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עמוד בית
Sat, 25.05.24

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February 2023
Yarden Tenenbaum Weiss MD, Michael Friger PhD, Alon Haim MD, Eli Hershkovitz MD

Background: Pediatric patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are commonly treated with daily multiple insulin injections or an insulin pump. They tend to have higher body mass index-standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS) than non-diabetic children.

Objectives: To identify patterns in the changes in BMI in the 3 years after T1DM diagnosis, and to discover factors that relate to excessive weight gain.

Methods: This retrospective study included clinical and laboratory data for 194 boys and girls aged 2–18 years at the time of diagnosis and at 1, 2, and 3 years after. Their BMI values were compared to non-diabetic children using BMI percentile and z-score (standard deviation) based on the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts.

Results: Both males and females had low mean BMI-SDS at diagnosis (-0.4499 ± 1.38743 male, 0.3050 ± 1.29887 female) that increased after 1 year (-0.0449 ± 1.14772 male, 0.1451 ± 0.98893 female). Lower glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at 1 year correlated with higher BMI-SDS (r = -0.215, P = 0.011). No such correlation was found in the following 2 years. The daily dose of basal insulin correlated with higher BMI-SDS at 1 year (r = 0.183, P = 0.026) and 3 years (r = 0.297, P < 0.01). No association was found between the use of an insulin pump or continuous glucose monitoring and higher BMI-SDS.

Conclusions: BMI-SDS of children with T1DM was lower than average at the time of diagnosis and rose higher than average in the 3 years following. Higher BMI-SDS was not significantly associated with sex or ethnicity. The most prominent increase happened in the first year.

March 2020
Rakefet Yoeli-Ullman MD, Nimrod Dori-Dayan MD, Shali Mazaki-Tovi MD, Roni Zemet MD, Neomi Kedar, Ohad Cohen MD and Tali Cukierman-Yaffe MD

Background: Pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) carries a significantly elevated risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. There is evidence that certain interventions reduce the risk for adverse outcomes. Studies have shown that a multi-disciplinary approach improves pregnancy outcomes in women with PGDM.

Objectives: To determine pregnancy outcomes in women with PGDM using a multi-disciplinary approach.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed consecutive women with pregestational type 1 and type 2 diabetes who were monitored at a high-risk pregnancy clinic at the Sheba Medical Center. Clinical data were obtained from the medical records. All data related to maternal glucose control and insulin pump function were prospectively recorded on Medtronic CareLink® pro software (Medtronic MiniMed, Northridge, CA).

Results: This study comprised 121 neonates from 116 pregnancies of 94 women. In 83% of the pregnancies continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors were applied during a part or all of the pregnancy. Pregnancy outcomes among women who were followed by a multi-disciplinary team before and during pregnancy, and during labor and puerperium resulted in better glucose control (hemoglobin A1c 6.4% vs. 7.8%), lower risk for pregnancy induced hypertension/preeclampsia (7.7% vs. 15.6%), lower birth weight (3212 g vs. 3684 g), and lower rate of large size for gestational age and macrosomia (23.1% vs. 54.2% and 3.3% vs. 28.4%, respectively), compared to data from European cohorts.

Conclusions: The multi-disciplinary approach for treating women with PGDM practiced in the high-risk pregnancy clinic at the Sheba Medical Center resulted in lower rates of macrosomia, LGA, and pregnancy induced hypertension compared to rates reported in the literature.

February 2018
Ori Eyal MD, Asaf Oren MD, Dganit Almasi-Wolker MD, Yardena Tenenbaum-Rakover MD, Marianna Rachmiel MD and Naomi Weintrob MD

Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) as the first presentation of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a serious complication that is preventable.

Objectives: To identify risk factors for DKA at presentation of T1DM to delineate high-risk Israeli populations that could benefit from preventative measures.

Methods: Data for this multicenter retrospective study were collected from the medical files of three pediatric diabetes centers representing three districts in Israel. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of T1DM, age at diagnosis ≤ 17 years, permanent residency in Israel, and documentation of the presence or absence of DKA at presentation.

Results: The study population included 607 patients of whom 438 met the inclusion criteria. The mean age at diagnosis was 9.1 ± 4.5 years. DKA was present at diagnosis in 156/438 patients (35.6%). The incidence of DKA was different among the three diabetes centers (P = 0.04). The DKA group was significantly younger than the non-DKA group (8.4 ± 4.5 vs. 9.5 ± 4.4, respectively, P = 0.008). DKA was significantly associated with maternal origin (Ashkenazi Jewish origin [lower] vs. non-Ashkenazi, P = 0.04) and with paternal education level (academic [lower] vs. non-academic education, P = 0.04). Stepwise logistic regression showed that maternal Ashkenazi Jewish origin has a protective effect on DKA (odds ratio [OR] 0.4, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.21–0.74, P = 0.004) and that younger age is an independent risk factor (OR 1.06, 95%CI 1.01–1.1, P = 0.02).

Conclusions: A diabetes educational program targeting high-risk population groups may reduce the prevalence of DKA nationwide.

July 2016
Avivit Brener MD, Eran Mel MD, Shlomit Shalitin MD, Liora Lazar MD, Liat de Vries MD, Ariel Tenenbaum MD, Tal Oron MD, Alon Farfel MD, Moshe Phillip MD and Yael Lebenthal MD

Background: Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are exempt from conscript military service, but some volunteer for national service. 

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of national service (military or civil) on metabolic control and incidence of acute diabetes complications in young adults with T1D. 

Methods: Clinical and laboratory data of 145 T1D patients were retrieved from medical records. The cohort comprised 76 patients volunteering for national service and 69 non-volunteers. Outcome measures were HbA1c, body mass index-standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS), insulin dosage, and occurrence of severe hypoglycemia or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). 

Results: Metabolic control was similar in volunteers and non-volunteers: mean HbA1c at various time points was: 7.83 ± 1.52% vs. 8.07% ± 1.63 one year before enlistment age, 7.89 ± 1.36% vs. 7.93 ± 1.42% at enlistment age, 7.81 ± 1.28% vs. 8.00 ± 1.22% one year thereafter, 7.68 ± 0.88% vs. 7.82 ± 1.33% two years thereafter, and 7.62 ± 0.80% vs. 7.79 ± 1.19% three years thereafter. There were no significant changes in HbA1c from baseline throughout follow-up. BMI and insulin requirements were similar and remained unchanged in volunteers and controls: mean BMI-SDS one year before enlistment age was 0.23 ± 0.83 vs. 0.29 ± 0.95, at enlistment age 0.19 ± 0.87 vs. 0.25 ± 0.98, one year thereafter 0.25 ± 0.82 vs. 0.20 ± 0.96, two years thereafter 0.10 ± 0.86 vs. 0.15 ± 0.94, and three years thereafter 0.20 ± 0.87 vs. 0.16 ± 0.96. Mean insulin dose in U/kg/day one year before enlistment age was 0.90 ± 0.23 vs. 0.90 ± 0.37, at enlistment age 0.90 ± 0.28 vs. 0.93 ± 0.33, one year thereafter 0.86 ± 0.24 vs. 0.95 ± 0.33, two years thereafter 0.86 ± 0.21 vs. 0.86 ± 0.29, and three years thereafter 0.87 ± 0.23 vs. 0.86 ± 0.28. There were no episodes of severe hypoglycemia or DKA in either group. 

Conclusions: Our data indicate that during voluntary national service young adults with T1D maintain metabolic control similar to that of non-volunteers. 

 

September 2013
M. Sadeh, B. Glazer, Z. Landau, J. Wainstein, T. Bezaleli, R. Dabby, A. Hanukoglu, M. Boaz and E. Leshinsky-Silver

Background: Type 1 diabetes in humans is an autoimmune disease in which T cells target pancreatic islets of Langerhans, leading to the progressive destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of autoimmune diabetes. The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of human type 1 diabetes demonstrates two missense mutations in the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor-1 (TRPV1) gene.


Objectives: To investigate whether polymorphism in the TRPV1 gene may play a role in the predisposition to human type 1 diabetes.

Methods: We genotyped 146 Ashkenazi Jewish type 1 diabetic patients and 205 Ashkenazi Jewish healthy controls for the rs222747 (M315I), rs224534 (T469I) and rs8065080 (I585V) variants of the TRPV1 gene.

Results: There was a significant increase in the rs222747 (M315I) variant of the TRPV1 gene in the type 1 diabetes cohort compared to the control: rs222747 (M315I) homozygous: (61% vs. 48.3%, P = 0.02). Logistic regression analysis revealed that type1 diabetes was significantly associated with rs222747 (M315I), such that having diabetes increased the odds of rs222747 homozygosity (M315I) by 67.2%, odds ratio 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.08–2.57, P < 0.02. No difference was found in the rs224534 (T469I) and rs8065080 (I585V) allelic variants. There was no difference in any of the TRPV1 variants by gender, age when type1 diabetes was diagnosed, body mass index, glycemic control, blood pressure, positive autoantibodies (ICA, GAD, IAA), and other autoimmune diseases.

Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that TRPV1 may be a susceptible gene for type 1 diabetes in an Ashkenazi Jewish population. These results should be replicated in the same ethnic group and in other ethnic groups.

 

 

 

 

September 2007
Y. Shachor-Meyouhas, G. Pillar and N. Shehadeh

Background: Diabetes mellitus is associated with microvascular and macrovascular diseases, potentially manifested as endothelial dysfunction. In adults with type 2 diabetes the haptoglobin genotype 1-1 has been shown to have a protective role in inhibiting the development of complications. Although complications from type 1 diabetes are infrequent during childhood, endothelial dysfunction, which is an early marker of vascular complications, may occur.

Objectives: To evaluate endothelial function in adolescents with type 1 diabetes before the development of complications and to test for potential relationships between endothelial dysfunction and haptoglobin genotype.

Methods: The study group comprised 15 adolescents with type 1 diabetes. All underwent a general physical examination, diabetes control evaluation (including HbA1c levels), endothelial function assessment and haptoglobin genotype determination.

Results: There was a significant negative correlation between HbA1c levels and endothelial function (r = -0.48, P < 0.05), and HbA1c was significantly higher in patients with endothelial dysfunction than in those with normal endothelial function (9.9 ± 2.2 vs. 7.7 ± 1.0 mg/dl, P < 0.05). In addition, there was a tendency toward a positive correlation between high density lipoprotein and endothelial function (r = 0.4, P < 0.1). There was no correlation between the haptoglobin genotype and endothelial function.

Conclusions: These results show that even in patients without complications, uncontrolled type 1 diabetes is associated with endothelial dysfunction, which may lead to microvascular complications in the future.
 

June 2005
Z. Laron, H. Lewy, I. Wilderman, A. Casu, J. Willis, M.J. Redondo, I. Libman, N. White and M. Craig
 Background: Type 1 childhood-onset diabetes mellitus has a multifactorial origin involving an interplay between genetic and environmental factors. We have previously shown that many children who subsequently develop T1DM[1] have a different seasonality of birth than the total live births of the same population, supporting the hypothesis that perinatal viral infection during the yearly epidemics are a major trigger for the autoimmune process of T1DM.

Objectives: To compare the seasonality of children with T1DM in different populations around the world for which data were available.

Methods: We analyzed large cohorts of T1DM patients with a clinical disease onset before age 14 or 18 years.

Results: We found a seasonality pattern only in ethnically homogenous populations (such as Ashkenazi Jews, Israeli Arabs, individuals in Sardinia and Canterbury, New Zealand, and Afro-Americans) but not in heterogeneous populations (such as in Sydney, Pittsburgh and Denver).

Conclusions: Our findings attempt to explain the controversial data in the literature by showing that ethnically heterogeneous populations with a mixture of patients with various genetic backgrounds and environmental exposures mask the different seasonality pattern of month of birth that many children with diabetes present when compared to the general population.


 





[1] T1DM = type 1 childhood-onset diabetes mellitus


May 2004
S. Efrat

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is caused by an autoimmune destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells, leading to insulin deficiency. Beta-cell replacement is considered the optimal treatment for type 1 diabetes, however it is severely limited by the shortage of human organ donors. An effective cell replacement strategy depends on the development of an abundant supply of beta cells and their protection from recurring immune destruction. Stem/progenitor cells, which can be expanded in tissue culture and induced to differentiate into multiple cell types, represent an attractive source for generation of cells with beta-cell properties: insulin biosynthesis, storage, and regulated secretion in response to physiologic signals. Embryonic stem cells have been shown to spontaneously differentiate into insulin-producing cells at a low frequency, and this capacity could be further enhanced by tissue culture conditions, soluble agents, and expression of dominant transcription factor genes. Progenitor cells from fetal and adult tissues, such as liver and bone marrow, have also been shown capable of differentiation towards the beta-cell phenotype in vivo, or following expression of dominant transcription factors in vitro. These approaches offer novel ways for generation of cells for transplantation into patients with type 1 diabetes.

N. Shehadeh, T. Battelino, A. Galatzer, T. Naveh, A. Hadash, L. de Vries and M. Philip

Background: The management of diabetes in preschool children poses unique difficulties for both the families and the medical team.

Objective: To test the feasibility and safety of insulin pump therapy in the 1–6 year age group in order to improve quality of life and metabolic control.

Methods: The study group comprised 15 type 1 diabetic children aged 1–6 years old (mean ± SD, 3.8 ± 1.2 years) from three diabetes centers. Insulin pump therapy was applied for 12 months. Data, including insulin dose, hemoglobin A1c, hypoglycemic events, as well as scores on the Diabetes Quality of Life Measure Questionnaire and the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire, were collected and compared with the multiple daily injections treatment prior to entry into the study.

Results: HbA1c[1] was measured at the beginning of the study and at 2, 4, 8 and 12 months later; the respective levels (mean ± SD) were 8.82 ± 0.98, 8.45 ± 1.05, 8.37 ± 0.85, 8.32 ± 0.71, 8.18 ± 0.90%. HbA1c measurements after 12 months were significantly lower than at the beginning of the study (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in insulin dose and the total number of hypoglycemic events. In both the DQOL[2] and DTSQ[3] scales there were significant differences in scores in favor of the insulin pump period (43.7 ± 8.0 versus 33.7 ± 7.9, P < 0.001; and 10.9 ± 2.3 versus 14.5 ± 2.3, P < 0.001), respectively.

Conclusions: For very young diabetic children, insulin pump therapy improves quality of life and is feasible and safe. It should be considered as an optional mode of therapy for this age group.






[1] HbA1c = hemoglobin A1c

[2] DQOL = Diabetes Quality of Life Measure

[3] DTSQ = Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire


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