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עמוד בית
Tue, 23.04.24

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August 2023
Roy Bitan MD, Ophir Freund MD, David Zeltser MD, Sivan Ebril MD

Acute or chronic aortic dissection is considered a rare emergency, with an estimated rate of 2.9 to 5 cases per 100,000 patients each year. This condition is most prevalent in males older than 65 years of age with a history of hypertension, atherosclerosis, and previous cardiac surgery [1,2]. To confirm the diagnosis, imaging is used, often by computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the chest. Although prompt treatment is required, patients often present with non-specific symptoms, such as abdominal pain or neurologic deficits, resulting in the early diagnosis of less than 20% and a high mortality rate [1].

September 2019
Erez Marcusohn MD, Danny Epstein MD, Anees Musallam MD, Zohar Keidar MD PHD and Ariel Roguin MD PHD

Background: With the recent introduction of high-sensitivity troponin (hsTn), the incremental benefit of stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in the evaluation of patients who present to the emergency department (ED) with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is unclear.

Objectives: To assess the added value of stress MPI in low-risk ACS patients with normal range hsTnI.

Methods: We analyzed all patients who were hospitalized at our medical center from February 2016 to November 2017, who presented with low-risk ACS and underwent stress MPI, and in whom hsTnI was in the normal range after the introduction of hsTnI.

Results: During the study period, 161 patients were admitted with a diagnosis of unstable angina (i.e., ACS with normal range hsTnI) and underwent stress MPI during index admission. The study population included 52/161 patients (31.7%) with low-risk ACS who had no indication for initial invasive strategy. No patients had positive MPI. One patient underwent coronary angiography due to suggestive history; however, he did not have a significant coronary artery disease and had no indication for percutaneous coronary intervention.

Conclusions: In patients with low-risk ACS and normal range hsTnI without additional high-risk features, stress MPI has little additional value for the correct diagnosis and management. Prospective studies are warranted to confirm whether resting hsTnI could serve as a powerful triage tool in chest pain patients in the ED before diagnostic testing and thus, improve patient management.

October 2015
Zaza Iakobishvili MD PhD, Adaya Weissler MD, Kiril Buturlin MD, Gustavo Goldenberg MD, Boris Strassberg MD, Ruth Tur MD and David Hasdai MD FESC

Background: The kinetics of high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) levels after elective, biphasic, direct-current cardioversion for persistent atrial fibrillation/flutter remains unknown.

Methods: We examined hs-cTnT kinetics in 24 patients at baseline and at 2, 6 and 24 hours post-cardioversion, and again at 7 and 30 days. We also examined levels of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP).

Results: Median (25th, 75th interquartiles) baseline hs-cTnT concentration was 19.8 (10.4, 35.2) ng/L with 14 patients presenting with levels above the 99th percentile (13 ng/L). Hs-cTnT levels did not change significantly over time although they tended to decrease by 30 days, 18.8 ng/L (12.5, 23.3). There was no significant rise in other markers of myocardial injury. Similarly, BNP and hs-CRP levels were elevated at baseline and tended to decrease over time.

Conclusions: Patients with persistent atrial fibrillation/flutter have elevated hs-cTnT levels, as part of a general rise in biomarkers such as BNP and hs-CRP, without a further rise after cardioversion. After cardioversion, there is a gradual non-significant decrease in biomarker levels over time, and thus a rise in hs-cTnT levels should not be attributed to cardioversion. 

 

May 2006
R. Rubinshtein, D.A. Halon, A. Kogan, R. Jaffe, B. Karkabi, T. Gaspar, M.Y. Flugelman, R. Shapira, A. Merdler and B.S. Lewis

Background: Emergency room triage of patients presenting with chest pain syndromes may be difficult. Under-diagnosis may be dangerous, while over0diagnosis may be costly.

Objectives: To report our initial experience with an emergency room cardiologist-based chest pain unit in Israel.

Methods: During a 5 week pilot study, we examined resource utilization and ER [1] diagnosis in 124 patients with chest pain of uncertain etiology or non-high risk acute coronary syndrome. First assessment was performed by the ER physicians and was followed by a second assessment by the CPU[2] team. Assessment was based on the following parameters: medical history and examination, serial electrocardiography, hematology, biochemistry and biomarkers for ACS[3], exercise stress testing and/or 64-slice multi-detector cardiac computed tomography angiography. Changes in decision between initial assessment and final CPU assessment with regard to hospitalization and utilization of resources were recorded.

Results: All patients had at least two cardiac troponin T measurements, 19 underwent EST[4], 9 echocardiography and 29 cardiac MDCT[5]. Fourteen patients were referred for early cardiac catheterization (same/next day). Specific working diagnosis was reached in 71/84 patients hospitalized, including unstable angina in 39 (31%) and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction in 12 (10%). Following CPU assessment, 40/124 patients (32%) were discharged, 49 (39%) were admitted to Internal Medicine and 35 (28%) to the Cardiology departments. CPU assessment and extended resources allowed discharge of 30/101 patients (30%) who were initially identified as candidates for hospitalization after ER assessment. Furthermore, 13/23 (56%) of patients who were candidates for discharge after initial ER assessment were eventually hospitalized. Use of non-invasive tests was significantly greater in patients discharged from the ER (85% vs. 38% patients hospitalized) (P < 0.0001). The mean ER stay tended to be longer (14.9 ± 8.6 hours vs. 12.9 ± 11, P = NS) for patients discharged. At 30 days follow-up, there were no adverse events (myocardial infarction or death) in any of the 40 patients discharged from the ER after CPU assessment. One patient returned to the ER because of chest pain and was discharged after re-assessment. 

Conclusions: Our initial experience showed that an ER cardiologist-based chest pain unit improved assessment of patients presenting to the ER with chest pain, and enhanced appropriate use of diagnostic tests prior to decision regarding admission/discharge from the ER.


 




[1] ER = emergency room

[2] CPU = chest pain unit

[3] ACS = acute coronary syndrome

[4] EST = exercise stress testing

[5] MDCT = multi-detector cardiac computed tomography angiography


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