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עמוד בית
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September 2016
February 2016
Yigal Helviz MD, Ilia Dzigivker MD, David Raveh-Brawer MD, Moshe Hersch MD, Shoshana Zevin MD and Sharon Einav MD

Background: Enoxaparin is frequently used as prophylaxis for deep venous thrombosis in critically ill patients. 

Objectives: To evaluate three enoxaparin prophylactic regimens in critical care patients with and without administration of a vasopressor.

Methods: Patients admitted to intensive care units (general and post-cardiothoracic surgery) without renal failure received, once daily, a subcutaneous fixed dose of 40 mg enoxaparin, a subcutaneous dose of 0.5 mg/kg enoxaparin, or an intravenous dose of 0.5 mg/kg enoxaparin. Over 5 days anti-activated factor X levels were collected before the daily administration and 4 hours after the injection.

Results: Overall, 16 patients received the subcutaneous fixed dose, 15 received the subcutaneous weight-based dosage, and 8 received the dose intravenously. Around two-fifths (38%) of the patients received vasopressors. There was no difference between anti-activated factor X levels regarding vasopressor administration. However, in all three groups the levels were outside the recommended range of 0.1 IU/ml and 0.3 IU/ml.

Conclusions: Although not influenced by vasopressor administration, the enoxaparin regimens resulted in blood activity levels outside the recommended range.

 

February 2015
Shirish R. Sangle MBBS MD and David P. D’Cruz MD FRCP
November 2013
N. Sarid, R. Eshel, E. Rahamim, M. Carmiel, I. Kirgner, M. Shpringer, S. Trestman, R. Marilus, C. Perry, A. Polliack, E. Naparstek and Y. Herishanu

Background: Janus kinase-2 (JAK2) is mutated in a high proportion of patients with polycythemia vera and in a smaller number with essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis. Mutated JAK2 is an important diagnostic marker for myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) and may also play a major role in the pathogenesis of MPN.

Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of mutated JAK2 (JAK2-V617F) among patients with major intraabdominal vein thrombosis who had normal blood counts at diagnosis of the initial event.

Methods: The medical records of patients who presented with a major intraabdominal venous thrombosis and normal peripheral blood counts were obtained. JAK2-V617F mutation status was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

Results: Twenty-two patients were available for this analysis and 9 (41%) were found to have JAK2-V617F. Patients with positive JAK2-V617F were younger and had more frequent clinical splenomegaly than those with wild-type JAK2.

Conclusions: A high proportion of patients presenting with “idiopathic” major intraabdominal vein thrombosis and normal blood counts carry JAK2-V617F. We recommend searching for the mutation in this clinical setting to detect patients with occult MPN.

September 2013
S. Shiber and Y. Molad
 Background: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease with clinical manifestations of arterial and venous thrombosis, obstetric manifestations, and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies or lupus anticoagulant. Catastrophic APS is a rare variant of APS defined as acute failure of at least three tissues, organs or systems caused predominantly by small vessel thrombosis confirmed by histopathologic evidence. Catastrophic APS develops rapidly and leads to death in 30% of cases.

Methods: We evaluated 11 patients with catastrophic APS – 8 of them with a probable diagnosis of catastrophic APS and 3 with a definite diagnosis – admitted to Beilinson hospital during the period 2003–2011.

Results: Overall venous events numbered 18 and overall arterial events 10. The event duration per patient was 2.6 ± 1.2 weeks (mean ± SD). Deep vein thrombosis of the legs was quite common (7 events), as was venous intraabdominal thrombosis (10 events). Eight patients had microangiopathic anemia with schizocytes seen in the blood smear. The mean ± SD hemoglobin level was 10.3 ± 3.6 g/dl and the mean ± SD creatinine level 0.98 ± 0.78 mg/dl. All our patients had high acute-phase reactant and all had lupus anticoagulant positivity, The most common positive antibodies were immunoglobulin G anticardiolipin (8 patients) and IgG[1] β2-glycoprotein (7 patients). During the events warfarin was stopped and the patients were given intravenous heparin. All the patients received steroids in variable doses. Five patients underwent plasma exchange, two patients received rituximab and two patients intravenous immunoglobulin.

Conclusions: Catastrophic APS, a rare syndrome, is important because of its major morbidity and mortality among young patients.


 





[1] IgG = immunoglobulin G


July 2012
G. Twig, A. Furer, G. Yaniv, L. Michael, R. Karplus and H. Amital
March 2012
February 2011
G. Berger, Z.S. Azzam, E. Hardak, Y. Tavor and M. Yigla

Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is an isolated small-vessel disease comprising vasoconstriction, remodeling and thrombosis of small pulmonary arteries. However, there is evidence that IPAH[1] does not respect anatomic boundaries and might extend into large vessels such as large central thrombi. On the other hand, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) represents a distinct category of pulmonary hypertension as it is thought to be due to an occlusion of the major pulmonary arteries following a thromboembolic event. However, it is currently evident that in most patients, there is a concomitant small-vessel disease. The involvement of both small and large vessels in both IPAH and CTEPH[2] together with a high incidence of silent thromboembolic events might create difficulties in identifying the true cause of pulmonary hypertension. An accurate diagnosis of the cause determines the management and prognosis. Patients with CTEPH can potentially be offered curative surgery in the form of pulmonary endarterectomy; however, oxygen, vasodilators, anticoagulation, and lung transplantation are more feasible options for IPAH.






[1] IPAH = idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension



[2] CTEPH = chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension


November 2010
Y. Goykhman, M. Ben-Haim, G. Rosen, M. Carmiel-Haggai, R. Oren, R. Nakache, O. Szold, J. Klausner and I. Kori

Background: Inserting a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt by means of interventional radiology has become the procedure of choice for decompression of portal hypertension. The indications and criteria for patient selection have been expanded and refined accordingly.

Objectives: To review our experience with TIPS[1] and analyze the results with emphasis on patient selection and indication (conventional vs. atypical).

Methods: In this retrospective analysis in a single center all cases were managed by a multidisciplinary team (comprising liver surgery and transplantation, hepatology, imaging, interventional radiology and intensive care).

Results: Between August 2003 and December 2009, 34 patients (mean age 51, range 27–76 years) were treated with TIPS. The cause of portal hypertension was cirrhosis (23 cases), hypercoagulabilty complicated by Budd-Chiari syndrome (n=6), and acute portal vein thrombosis (n=5). Clinical indications for TIPS included treatment or secondary prevention of variceal bleeding (10 cases), refractory ascites (n=18), mesenteric ischemia due to acute portal vein thrombosis (n=5), and acute liver failure (n=1). TIPS was urgent in 18 cases (53%) and elective in 16. Three deaths occurred following urgent TIPS. The overall related complication rate was 32%: transient encephalopathy (6 cases), ischemic hepatitis (n=2), acute renal failure (n=2) and bleeding (n=1). Long-term results of TIPS were defined as good in 25 cases (73%), fair in 4 (12%) and failure in 5 (15%). In three of five patients with mesenteric ischemia following acute portal vein thrombosis, surgery was obviated. Revision of TIPS due to stenosis or thrombosis was needed in 7 cases (20%).

Conclusions: TIPS is safe and effective. While its benefit for patients with portal hypertension is clear, the role of TIPS in treatment of portal-mesenteric venous thrombosis needs further evaluation. Patient selection, establishing the indication and performing TIPS should be done by a multidisciplinary dedicated team.






[1] TIPS = transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt


November 2009
J.E. Cohen, S. Boitsova and E. Itshayek
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