to the clinic. Switching to oral therapies rather than intravenous ones when possible was considered by 82% and shortage in personal protective equipment was reported by five (28%) heads of oncology departments. Some differences between large and small/medium sized medical centers were observed regarding issues related to COVID-19 containment measures and changes in treatment.

Conclusions: Oncology departments in Israel were able to prepare and adapt their services to guidelines and requirements related to the COVID-19 pandemic with little harm to their treatment capacity

July 2021
Renana Barak MD, Barliz Waissengrin MD, and Ido Wolf MD
May 2021
Eran Glikson MD, Adi Abbass, Eldar Carmel MD, Adi Primov-Fever MD, Eran E. Alon MD, and Michael Wolf MD

Background: Management of acquired laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) is challenging and often requires recurrent procedures.

Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of balloon dilatation (BD) versus rigid dilatation (RD) in the treatment of LTS.

Methods: A retrospective study of patients undergoing endoscopic intervention for LTS was performed.

Results: The study included 69 balloon (BD) and 48 rigid dilations (RD). Most cases were grade 3 Cotton-Meyer stenosis. Mean time interval to recurrence after BD and RD were 27.9 and 19.6 weeks, respectively. Remission of over 8 weeks was achieved in 71% of BD compared to 31.2% of RD (P < 0.05). In the BD group, dilatation of subglottic stenosis showed higher rates of remission of over 8 weeks compared to upper and mid-tracheal stenosis (92% vs. 62% and 20%, respectively, P < 0.05). Complications were encountered in 4.2% of RD and 2.9% of BD.

Conclusions: BD and RD are effective and safe procedures. Overall, BD achieved slightly better long-term results compared to RD

January 2021
Mohamed Kittani MD, Barak Haviv MD, Shai Shemesh MD, Lee Yaari MD, Mustafa Yassin MD, and Lea Rath-Wolfson MD

Background: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are common and complete tears often fail to heal. ACL reconstruction is considered the surgical gold standard of care for ACL injuries in young active patients.

Objectives: To determine the corresponding morphological and histological features of the torn ACL in different time periods after injury.

Methods: The study included 28 remnant specimens of torn ACLs from patients who had ACL reconstruction surgery of the knee. The remnant pathology was evaluated by its morphology during arthroscopy and by histopathologic measurements.

Results: At surgery there were three progressive and distinct morphological tear patterns. The first pattern was noticed within the first 3 months from injury and showed no scar tissue. The second pattern appeared later and was characterized by the appearance of scar tissue with adhesion to the femoral wall. The third pattern was characterized by adhesion of the ACL remnant to the posterior cruciate ligament. The histological changes of the first morphological pattern showed abundance of blood vessels and lymphocytes at the torn femoral end with few irregular collagen fibers. The second and third tear patterns showed decrement in the number of blood vessels and lymphocytes with longitudinally oriented collagen fibers.

Conclusions: The morphological features of the ACL remnant in the first 3 months after injury showed no scar tissue and its histological features had the characteristics of a reparative phase. This phase was followed by a prolonged remodeling phase that ended with attachment of the remnant to the posterior cruciate ligament.

November 2019
Ruth Yousovich MD, Shay I. Duvdevani MD, Noga Lipschitz MD, Michael Wolf MD, Lela Migirov MD, and Arkadi Yakirevitch MD

Background: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common cause of vertigo. It is assumed that sleep is involved in the pathogenesis of BPPV, and that habitual head-lying side during sleep correlates with the affected side in the posterior semicircular canal BPPV.

Objectives: To investigate the relationship between the preferred sleeping position and the affected semicircular canal in patients with BPPV.

Methods: We performed a retrospective data review of patients seeking help for vertigo/dizziness who had undergone clinical evaluation including a Dix–Hallpike test. Patients diagnosed with posterior canal BPPV (p-BPPV) were asked to define their preferred lying side (right, left, supine, or variable) during the night sleep. Affected semicircular canal (right posterior or left posterior) was registered along with demographic data.

Results: In all, 237 patients were diagnosed with p-BPPV. Patients with horizontal semicircular canal BPPV (n=11) were excluded. Patient mean age was 57 years (range 14–87). There were 150 patients with right p-BPPV and 87 patients with left p-BPPV. Among the patients, 122 (52%) habitually slept on the right side. Of those, 102 (84%) were diagnosed with right p-BPPV (P = 0.0006), while 82 patients (34%) habitually slept on the left side. Fifty-three (65%) were diagnosed with left p-BPPV (P < 0.0001). There were no differences in right vs. left p-BPPV in the 33 patients (14%) who expressed no preference concerning their sleeping positions.

Conclusions: Our study highlights the etiology of BPPV and showed that changing sleep position habits might be helpful in preventing recurrent BPPV.

July 2019
Bar Davidov MD, Riva Shmulevich MSc, Ayelet Shabtay PhD, Tami Rubinek PhD and Ido Wolf MD

Background: Klotho is a transmembrane protein that can be shed and can act as a circulating hormone in three forms: soluble klotho (KL1 + KL2), KL1, and KL2. Klotho was discovered as a gene implicated in aging through inhibition of the IGF-I pathway. Our laboratory discovered the role of klotho as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer and other malignancies. Furthermore, we showed that the KL1 domain mediates this activity. Altered cancer cell metabolism is a hallmark of cancer and our lab demonstrated various effects of klotho on breast cancer cell metabolism. Thus, klotho inhibited glycolysis and activated adenosine monophosphate activating kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor pathway. Moreover, inhibition of AMPK reduced the tumor suppressor activity of klotho.

Objectives: To assess the effect of KL1 on breast tumor cells metabolism, as KL1 possesses the tumor suppressor activity of klotho.

Methods: We used MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with soluble or over-expressed KL1 and klotho. Glycolysis was assessed by measuring mRNA levels of key glycolytic enzymes using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and by measuring lactate and glucose levels in media. The AMPK pathway was studied by monitoring AMPK phosphorylation as well as its down-stream target, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, using western blotting. Wound healing assay was used to assess cell migration.

Results: KL1 treatment reduced glycolytic enzymes mRNA levels and the activity of hexokinase, similar to klotho treatment. Furthermore, KL1 reduced glucose uptake and decreased lactate production. KL1 elevated phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase and phosphorylatedAMPK levels. Inhibition AMPK (using a mutant AMPK activator) stopped KL1 from inhibiting cell migration, suggesting AMPK underlies klotho’s tumor suppressor activity.

Conclusions: Our data indicate KL1 as a regulator of metabolic activity in breast cancer and suggest that metabolic alterations underlie KL1 tumor suppressor activities. Furthermore, as KL1 and klotho share a similar effect on cell metabolism, our results further support the central role KL1 domain plays in klotho’s tumor suppressor activity.

August 2016
O. Shamriz, D.G. Wolf,O. Bennett-Back, R. Brooks, D.M. Kleid, and S. Hashavya
October 2015
Barak Raguan BSc, Efrat Wolfovitz MD and Efrat Gil MD

Background: Physical restraints are a common, albeit controversial, tool used in the acute care setting. 

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of physical restraint use in an acute care hospital. Secondary objectives were to determine whether physical restraints are used more commonly in night shifts, identify patient risk factors for physical restraint use, and establish if staff-to-patient ratio correlated with physical restraint use.

Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted over 3 months in 2013 in the medical, surgical and intensive care units in a mid-sized general hospital. All the physically restrained patients in each observation were added to the registry. At each observation one department was selected for comparison and all non-restrained patients were added to the registry.

Results: The study population comprised 2163 patients. Seventy-six were restrained and 205 were included as case-controls. The prevalence of physical restraint use was 3.51% (95%CI = 2.79–4.37%). Physical restraint use was more common in night shifts than day shifts: 4.40% vs. 2.56% (P = 0.03). Male gender, dependency, invasive ventilation, invasive tubes (nasogastric tube or urine catheter), and bedsores were all significantly correlated with restraint use. Staff-to-patient ratios were not significantly correlated with use of physical restraints.

Conclusions: Physical restraints are relatively common in acute care wards. The use of physical restraints seems to correlate with certain patient characteristics but not with staff-to-patient ratios, and seems more common at night. 


April 2015
Guy Slonimsky MD, Eldar Carmel MD, Michael Drendel MD, Noga Lipschitz MD and Michael Wolf MD


Background: Laryngeal cleft (LC) is a rare congenital anomaly manifesting in a variety of symptoms including swallowing disorders and aspirations, dyspnea, stridor and hoarseness. The mild forms (types I-II) may be underdiagnosed, leading to protracted symptomatology and morbidity. 

Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic process, clinical course, management and outcome in children with type I-II laryngeal clefts.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective case analysis for the years 2005–2012 in a tertiary referral center.

Results: Seven children were reviewed: five boys and two girls, aged from birth to 5 years. The most common presenting symptoms were cough, aspirations and pneumonia. Evaluation procedures included fiber-optic laryngoscopy (FOL), direct laryngoscopy (DL) and videofluoroscopy. Other pathologies were seen in three children. Six children underwent successful endoscopic surgery and one child was treated conservatively. The postoperative clinical course was uneventful in most of the cases.

Conclusions: Types I-II LC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children presenting with protracted cough and aspirations. DL is crucial for establishing the diagnosis. Endoscopic surgery is safe and should be applied promptly when conservative measures fail. 

March 2014
Lela Migirov, Gahl Greenberg, Ana Eyal and Michael Wolf
Cholesteatoma is an epidermoid cyst that is characterized by independent and progressive growth with destruction of adjacent tissues, especially the bone tissue, and tendency to recurrence. Treatment of cholesteatoma is essentially surgical. The choice of surgical technique depends on the extension of the disease, and preoperative otoscopic and radiological findings can be decisive in planning the optimal surgical approach. Cholesteatoma confined to the middle ear cavity and its extensions can be eradicated by use of the minimally invasive transmeatal endoscopic approach. Computerized tomography of the temporal bones fails to distinguish a cholesteatoma from the inflammatory tissue, granulations, fibrosis or mucoid secretions in 20–70% of cases showing opacification of the middle ear and mastoid. Using the turbo-spin echo (TSE), also known as non-echo planar imaging (non-EPI) diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging, cholesteatoma can be distinguished from other tissues and from mucosal reactions in the middle ear and mastoid. Current MRI sequences can support the clinical diagnosis of cholesteatoma and ascertain the extent of the disease more readily than CT scans. The size determined by the TSE/HASTE (half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo-spin echo) DW sequences correlated well with intraoperative findings, with error margins lying within 1 mm. Our experience with more than 150 endoscopic surgeries showed that lesions smaller than 8 mm confined to the middle ear and its extension, as depicted by the non-EPI images, can be managed with transmeatal endoscopic approach solely. We call upon our otolaryngologist and radiologist colleagues to use the newest MRI modalities in the preoperative evaluation of candidates for cholesteatoma surgery.

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