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עמוד בית
Sun, 21.04.24

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February 2023
Nizar Horrany MD, Wadie Abu Dahoud MD, Yara Moallem MD, Taleb Hajouj MD, Merna Zreik MD, Arnon Blum MD

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke. Metformin is an old, relatively safe, first line therapy for T2DM; however, it has been associated with stroke.

Objectives: To study the effects of metformin use and vitamin B12 deficiency on stroke rate among patients with T2DM.

Methods: We conducted a prospective study of patients admitted with ischemic stroke within 12 months (starting March 2020). We studied the clinical impact of metformin on vitamin B12 deficiency and stroke evolution. Student's t-test and ANOVA were used to compare the groups of patients and to determine whether there was any direct or indirect effect of metformin use on vitamin B12 deficiency and stroke.

Results: In total, 80 patients were admitted with ischemic stroke. Clinical status and biochemical data were collected and compared with healthy volunteers. There were 39 diabetic patients, 16 took metformin for at least 1 year. Among those who took metformin for at least 1 year, 9 had vitamin B12 level < 240 pg/ml (56.2%); 23 diabetic patients did not get metformin and only 4 had vitamin B12 level < 240 pg/ml (17.4%) (P = 0.014).

Conclusions: T2DM is a significant risk factor to the development of ischemic stroke. We found an association between metformin use and vitamin B12 deficiency and an association between vitamin B12 deficiency and stroke risk in patients with T2DM. Diabetic patients who are taking metformin should monitor their vitamin B12 level.

Dante Antonelli MD, Youri Rabkin MD, Yoav Turgeman MD, Mohamed Jabaren MD

Background: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP1-RA) are new antidiabetic drugs that are recommended by current guidelines as a class I novel glucose-lowering treatment that improves cardiovascular outcome in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), particularly in patients with cardiovascular disease.

Objectives: To evaluate adherence to the current guidelines for treatment with SGLT2i and GLP1-RA drugs in patients referred to ambulatory consultant cardiology clinics with pre-existing T2DM.

Methods: We studied consecutive new patients with a pre-existing diagnosis of T2DM who were referred to the Clalit Health Services ambulatory consultant cardiology clinic over a 6-month period. The recorded information included demographics, co-morbidities, and prescribed drugs at patient admission.

Results: During the study period, 1782 patients visited our outpatient cardiology clinic. At screening, T2DM was present in 428 patients (24%); 77 (18%) were being treated with SGLT2i, and 39 (9.1%) with GLP1-RA. Patients receiving SGLT2i and GLP1-RA were younger and had more coronary artery disease, lower mean left ventricular ejection fraction, and higher mean estimated glomerular filtration rates than those who were not receiving these drugs. HbA1C was > 7 in 205 (47.9%) patients and > 7.5 in 136 patients (31.8%). Body mass index was > 30 kg/m2 in 231 (54%) patients.

Conclusions: GLP1-RA and SGLT2i drugs were found to be administered more frequently than previously reported, but they are not yet satisfactorily prescribed.

April 2021
Adnan Zaina MD, Walid Tarabeih MD, Ali Abid MD, and Sameer Kassem MD

This year Ramadan occurs during the global coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Data has shown that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are prone to severe disease with COVID-19 and with increased mortality. Acute complications such as dehydration, starvation ketosis, ketoacidosis, and the increased risk of coagulopathy and thrombosis should be considered particularly during this pandemic period. Fasting during Ramadan this year and the COVID-19 pandemic is more challenging, not only for patients with T2DM but also for healthcare providers. We present healthcare providers with important aspects to consider during the COVID-19 pandemic for patients with T2DM who intend to fast during Ramadan and other fasting days

Bethlehem Mengesha MD, Daniela Levi MD, Moran Kroonenberg MD, Ronit Koren MD, Ahuva Golik MD, and Shlomit Koren MD

Background: Hypomagnesemia (serum magnesium level < 1.7 mg/dl) occurs more frequently in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Serum magnesium levels are not routinely tested in hospitalized patients, including in hospitalized patients with T2DM.

Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of hypomagnesemia among hospitalized T2DM patients treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and/or diuretics.

Methods: A total of 263 T2DM patients hospitalized in general departments were included in the study and were further divided into four groups: group 1 (patients not treated with PPIs or diuretics), group 2 (patients treated with PPIs), group 3 (patients treated with diuretics), and group 4 (patients treated with both PPIs and diuretics).  Blood and urine samples were taken during the first 24 hours of admission. Electrocardiogram was performed on admission.

Results: Of the 263 T2DM patients, 58 (22.1%) had hypomagnesemia (serum magnesium level < 1.7 mg/dl). Patients in group 2 had the lowest mean serum magnesium level (1.79 mg/dl ± 0.27). Relatively more patients with hypomagnesemia were found in group 2 compared to the other groups, although a statistically significant difference was not observed. Significantly more patients in group 3 and 4 had chronic renal failure. Patients with hypomagnesemia had significantly lower serum calcium levels.

Conclusions: Hospitalized T2DM patients under PPI therapy are at risk for hypomagnesemia and hypocalcemia

February 2021
Nagham Gudban MSc, Itamar Yehuda PhD, William Nasir MD, Soboh Soboh MD, Snait Tamir PhD, and Arnon Blum MD

Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have a high rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The Mediterranean diet is preferred for CVD prevention. Endothelial dysfunction is demonstrated early in T2DM.

Objectives: To study the effects of dietary intervention of T2DM patients without known CVD on endothelial function and vascular inflammation.

Methods: A prospective study enrolled 22 patients with T2DM. Patients were divided randomly into two groups: an intervention group with 12 patients (55 ± 7 years old, 6 women) and a control group with 10 patients (59 ± 10 years old, 5 women). Clinical evaluation included body mass index (BMI) and endothelial function measured by the flow mediated percent change (FMD%). Fasting blood was drawn on entry to the study and 3 months later, measuring C-reactive protein (CRP), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), total cholesterol, triglycerides, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C%). The intervention was based on weekly telephone calls by a clinical dietitian for 3 months.

Results: In the intervention group CRP and ICAM-1 were reduced (from 4.2 ± 3.3 mg/dl to 0.4 ± 0.5 mg/dl, P = 0.01 and from 258.6 ± 98.3 ng/ml to 171.6 ± 47.7 ng/ml, P = 0.004). Endothelial function (FMD%) was improved (from 0.5 ± 8.0% to 9.5 ± 11.5%, P = 0.014). No change was observed in BMI, HbA1C%, total cholesterol, and triglycerides levels in either group.

Conclusions: Patients with T2DM on the Mediterranean diet who received a weekly telephone call for 3 months improved their endothelial function with reduction of markers of inflammation.

November 2018
Shlomit Koren MD, Michael Yoshpa MD, Ronit Koren MD, Dror Cantrell MD and Micha J. Rapoport MD

Background: Basal-bolus (BB) insulin treatment is increasingly used in poorly controlled diabetes patients during hospitalization and is commonly recommended at discharge; however, the extent of adherence with this recommendation is unknown.

Objectives: To determine short-term adherence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients discharged from internal medicine wards with recommendation for BB insulin treatment.

Methods: Prescription (primary physician adherence) and purchase (patient adherence) of long-acting and short-acting insulins during the first month following discharge from internal medicine wards was determined in 153 T2DM patients. Adherence was defined as full if prescription/purchase of both basal (long-acting) and bolus (short-acting) insulin was completed, and as partial if only one kind of insulin (basal or bolus) was prescribed/purchased. Association between demographic and clinical parameters and adherence was determined.

Results: Full adherence with discharge instructions was higher for primary physicians than for patients )79.1% vs. 69.3%, respectively, P = 0.0182). Pre-hospitalization hemoglobin A1C was significantly associated with adherence by both patients and primary physicians (full-adherence group 9.04% ± 2.04%; no-adherence group 7.51% ± 1.35%, P = 0.002). Age was negatively associated with adherence of both primary physicians and patients; however, this association did not reach statistical significance. Patients with certain background diseases such as atrial fibrillation, coronary heart disease, and chronic heart failure had significantly worse adherence (P < 0.05). When the sole cause of admission was diabetes, full adherence (100%) of both primary physicians and patients was found.

Conclusions: Short-term adherence with discharge recommendation for BB insulin treatment is associated with pre-hospitalization patient characteristics.

August 2018
Amichai Perlman MD, Samuel N Heyman MD, Joshua Stokar MD, David Darmon MD, Mordechai Muszkat MD and Auryan Szalat MD

Background: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) (such as canagliflozin, empagliflozin, and dapagliflozin) are widely used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to improve glycemic, cardiovascular and renal outcomes. However, based on post-marketing data, a warning label was added regarding possible occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI).

Objectives: To describe the clinical presentation of T2DM patients treated with SGLT2i who were evaluated for AKI at our institution and to discuss the potential pathophysiologic mechanisms.

Methods: A retrospective study of a computerized database was conducted of patients with T2DM who were hospitalized or evaluated for AKI while receiving SGLT2i, including descriptions of clinical and laboratory characteristics, at our institution.

Results: We identified seven patients in whom AKI occurred 7–365 days after initiation of SGLT2i. In all cases, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers had also been prescribed. In five patients, another concomitant nephrotoxic agent (injection of contrast-product, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or cox-2 inhibitors) or occurrence of an acute medical event potentially associated with AKI (diarrhea, sepsis) was identified. In two patients, only the initiation of SGLT2i was evident. The mechanisms by which AKI occurs under SGLT2i are discussed with regard to the associated potential triggers: altered trans-glomerular filtration or, alternatively, kidney medullary hypoxia.

Conclusions: SGLT2i are usually safe and provide multiple benefits for patients with T2DM. However, during particular medical circumstances, and in association with usual co-medications, particularly if baseline glomerular filtration rate is decreased, patients treated with SGLT2i may be at risk of AKI, thus warranting caution when prescribed.

July 2015
Andreas E. Buchs MD, Michal Braverman MD and Micha J. Rapoport MD

Background: Admission glucose levels correlate with clinical outcome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) hospitalized in general medicine wards. 

Objective: To investigate whether in-hospital hyperglycemia alone and after adjustment for age, gender and lipidemia correlates with in- and out-of-hospital mortality.

Methods: Capillary glucose, serum lipids and diagnoses at discharge among patients with T2DM hospitalized in the general medical wards of our hospital were documented. Correlation with in- and out-of-hospital mortality was determined through uni- and multivariate analyses. 

Results: Of the 4607 patients included in the study 22% died while hospitalized. From a median of five capillary glucose tests obtained per patient, average capillary glucose level was significantly lower in those who survived than in those who died (174 ± 64 vs. 180 ± 65 mg/dl, P = 0.005). Overall, blood cholesterol was higher in those who survived than in those who died (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis, however, including age, gender, lipidemia and glycemia, showed that only age and male gender correlated with mortality.

Conclusions: Hyperglycemia was associated with increased in- and out-of-hospital mortality on univariate analysis. However, it was not an independent risk factor when corrected for age, gender and hyperlipidemia. 


July 2013
N.M. Idilbi, M. Barchana, U. Milman and R.S. Carel
 Background: A worldwide epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is in progress. This disease carries a heavy socioeconomic burden.

Objectives: To compare the incidence rate of overall and site-specific cancers among Israeli Arabs with T2DM to that of Israeli Arabs without.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of all adult Arab members of Clalit Healthcare Services in northern Israel was conducted over a 10 year period (1999–2008).

Results: During the study period 752 and 2045 incident cases of cancer were diagnosed among 13,450 adults with diabetes and 74,484 without, respectively. The follow-up time involved 817,506 person-years. Diabetes was associated with a standard incidence ratio (SIR) of 3.27 (95%CI 1.49–5.05) and 2.87 (95%CI 1.25–4.50) for pancreatic cancer in men and women, respectively. A significantly reduced SIR (0.67, 95%CI 0.36–0.99) was observed for esophageal, stomach and intestinal cancers in men.

Conclusions: Our findings support an association between T2DM and increased risk of cancer of the pancreas in Arab men and women. A significantly reduced risk of all other cancers was observed only in Arab men. Our findings underscore the need for effective diabetes and cancer prevention and intervention programs. 

April 2009
S. Policker, W. Haddad and I. Yaniv

Background: The TANTALUS System (MetaCure Ltd.) is a minimally invasive implantable device for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The system detects food intake by sensing gastric electrical variations and applies electrical stimulation to the gut synchronized to natural gastric activity. The system is commercially available in Europe and Israel and is in clinical trials in the United States. It has been tested in 132 patients worldwide to date.

Objectives: To re-analyze previously reported data from different studies. This retrospective analysis of the type 2 diabetes subpopulation analyzed the expected benefit and characterize the significance of baseline A1c in the determination of the expected clinical outcome.

Methods: From the total cohort of 132 patients implanted with the TANTALUS device in 10 different centers in Europe and the U.S., 50 subjects (27 females, 23 males) who were obese with uncontrolled T2DM[1] on a stable regime of oral medication for 3 months prior to implant were identified. This population had similar inclusion/exclusion criteria as well as treatment protocols and were all treated for at least 24 weeks. The analysis was based on the A1c change compared to baseline.

Results: Data after 24 weeks demonstrate a reduction in A1c in 80% of the patients with average drop in A1c of 1.1 ± 0.1%. The average weight loss was 5.5 ± 0.7 kg.

Conclusions: The results suggest that the TANTALUS stimulation regime can improve glucose levels and induce moderate weight loss in obese T2DM patients.

[1] T2DM = type 2 diabetes mellitus

August 2007
R. Dankner, A. Chetrit and P. Segal

Background: Type 2 diabetes, an extreme state of glucose intolerance, has been found to be associated with cancer mortality; less is known about impaired glucose tolerance and cancer incidence.

Objectives: To examine the association between fasting and post-load plasma glucose and insulin, and the 20 year incidence of cancer.

Methods: We followed a sample of the Jewish Israeli population (n=2780), free of cancer at baseline,

from 1977-1980 to 1999 for cancer incidence and mortality. Baseline fasting and 1 and 2 hour post-load plasma glucose levels were recorded, as was insulin in 1797 of them.

Results: During 20 years, 329 individuals (11.8%) developed cancer. Cancer incidence for all sites differed between men and women (13.0% and 10.7%, P = 0.03), and among different glucose tolerance status groups (P = 0.01). Cancer incidence hazard ratio, by glucose status adjusted for gender, age, ethnicity, smoking and body mass index, was 1.24 (95%CI 0.96–1.62, P = 0.10) for impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance, and 1.32 (95%CI 0.96–1.81, P = 0.09) for type 2 diabetes mellitus, compared to those who were normoglycemic at baseline. Fasting insulin and cancer incidence were not associated.

Conclusions: An increased long-term cancer risk for individuals with impaired fasting glucose or glucose tolerance, or diabetes, is suggested. Even this modest association could have substantial public health consequences.

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