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עמוד בית
Tue, 23.07.24

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October 2001
Sergey Lyass, MD, Tamar Sela, MD, Pinchas D. Lebensart, MD and Michael Muggia-Sullam

Background: The exact value of follow-up ultrasonogra­phy and computed tomography in the non-operative manage­ment of blunt splenic injuries is not yet defined. Although follow-up studies have been recommended to detect possible complications of the initial injury, evidence shows that routine follow-up CT scans usually do not affect management of these patients.

Objective: To determine whether follow-up imaging influences the management of patients with blunt splenic injury.

Methods: Between 1995 and 1999, 155 trauma patients were admitted with splenic trauma to a major trauma center. Excluded from the study were trauma patients with penetrating injuries, children, and those who underwent immediate laparotomy due to hemodynamic instability or associated injuries. The remaining trauma patients were managed conservatively. Splenic injury was suspected by focused abdominal sonography for trauma, upon admission, and confirmed by CT scan. The severity of splenic injury was graded from I to V. The clinical outcome was obtained from medical records.

Results: We identified 32 adult patients (27 males and 5 females) with blunt splenic injuries who were managed non-operatively. In two patients it was not successful, and splenectomy was performed because of hemodynamic dete­rioration. The remaining 30 stable patients were divided into two groups: those who had only the initial ultrasound and CT scan with no follow-up studies (n= 8), and those who under­went repeat follow-up ultrasound or CT scan studies (n = 22). The severity of injury was similar in both groups. In the second group follow-up studies showed normal spleens in 2 patients, improvement in 11, no change in 8, and deterioration in one. All patients in both groups were managed successfully with good clinical outcome.

Conclusion: In the present series the follow-up radiologi­cal studies did not affect patient management. Follow-up imaging can be omitted in clinically stable patients with blunt splenic trauma grade I-III.
 

September 2001
by Allan I. Bloom, MD, Talia Sasson, MD, Anthony Verstandig, MD, Yehuda G. Wolf, MD, Haim Anner, MD, Yakov Berlatzky, MD, Inna Akopnick, MD, Chaim Lotan, MD, Richard Lederman, MD and Pinchas D. Lebensart, MD
August 2001
Alexander Blanjstein, MD, Ilan Cohen, MD, Lidia Diamant, Michael Heim, Israel Dudkiewicz, MD, Amnon Israeli, MD, Avraham Ganel, MD and Aharon Chechick, MD

Background: When encountering complaints of pain in the area of the Achilles tendon, the clinician seldom reaches a correct and precise diagnosis based solely on the grounds of physical examination and standard X-rays.

Objectives: To assess the usefulness of ultrasound in diagnosing pathologies of the Achilles tendon.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of patients presenting at our orthopedic clinics.

Results: Sonography was used to evaluate 41 patients with achillodynia. This modality enabled the diagnoses of 19 abnormal tendons (46%), peritendinous and other lesions a complete rupture in two patients (5%) a partial rupture of the Achilles tendon in 3 (7%) various degrees of calcification of the tendon in 7 (17%) and peritendinous lesions discerned by the tendon’s hypoechoic regions with disorganized arrange­ment of collagen fibrils in 4 patients (10%). Other lesions included tendonitis (3 patients, 7%), retrocalcaneal bursitis (3 patients, 7%), lipoma (1 patient, 2%), and foreign bodies (2 patients, 5%). The mean diameter of the pathological tendons was 10.4 +2.7 mm, while normal tendons measured 5.2 +0.8 mm (P<0.001).

Conclusion: As in many other soft tissue lesions, ultrasonography is a useful tool in the evaluation of the underlying pathology in patients presenting with achillodynia.

June 2001
Alex Kessler, MD, Ephraim Eviatar, MD, Judith Lapinsky, MD, Tifha Horne, MD, Nathan Shlamkovitch, MD and Shmuel Segal, MD
Alexander Blankstein, MD, Ilan Cohen, MD, Zehava Heiman, MD, Moshe Salai, MD, Lydia Diamant, RT, Michael Heim, MD and Aharon Chechick, MD

Background: Foreign bodies are sometimes overlooked in the initial evaluation of soft tissue wounds in the emergency room setting. The physical examination identifies foreign bodies that are superficial enough to be seen or palpated, while radiographs reveal those that are radio-opaque. If these two criteria are not met, however, the foreign body may remain undetected. These patients present later with long-standing pain in the area of penetration sometimes associated with localized tenderness.

Objectives: To assess the role of ultrasonography in the diagnosis and management of patients with a suspected retained foreign body.

Methods: Ultrasound was used in 21 patients with suspected retained foreign bodies and the diagnosis was positive in 19. Fifteen underwent a surgical exploration in which the ultrasound was used as an adjunctive modality either pre- or intraoperatively to assist in the localization of the foreign body.

Results: All procedures were successful. No postoperative complications were recorded at an average follow-up of 2 years. Three patients gradually became asymptomatic and were left untreated. One patient was lost to follow-up.

Conclusion: Sonography is an extremely effective tool for the late diagnosis of retained foreign bodies in the soft tissues. We suggest that its availability in the emergency room may decrease the rate of misdiagnosis and avoid these unfortunate cases, although this remains tc be proven.
 

March 2001
Tamy Shohat, MD, MPH, Orly Ramono-Zelekha and the Israel Network for Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

Background: Charts of fetal measurements are widely used in the follow-up of pregnant women, however no charts have been constructed for the Israeli population.

Objectives: To establish growth charts for fetal femur size and biparietal diameter.

Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study of 1,422 singleton pregnancies was conducted.

Results: A total of 1,143 pregnancies met the inclusion criteria. Femur length and biparietal diameter were measured. A linear cubic model was fitted to construct growth charts for the different centiles. The charts were compared with previously published data.

Conclusions: We have constructed new fetal measure­ment charts for femur length and biparietal diameter that are unique for the Israeli population. These charts have been found to be similar to those published for other Caucasian populations.
 

Imad R. Makhoul, MD DSc, Osnat Zmora, MD, Ada Tamir, DSc, Eli Shahar, MD and Polo Sujov, MD

Background: Congenital subependymal pseudocysts are incidental findings that are found in 05-5.2% of neonates during postmortem examination or head ultrasonography. In our institution we detected 10 neonates with CSEPC.

Objective: To investigate associated etiological factors, morphologic characteristics and outcome of CSEPC.

Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of the literature on CSEPC (1967-98), including our 10 cases.

Results: A total of 256 cases of CSEPC were analyzed. Ultrasound diagnosed 77.6% of CSEPC 48.8% were bilateral and 53.4% were located in the caudothalamic groove or head of caudate nucleus. Altogether, 93.5% resolved during 1-12 months of ultrasonographic follow-up. Compared to the general neonatal population, the following features were more prevalent in the CSEPC population: prematurity, maternal vaginal bleeding, preeclamptic toxemia, intrauterine growth restriction, asphyxia, fetal cytomegalovirus and rubella infec­tions, congenital malformations, chromosomal aberrations, infant mortality, and neurodevelopmental handicap. The risk for neurodevelopmental handicap was significantly higher when CSEPC were associated with fetal infections, IUGR, malformations and chromosomal aberrations, or persistence of CSEPC during follow-up. CSEPC infants without any of these four conditions had a low risk for neurodevelopmental handi­cap.

Conclusions: CSEPC are morphologic features of various underlying conditions encountered in the fetus. Association of CSEPC with IUGR, fetal infections, malformations and chromosomal aberrations or persistence of CSEPC indicates a higher risk for future neurodevelopmental handicaps, probably because of the deleterious effects on the fetal brain that are inherent in these conditions. A favorable outcome is expected in the absence of these risk factors.
 

June 2000
Ehud Melzer MD and Herma Fidder MD

Background: Differentiating between benign and malignant submucosal tumors is difficult. Moreover, the natural course of benign-appearing SMTs is not clearly elucidated.

Objectives: To evaluate the natural course of upper gastrointestinal SMTs by endoscopic endosonography.

Methods: We followed 25 consecutive patients with small (<40 mm) SMTs for a mean period of 19 months. Evaluation included maximal tumor diameter, internal echo pattern, and outer margin of lesions.

Results: Follow-up revealed no change in echo features in 24 of 25 patients (96%). In only one patient a homogenous hypoechoic smooth margin lesion converted to a non-homogenous tumor with an irregular outer margin. This lesion also increased in size from 30 to 38 mm. On surgical removal this tumor was found to be a stromal tumor with high malignant potential.

Conclusions: Most small SMTs do not change during a period of 19 months and a conservative policy of surveillance is warranted.

_____________________________________

 

SMTs= submucosal tumors

January 2000
Shlomo Walfisch, MD, Lilinda Lupu, MD and David Czieger, MD, PhD, MD
Dvora Aharoni, MD, Irith Hadas-Halpern, MD, Deborah Elstein, PhD and Ari Zimran, MD
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