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עמוד בית
Tue, 28.05.24

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November 2023
Anat Milman MD PhD, Bernard Belhassen MD, Eyal Nof MD, Israel Barbash MD, Amit Segev MD, Roy Beinart MD

A 42-year-old healthy man collapsed suddenly in the street while walking. The patient received 2 minutes of basic life support until an automatic external defibrillator was brought and detected ventricular fibrillation (VF), which was successfully terminated by a single shock. The patient regained consciousness and was transferred to the hospital.

The patient’s physical examination was normal with no neurologic deficit. Blood pressure was 147/102 mmHg. Brain computed tomography showed normal findings. The first troponin I measurement within 1 hour of the event was in the normal range (19.6 ng/L, normal < 20 ng/L) and rose to 99.9 ng/L after 3 hours.

March 2022
Lian Bannon MD, Omer Shlezinger MD, Alexandra Nathan MD, Yan Topilsky MD, Ilan Merdler MD MHA, and Eihab Ghantous MD
January 2017
Gustavo Goldenberg MD, Tamir Bental MD, Udi Kadmon MD, Ronit Zabarsky MD, Jairo Kusnick MD, Alon Barsheshet MD, Gregory Golovchiner MD and Boris Strasberg MD

Background: Syncope prognosis varies widely: 1 year mortality may range from 0% in the case of vasovagal events up to 30% in the presence of heart disease. 

Objectives: To assess the outcomes and prognosis of patients with implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) and indication of primary prevention and compare patients presenting with or without prior syncope.

Methods: We reviewed the charts of 75 patients who underwent ICD implantation with the indication of primary prevention and history of syncope and compared them to a control group of 80 patients without prior syncope. We assessed the number of ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF), shock, anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP), and death in each group during the follow-up.

Results: Mean follow-up was 893 days (810–976, 95% confidence interval) (no difference between groups). Patients with prior syncope had a higher ejection fraction (EF) (35.5 ± 12.6 vs. 31.4 ± 8.76, P = 0.02), more episodes of VT (21.3% vs. 3.8%, P = 0.001) and VF (8% vs. 0%, P = 0.01) and also received more electric shocks (18.7% vs. 3.8%, P = 0.004) and ATP (17.3% vs. 6.2%, P = 0.031). There were no differences in inappropriate shocks (6.7% vs. 5%, P = 0.74), in cardiovascular mortality (cumulative 5 year estimate 29.9% vs. 32.2% P = 0.97) and any death (cumulative 5 year estimate 38.1% vs. 48.9% P = 0.18) during the follow-up.

Conclusions: Syncopal patients before ICD implantation seem to have more episodes of VT/VF and shock or ATP. No mortality differences were observed

 

June 2016
Gustavo Goldenberg MD, Tamir Bental MD, Udi Kadmon MD, Ronit Zabarsky MD, Jairo Kusnick MD, Alon Barsheshet MD, Gregory Golovchiner MD and Boris Strasberg MD

Background: Syncope is a common clinical condition spanning from benign to life-threatening diseases. There is sparse information on the outcomes of syncopal patients who received an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD). 

Objectives: To assess the outcomes and prognosis of patients who underwent implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) implantation for primary prevention of SCD and compare them to patients who presented with or without prior syncope.

Methods: We compared the medical records of 75 patients who underwent ICD implantation for primary prevention of SCD and history of syncope to those of a similar group of 80 patients without prior syncope. We assessed the episodes of ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF), shock, anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP) and mortality in each group during follow-up.

Results: Mean follow-up was 893 days (810–976, 95%CI) (no difference between groups). There was no significant difference in gender or age. Patients with prior syncope had a higher ejection fraction rate (35.5 ± 12.6 vs. 31.4 ± 8.76, P = 0.02), experienced more episodes of VT (21.3% vs. 3.8%, P = 0.001) and VF (8% vs. 0%, P = 0.01), and received more electric shocks (18.7% vs. 3.8%, P = 0.004) and ATP (17.3% vs. 6.2%, P = 0.031). There were no differences in inappropriate shocks (6.7% vs. 5%, P = 0.74), cardiovascular mortality (cumulative 5 year estimate 29.9% vs. 32.2%, P = 0.97) and any death (cumulative 5 year estimate 38.1% vs. 48.9%, P = 0.18).

Conclusions: Patients presenting with syncope before ICD implantation seemed to have more episodes of VT/VF and shock or ATP. No differences in mortality were observed

 

August 2014
June 2012
P. Codner, R. Nevzorov, J. Kusniec, M. Haim, R. Zabarski and B. Strasberg

Background: Defibrillation threshold (DFT) testing at the time of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) insertion is performed routinely. Recently this practice is being reconsidered due to doubts about its ability to improve ICD efficacy and evidence that survival may not be affected by the test.

Objectives: To compare the outcome of ICD recipients who underwent DFT testing and those in whom no testing was performed.

Methods: A total of 213 eligible patients were implanted with an ICD between 2004 and 2009. DFT testing was performed in 80. We compared total mortality, appropriate and inappropriate ICD shocks, and anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP) events between DFT and non-DFT patients during a follow-up of 2 years.

Results: On comparing the DFT and non-DFT groups, we found a 2 year mortality rate of 7.5% versus 8.3%, respectively (P = 0.8). Furthermore, 20.7% of patients in the DFT group and 12.4% in the non-DFT group had at least one episode of ICD shock (P = 0.15). With regard to ICD treatment (ICD shocks or ATP events), 57.7% in the DFT group and 64.2% in the non-DFT group received appropriate treatments (P = 0.78).

Conclusions: No significant differences in the incidence of 2 year mortality or percentage of ICD treatment emerged between the DFT and non-DFT groups.
 

June 2008
R. Rosso, A. Click, M. Glikson, M. Swissa, S. Rosenhek, I. Shetboun, V. Khalamizer, M. Boulos, M. Geist, B. Strasberg, M. Ilan and B. Belhassen

background: many electrophysiologists recommend implantable cardioverter defibrillators for patients with Brugada syndrome who are cardiac arrest survivors or presumed at high risk of sudden death (patients with syncope or a familial history of sudden death or those with inducible ventricular fibrillation at electrophysiologic study).

objectives: To assess the efficacy and complications of ICD therapy in patients with Brugada syndrome.

Methods: The indications, efficacy and complications of ICD therapy in all patient with Brugada syndrome who underwent ICD implantation in 12 Israeli centers between 1994 and 2007 were analyzed.

Results: there were 59 patients (53 males, 89.8%) with a mean age of 44.1 years. At diagnosis 42 patients (71.2%) were symptomatic while 17 (28.8%) were asymptomatic. The indications for ICD implantation were: a history of cardiac arrest (n=11, 18.6%), syncope (n=31, 52.5%), inducible VF in symptomatic patients (n=14, 23.7%), and a family history of sudden death (n=3, 0.5%). The overall inducibility rates of VF were 89.2% and 93.3% among the symptomatic and a symptomatic patients, respectively (P=NS). During a follow-up of 4-160 (45+-35) months, all patients (except one who died from cancer) are alive. Five patients (8.4%), all with a history of cardiac arrest, had appropriate ICD discharge. Conversely, none of the patients without prior cardiac arrest had appropriate device therapy during 39+-30 month follow-up. Complications were encountered in 19 patients (32%). Inappropriate shocks occurred in 16 (27.1%) due to lead failure/dislodgment (n=5), T wave oversensing (n=2), device failure (n=1), sinus tachycardia (n=4), and supraventricular tachycardia (n=4). One patient suffered a pneumothorax and another a brachial plexus injury during the implant procedure. One patient suffered a late (2 months) perforation of the right ventricle by the implanted lead. Eleven patients (18.6%) required a reintervention either for infection (n=1) or lead problems (n=10). Eight patients (13.5%) required psychiatric assistance due to complications related to the ICD (mostly inappropriate shocks in 7 patients).

Conclusions: In this Israeli population with Brugada syndrome treated with ICD, appropriate device therapy was limited to cardiac arrest survivors while none of the other patients including those with syncope and/or inducible VF suffered an arrhythmic event. The overall complication rate was high.
 

September 2005
E. Kaluski, N. Uriel, O. Milo and G. Cotter
 Although 40 years have passed since the advent of advanced cardiac life support, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest still carries an ultimate failure rate of 95%. This review reinforces the importance of public education, optimization of the local chain of survival, early bystander access and bystander basic life support, and early defibrillation. It emphasizes the role of simplified basic life support algorithms and demonstrates the low incremental benefit of complex skillful protocols employed in ACLS[1]. The impact of automatic external defibrillators and new medications incorporated into ACLS algorithms is evaluated in the light of contemporary research. The persistent, discouraging, low functional survival rate (less than 5% of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims) mandates reassessment of current strategies and guidelines.

_________________

[1] ACLS = advanced cardiac life support

 
January 2000
Amos Katz MD, Adi Biron MD, Eli Ovsyshcher MD and Avi Porath MD MPH

Background: Previous studies have documented an increased incidence of cardiac mortality and sudden death during winter months.

Objectives: To evaluate seasonal variation in sudden death in a hot climate such as the desert region of southern Israel.

Methods: We analyzed the files of 243 consecutive patients treated for out-of-hospital sudden death by the Beer Sheva Mobile Intensive Care Unit during 1989-90. Daily, monthly and seasonal incidence of sudden death was correlated with meteorological data, including temperature, heat stress, relative humidity and barometric pressure.

Results: The seasonal distribution of sudden death was 23% in spring, 21% in summer, 25% in autumn and 31% in winter (not significant). In patients with known heart disease there were more episodes of sudden death in cold weather (<15.4°C) than hot (>34.2°C) (16 vs. 3, P<0.05). Resuscitation was less successful in cold compared with hot weather (28 vs. 11, P<0.05). Of patients older than 65 years, 11 sustained sudden death when heat stress was below 12.4°C compared to 2 patients when heat stress was above 27.5°C (P=0.05).

Conclusion: Despite the warm desert climate, there were more cases of sudden death in older patients and in those with known heart disease during the winter season and on particularly cold days.
 

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