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עמוד בית
Fri, 24.05.24

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April 2024
Dor Golomb MD, Hanan Goldberg MD, Paz Lotan MD, Ilan Kafka MD, Stanislav Kotcherov MD, Guy Verhovsky MD, Asaf Shvero MD, Ron Barrent MD, Ilona Pilosov Solomon MD, David Ben Meir MD, Ezekiel H. Landau MD, Amir Cooper MD, Orit Raz MD

Background: Pediatric urolithiasis is relatively uncommon and is generally associated with predisposing anatomic or metabolic abnormalities. In the adult population, emergency department (ED) admissions have been associated with an increase in ambient temperature. The same association has not been evaluated in the pediatric population.

Objectives: To analyze trends in ED admissions due to renal colic in a pediatric population (≤ 18 years old) and to assess the possible effect of climate on ED admissions.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective, multicenter cohort study, based on a computerized database of all ED visits due to renal colic in pediatric patients. The study cohort presented with urolithiasis on imaging during their ED admission. Exact climate data was acquired through the Israeli Meteorological Service (IMS).

Results: Between January 2010 and December 2020, 609 patients, ≤ 18 years, were admitted to EDs in five medical centers with renal colic: 318 males (52%), 291 females (48%). The median age was 17 years (IQR 9–16). ED visits oscillated through the years, peaking in 2012 and 2018. A 6% downward trend in ED admissions was noted between 2010 and 2020. The number of ED admissions in the different seasons was 179 in autumn (30%), 134 in winter (22%), 152 in spring (25%), and 144 in summer (23%) (P = 0.8). Logistic regression multivariable analysis associated with ED visits did not find any correlation between climate parameters and ED admissions due to renal colic in the pediatric population.

Conclusions: ED admissions oscillated during the period investigated and had a downward trend. Unlike in the adult population, rates of renal colic ED admissions in the pediatric population were not affected by seasonal changes or rise in maximum ambient temperature.

February 2023
Doron Carmi MD MHA, Ziona Haklai MA, Ethel-Sherry Gordon PHD, Ada Shteiman MSC, Uri Gabbay MD MPH

Background: Acute appendicitis (AA) is a medical emergency. The standard of care for AA had been surgical appendectomy. Recently, non-operative management (NOM) has been considered, mainly for uncomplicated AA.

Objectives: To evaluate AA NOM trends over two decades.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on Israel’s National Hospital Discharges Database (NHDD). Inclusion criteria were AA admissions from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2019, with either primary discharged diagnosis of AA, or principal procedure of appendectomy. Predefined groups were children (5 ≤ 18 years) and adults (≥ 18 years). We compared the last decade (2010–2019) with the previous one (2000–2009).

Results: The overall AA incidence rate over two decades was 126/100,000/year; higher in children 164/100,000/year than 113/100,000/year in adults. Surgery was the predominant AA treatment in 91.9%; 93.7% in children and 91.1% in adults. There was an increase in AA NOM rates when comparing the previous decade (5.6%) to the past decade (10.2%); 3.2% vs. 9.1% in children and 6.8% vs. 10.7% in adults, respectively. Annual trends revealed a mild increase in AA NOM rates. Delayed appendectomy (within 90 days of AA NOM) was 19.7% overall; 17.3% in adults and 26.3% in children.

Conclusions: There was an increase in AA NOM rates during the last decade in the overall population. Since 2015, there has been a noticeable increase in AA NOM rates, probably associated with World Society of Emergency Surgery Jerusalem guidelines. Surgery is still the predominant treatment for AA despite the increasing trend in NOM.

January 2023
Doron Carmi MD MHA, Ziona Haklai MA, Ethel-Sherry Gordon PhD, Ada Shteiman MSC, Uri Gabbay MD MPH

Background: Bacterial meningitis (BM) remains a considerable cause of morbidity.

Objectives: To evaluate BM incidence rate trends in diverse age groups.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on the Israeli national registry. Inclusion criteria were acute admissions 2000 to 2019 with primary diagnosis of BM. Predefined age groups were neonates (≤ 30 days), infants (31 days to 1 year), younger children (1 ≤ 5 years), older children (5 ≤ 18 years), and adults (≥ 18 years). Average annual incidence rates per 100,000/year were calculated for the entire period and by decade. Incidence rates for neonates and infants were calculated per 100,000 live births (LB).

Results: There were 3039 BM cases over 2 decades, 60% were adults. The overall BM incidence rate was 2.0/100,000/year, neonates, 5.4/100,000/year LB, infants 17.6/100,000/year LB. First year of life incidence rate (neonates and infants combined) was 23.0/100,000/year, younger children 1.5/100,000/year, older children 0.9/100,000/year, and adults 1.8/100,000/year. All age groups presented a decrease in incidence rate (last decade vs. previous) except neonates, which increased by 34%. Younger and older children presented the most considerable decrease: 48% and 37% (last decade vs. previous).

Conclusions: Adults showed the highest number of BM cases. The incidence rate was highest during the first year of life (neonates and infants combined). All age groups, except neonates, showed a decreasing trend. Younger and older children presented the most considerable decrease, most likely attributable to vaccination. The observed increase in BM incidence rate in neonates may influence whether preventive strategy is considered.

September 2022
Helit Nakar MD, Alex Sorkin MD, Roy Nadler MD, Avishai M. Tsur MD, Shaul Gelikas MD MBA, Guy Avital MD, Elon Glassberg MD MHA MBA, Tarif Bader MD MHA MA, Lidar Fridrich MD, Jacob Chen MD MHA MSc, and Avi Benov MD MHA

Background: Pain control in trauma is an integral part of treatment in combat casualty care. More soldiers injured on the battlefield need analgesics for pain than life-saving interventions (LSIs). Early treatment of pain improves outcomes after injury, while inadequate treatment leads to higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Objective: To describe the experience of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) Medical Corps with prehospital use of analgesia.

Methods: All cases documented in the IDF-Trauma Registry between January 1997 and December 2019 were examined. Data collection included analgesia administered, mechanism of injury, wound distribution, and life-saving interventions performed.

Results: Of 16,117 patients, 1807 (11.2%) had at least one documented analgesia. Demographics included 91.2% male; median age 21 years. Leading mechanism of injury was penetrating (52.9%). Of injured body regions reported, 46.2% were lower extremity wounds. Most common types of analgesics were morphine (57.2%) and fentanyl (27%). Over the two decades of the study period, types of analgesics given by providers at point of injury (POI) had changed. Fentanyl was introduced in 2013, and by 2019 was given to 39% of patients. Another change was an increase of casualties receiving analgesia from 5–10% until 2010 to 34% by 2019. A total of 824 LSIs were performed on 556 patients (30.8%) receiving analgesia and no adverse events were found in any of the casualties.

Conclusions: Most casualties at POI did not receive any analgesics. The most common analgesics administered were opioids. Over time analgesic administration has gained acceptance and become more commonplace on the battlefield.

May 2022
Herman Avner Cohen MD, Maya Gerstein MD, Vered Shkalim Zemer MD, Sophia Heiman MD, Yael Richenberg MD, Eyal Jacobson MD, and Oren Berkowitz PhD PA-C

Background: On 18 March 2020, the Israeli Health Ministry issued lockdown orders to mitigate the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Objectives: To assess the association of lockdown orders on telemedicine practice and the effect of social distancing on infectious diseases in a primary care community pediatric clinic as well as the rate of referrals to emergency departments (ED) and trends of hospitalization.

Methods: Investigators performed a retrospective secondary data analysis that screened for visits in a large pediatric center from 1 January to 31 May 2020. Total visits were compared from January to December 2020 during the same period in 2019. Visits were coded during the first lockdown as being via telemedicine or in-person, and whether they resulted in ED referral or hospitalization. Month-to-month comparisons were performed as well as percent change from the previous year.

Results: There was a sharp decline of in-person visits (24%) and an increase in telemedicine consultations (76%) during the first lockdown (p < 0.001). When the lockdown restrictions were eased, there was a rebound of 50% in-person visits (p < 0.05). There was a profound decrease of visits for common infectious diseases during the lockdown period. Substantial decreases were noted for overall visits, ED referrals, and hospitalizations in 2020 compared to 2019.

Conclusions: COVID-19 had a major impact on primary care clinics, resulting in fewer patient-doctor encounters, fewer overall visits, fewer ED referrals, and fewer hospitalizations

Issac Levy MD, Dolev Dollberg MD, Ron Berant MD, and Ronit Friling MD

Background: Data on how the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affected consultations in ophthalmic departments are sparse.

Objectives: To examine the epidemiology of ophthalmic consultations in a large pediatric emergency medicine department (PED) during the first nationwide COVID-19 lockdown in Israel.

Methods: The database of a tertiary pediatric medical center was retrospectively reviewed for patients aged < 18 years who attended the PED from 17 March to 30 April 2020 (first COVID-19 lockdown) and the corresponding period in 2019. Background, clinical, and disease-related data were collected from the medical charts and compared between groups.

Results: The study included 757 PED visits. There were no significant differences in demographics between the groups. The 2020 period was characterized by a decrease in PED visits (by 52%), increase in arrivals during late afternoon and evening (P = 0.013), decrease in visits of older children (age 5–10 year), and proportional increase in younger children (age 1–5 years) (P = 0.011). The most common diagnoses overall and during each period was trauma followed by conjunctivitis and eyelid inflammation. The mechanisms of trauma differed (P = 0.002), with an increase in sharp trauma and decrease in blunt trauma in 2020 (P < 0.001 for both). In 2020, 95% of traumatic events occurred in the home compared to 54% in 2019 (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Parents need to learn appropriate preventive and treatment measures to prevent serious and long-term ophthalmic injury while minimizing their exposure to the COVID-19. PEDs and ophthalmic pediatric clinics should consider increasing use of telemedicine and the availability of more senior physicians as consultants during such times.

October 2019
Philip Lawson MD, Noam Nissan MD PhD, Renata Faermann MD, Osnat Halshtok MD, Anat Shalmon MD, Michael Gotleib MD, Merav Akiva Ben David MD and Miri Sklair Levy MD

Background: Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease representing less than 1% of breast cancers. In the absence of a screening program, such as for females, the diagnostic workup is critical for early detection of MBC.

Objectives: To summarize our institutional experience in the workup of male patients referred for breast imaging, emphasizing the clinical, imaging, and histopathological characteristics of the MBC cohort.

Methods: All male patients who underwent breast imaging between 2011 and 2016 in our institution were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical, radiological, and histopathological data were collected and statistically evaluated. All images were reviewed using the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System.

Results: 178 male patients (average age 61 years, median age 64), underwent breast imaging in our institution. The most common indication for referral was palpable mass (49%) followed by gynecomastia (16%). Imaging included mostly mammography or ultrasound. Biopsies were performed on 56 patients, 38 (68%) were benign and 18 (32%) were malignant. In all, 13 patients had primary breast cancer and 5 had metastatic disease to the breast. Palpable mass at presentation was strongly associated with malignancy (P = 0.007).

Conclusion: Mammography and ultrasound remain the leading modalities in breast imaging among males for diagnostic workup of palpable mass, with gynecomastia being the predominant diagnosis. However, presentation with palpable mass was also associated with malignancy. Despite a notable MBC rate in our cohort, the likelihood of cancer is low in young patients and in cases of gynecomastia.

April 2019
Noam Rosen MD, Ofir Chechik MD, Yariv Goldstein MD, Oleg Dolkart PhD, Gavriel Mozes MD, Ofer Rak MD, Alison Dalich BSc, Yossi Geron MD and Eran Maman MD

Background: The number of patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty is increasing yearly.

Objectives: To evaluate the results of a consecutive series of patients who underwent shoulder replacement for a variety of indications in a single medical center in Israel.

Methods: All shoulder arthroplasties performed in our institution between 2006 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The functional outcomes and satisfaction of 180 shoulder arthroplasties were evaluated for objective and subjective parameters using the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder Score (ASES), the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) outcome measure, and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12).

Results: The indications for surgery were osteoarthritis (n=35), rotator cuff arthropathy (n=32), fractures (n=99), and other reasons (n=14). The mean follow-up was 52 months. The scores improved markedly among the patients who underwent surgery later in the study period. The mean DASH score before 2012 was 48.8 and improved to 37.2 after 2013. The respective ASES also improved from 54.2 to 68.6. The use of hemiarthroplasty decreased from 85% to 33% as of 2013, while the use of total shoulder arthroplasty increased.

Conclusions: Shoulder arthroplasty represents an effective treatment modality with satisfactory functional outcomes. Our current study demonstrates a shift from hemiarthroplasty to total shoulder arthroplasty, with the number of procedures increasing yearly. Surgeon experience and the expanding volume of operations had a direct positive effect on the functional outcomes of shoulder arthroplasties.

September 2018
Yael Peled MD, Dov Freimark MD, Yedael Har-Zahav MD, Eyal Nachum MD, Alexander Kogan MD, Yigal Kassif MD and Jacob Lavee MD

Background: Heart transplantation (HT) is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage heart failure. The HT unit at the Sheba Medical Center is the largest of its kind in Israel.

Objectives: To evaluate the experience of HT at a single center, assess trends over 3 decades, and correlate with worldwide data.

Methods: Between 1990 and 2017, we reviewed all 285  adult HT patients. Patients were grouped by year of HT: 1990–1999 (decade 1), 2000–2009 (decade 2), and 2010–2017 (decade 3).

Results: The percentage of women undergoing HT has increased and etiology has shifted from ischemic to non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (10% vs. 25%, P = 0.033; 70% vs. 40% ischemic, for decades 1 vs. 3, respectively). Implantation of left ventricular assist device as a bridge to HT has increased. Metabolic profile has improved over the years with lower low-density lipoprotein, diabetes, and hypertension after HT (101 mg/dl, 27%, and 41% at decade 3, respectively). There has been a prominent change in immunosuppressive treatments, currently more than 90% are treated with tacrolimus, compared with 2.7% and 30.9% in decades 1 and 2, respectively (P < 0.001). Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) rates have declined significantly (47% vs. 17.5% for decades 1 and 2, P < 0.001) as have the combined endpoint of CAV/death. Similarly, the current incidence of acute rejections is significantly lower.

Conclusions: Our analysis of over 25 years of a single-center experience with HT shows encouraging improved results, which are in line with worldwide standards and experience.

December 2017
Jad Khatib MD, Naama Schwartz PhD and Naiel Bisharat MD PhD

Background: In 2006, the Israeli Ministry of Health distributed guidelines for improving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge among hospital staff. The impact of these guidelines on survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) is unclear.

Objectives: To compare rates of incidence and survival to discharge after IHCA, preceding and subsequent to issuance of the guidelines: 1995–2005 and 2006–2015.

Methods: Data were retrieved from the computerized records of patients who had an IHCA and underwent CPR. In addition, we retrieved data available from the hospital's resuscitation committee that included number, type, methods of training in CPR refresher courses, type and number of audits carried out during the past 10 years, and type of CPR quality assessments.

Results: From 1995 to 2015, IHCA incidence increased from 0.7 to 1.7 per 1000 admissions (P < 0.001), while survival rate did not increase (P = 0.37). Survival for shockable rhythms increased from 15.4 to 30.2% (P = 0.05) between the two time periods. The ratio of non-shockable to shockable rhythms increased from 2.4 to 4.6 (P = 0.01) between the two time periods.

Conclusions: Overall IHCA survival did not improve following the issuance of guidelines requiring CPR refresher courses, although survival improved for patients with initial shockable dysrhythmia. A decrease of events with initial shockable dysrhythmia, an increase with acute renal failure, and a decrease occurring in intensive care units contributed to understanding the findings. We found that CPR refresher courses were helpful, although an objective measure of their effectiveness is lacking.

 

August 2017
Ron Beloosesky MD, Ilana Feldblum PhD, Alon Shrim MD, Jenny Kertes MPH, Jacob Segal MD, Rachel Bachar MD and Yefet Youval MD

Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during pregnancy is the most common cause of intrauterine infection, and is a common cause of sensorineural hearing loss and mental retardation. 

Objectives: To evaluate trends in amniocentesis and pregnancy outcome in women with suspected cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during the first trimester.

Methods: All blood tests for CMV immunoglobulin M (IgM) done between 2008 and 2009 on pregnant women who were enrolled in the Maccabi Healthcare Services were retrieved from laboratory database. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity was measured and women were classified according to the risk of acquiring CMV infection. For each patient, performance of amniocentesis and whether pregnancy came to term were recorded.

Results: Of 109,439 pregnant women evaluated during the study period, 76,712 (70.1%) were tested for CMV IgM, and 792 (1.03%) were found to be positive. Among women with positive IgM, only 205 (25.9%) underwent amniocentesis. When compared with women with negative CMV IgM, the rate of pregnancy cessation was doubled in women with positive CMV IgM (28.3% vs. 14.3%, P < 0.05) and mostly elevated in women with a high risk of acquiring CMV (42.3% pregnancy cessation). Among women with positive CMV IgM, those who did not undergo amniocentesis were more likely to abort than those who performed amniocentesis (35.6% vs. 7.3%, P < 0.05). 

Conclusions: More women with suspected CMV infection during the first trimester of pregnancy aborted before all means of detection were utilized to rule out or confirm fetal infection with CMV.

 

August 2016
Ron Lavy MD, Yehuda Hershkovitz MD, Lital Keinan-Boker MD and Ariel Halevy MD

Background: Gastrointestinal malignancies comprise a broad spectrum of neoplasms and have a high overall incidence. The incidence rates in Israel vary among ethnic groups due to different risk factors.

Objectives: To investigate incidence trends of these cancers in Israel in both Jewish and Arab ethnic groups in order to better understand the risks in those groups.

Methods: This study is based on data published by the Israel National Cancer Registry and the Central Bureau of Statistics. We compared statistics between ethnicities and genders. We examined the eight most common gastrointestinal cancers, focusing on colon, rectal and gastric cancers.

Results: Between 1980 and 2012 there was a decline in the incidence of gastric cancer in the Jewish population; in contrast, a significant increase occurred in Arab women, but there was no significant change in Arab men. Colon cancer showed a relative decrease in incidence in the Jewish population, but an increase in the Arab population. A decrease in the incidence of rectal cancer in the Jewish population and an increase in the Arab population was observed. 

Conclusions: Gastric, colon and rectal cancers exhibit differences in incidence and outcome between Jewish and Arab populations in Israel. These differences were not observed in the other five types of less common gastrointestinal cancers.

 

December 2015
Adi Abulafia MD, Eli Rosen MD, Ehud I. Assia MD and Guy Kleinmann MD
 

Background: Cataract extraction is the most commonly performed ophthalmic surgical procedure. There is no registry for documenting cataract surgical procedures and the overall risk of its complications over time in Israel.


Objectives: To present trends in the number and type of selected parameters associated with cataract surgical procedures in Israel between 1990 and 2014.


Methods: Questionnaires had been sent annually to all surgical centers in which cataract surgery was performed in Israel during the study period. The trends that were investigated included annual rates, surgical sites, surgical techniques, use of an intraocular lens (IOL) and type and rates of postoperative endophthalmitis (POE). 


Results: A total of 812,112 cataract surgical procedures were reported during the 25 year study period. Responses to the questionnaire increased from 75% in 1990 to 100% in 2006 onwards. The annual number of reported cataract surgical procedures increased from 16,841 (3.5 per 1000) in 1990 to 57,419 in 2014 (6.9 per 1000), representing an increase of 197%. There was a shift from performing the surgery in the public health system to private medical centers. The surgical technique changed from predominantly manual extracapsular cataract extraction (56% in 1999) to predominantly phacoemulsification (98.7% in 2014). POE rates decreased from 0.25% in 2002 to 0.028% in 2014. 


Conclusions: There was a continuous increase in the rate of surgical cataract procedures, and more were performed in private medical facilities. There was also a major shift towards advanced cataract procedures and a decreased rate of POE. 


 
March 2015
Maya Paryente Wiessman MD, Idit F. Liberty MD, Renana Wilkof Segev BSc, Tiberiu Katz MD, Muhammad Abu Tailakh RN MPH and Victor Novack MD PhD

Abstract

Background: Diabetes mellitus-related lower extremity amputation is a major complication severely affecting patient survival and quality of life.

Objectives: To analyze epidemiological and clinical trends in the incidence and survival of lower extremity amputations among diabetes patients.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study of 565 consecutive diabetes patients who underwent their first non-traumatic lower extremity amputation between January 2002 and December 2009.

Results: Major amputations were performed in 316 (55.9%) patients: 142 above the knee (25.1%) and 174 below (30.8%); 249 (44.1%) had a minor amputation. The incidence rates of amputations decreased from 2.9 to 2.1 per 1000 diabetes patients. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that first year mortality rates were lower among patients with minor amputations (31.7% vs. 39.6%, P = 0.569). First year mortality rates following below-knee amputation were somewhat lower than above-knee amputation (33.1 vs.45.1%, respectively). Cox regression model of survival at 1 year after the procedure found that age (HR 1.06 per year, 95% CI 1.04–1.07, P < 0.001), above-knee amputation (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.01–1.83, P = 0.045) and ischemic heart disease (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.26–2.24, P < 0.001) significantly increased one year mortality risk.

Conclusions: In this population-based study the incidence rate of non-traumatic amputations in diabetes patients between January 2002 and December 2009 decreased slightly. However, one year mortality rates after the surgery did not decline and remained high, stressing the need for a multidisciplinary effort to prevent amputations in diabetes patients.

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