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עמוד בית
Thu, 30.05.24

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January 2021
Mohamed Kittani MD, Barak Haviv MD, Shai Shemesh MD, Lee Yaari MD, Mustafa Yassin MD, and Lea Rath-Wolfson MD

Background: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are common and complete tears often fail to heal. ACL reconstruction is considered the surgical gold standard of care for ACL injuries in young active patients.

Objectives: To determine the corresponding morphological and histological features of the torn ACL in different time periods after injury.

Methods: The study included 28 remnant specimens of torn ACLs from patients who had ACL reconstruction surgery of the knee. The remnant pathology was evaluated by its morphology during arthroscopy and by histopathologic measurements.

Results: At surgery there were three progressive and distinct morphological tear patterns. The first pattern was noticed within the first 3 months from injury and showed no scar tissue. The second pattern appeared later and was characterized by the appearance of scar tissue with adhesion to the femoral wall. The third pattern was characterized by adhesion of the ACL remnant to the posterior cruciate ligament. The histological changes of the first morphological pattern showed abundance of blood vessels and lymphocytes at the torn femoral end with few irregular collagen fibers. The second and third tear patterns showed decrement in the number of blood vessels and lymphocytes with longitudinally oriented collagen fibers.

Conclusions: The morphological features of the ACL remnant in the first 3 months after injury showed no scar tissue and its histological features had the characteristics of a reparative phase. This phase was followed by a prolonged remodeling phase that ended with attachment of the remnant to the posterior cruciate ligament.

June 2017
Noam Shohat MD, Dror Lindner MD, Eran Tamir MD, Yiftah Beer MD and Gabriel Agar MD

Background: The debate continues regarding the best way to manage partial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears.

Objectives: To prospectively compare the clinical outcomes of remnant-preserving augmentation (RPA) and double-bundle reconstruction (DBR) in patients with ACL tears.

Methods: In this prospective study, we included 13 cases of RPA and 30 cases of DBR with a follow-up period of 6 months, 12 months and 24 months. We clinically compared the preoperative and postoperative range of motion, Knee Society Score (KSS), Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Lysholm score, Tegner activity score, Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), thigh and calf circumference and anterior translation (Using the KT-1000 knee arthrometer). 

Results: There were no significant differences in Lysholm score, Tegner score, VAS or KSS within the two groups at any time. The KT-1000 arthrometer results were higher in the RPA group at 6 months than in the DBR group; however, it did not reach statistical significance. 

Conclusions: We found no significant differences between the two specific groups leading us to believe that RPA may play a role in reconstruction when only a single bundle is injured.

 

December 2016
Noam Behr MD, Evan A. Alpert MD, Shuli Silberman MD and Daniel Fink MD
November 2014
Maya Wertman MD, Charles Milgrom MD, Gabriel Agar MD, Yael Milgrom MD, Newton Yalom and Aharon S. Finestone MD

Background: Medical evaluation of a suspected meniscus injury begins with a history-taking and physical examination. Suspected meniscus injuries not responding to treatment are usually sent for imaging to confirm the diagnosis before arthroscopy. Tc-MDP bone single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan has been suggested as an alternative to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluating suspected knee meniscus tears.

Objectives: To examine the accuracy of knee SPECT as a tool to identify meniscus tears versus that of MRI as compared to the gold standard of arthroscopy.

Methods: The Israel Defense Forces database for 2005 through 2009 was searched according to the key words knee MRI, knee SPECT and knee arthroscopy. We identified 330 subjects who had undergone both a single knee SPECT and a single knee MRI prior to knee surgery. The medical files of 193 of the 330 subjects were randomly selected for review. A comparison was made between the preoperative SPECT and MRI studies and the arthroscopic finding. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated.

Results: The subjects’ age was 21.3 ± 3.9. The agreement between SPECT and arthroscopy was 0.14 for the medial meniscus and 0.29 for the lateral meniscus. The agreement between MRI and arthroscopy was 0.59 for the medial meniscus and 0.69 for the lateral meniscus. SPECT scan was found to be 61% sensitive, 54% specific and 58% accurate in detecting common knee pathology, whereas MRI was found to be 95% sensitive, 67% specific and 85% accurate.

Conclusions: Knee SPECT has a lower sensitivity, specificity and accuracy than MRI in evaluating meniscal injuries and its use can result in increased unnecessary surgery.

March 2012
E. Rath, O. Tsvieli and O. Levy

Hip arthroscopy is one of the most rapidly evolving arthroscopy techniques. It combines the benefits of a minimally invasive procedure and a short rehabilitation period. Improved instrumentation and technical skills have advanced our ability to accurately diagnose and treat various conditions. The role of this procedure continues to evolve with new indications that might change the outcome of degenerative joint disease of the hip joint. Hip arthroscopy is indicated for both traumatic and atraumatic intra and extra-articular conditions. Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is increasingly recognized as a disorder that can lead to progressive articular chondral and labral injury. A variety of arthroscopic techniques allows the treatment of labral and acetabular rim pathology as well as peripheral compartment femoral head-neck abnormalities. It is now recognized that labral tears that were traditionally treated with simple debridement are often associated with underlying FAI. Hip arthroscopy is also being used for surgery to the structures surrounding the hip as snapping hip syndromes, greater trochanteric pain syndrome, and arthroscopic repair of abductor tendon tears. Better understanding of the arthroscopic anatomy, improved operative techniques, lowered complication rate and objective outcome measuring tools will further define the optimal role of hip arthroscopy and improve its outcome.

July 2008
E. Mei-dan, A. Walfisch, I. Raz, A. Levy and M. Hallak

Background: Women frequently suffer perineal trauma while giving birth. Interventions to increase the possibility for an intact perineum are needed.

Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal perineal massage in increasing the likelihood of delivering with an intact perineum.

Methods: This single blinded prospective controlled trial included 234 nulliparous women with a singleton fetus. Women allocated to the study group were instructed to practice a 10 minute perineal massage daily from the 34th week of gestation until delivery. Primary outcome measures included the episiotomy rate; first, second, third and fourth-degree perineal tear rates; and intact perineum. Secondary outcomes were related to specific tear locations and the amount of suture material required for repair.

Results: Episiotomy rates, overall spontaneous tears and intact perineum rates were similar in the study and control groups. Women in the massage group had slightly lower rates of first-degree tears (73.3% νs. 78.9%, P = 0.39) and slightly higher rates of second-degree tears (26.7% νs. 19.3%, P = 0.39), although both of these outcomes did not reach statistical significance. The rates of anterior perineal tears were significantly higher in the massage group (9.5% vs. 3%, P = 0.05), whereas internal lateral tears rates were slightly lower but without statistical significance (11.5% νs.13.1%, P = 0.44).

Conclusions: The practice of antenatal perineal massage showed neither a protective nor a detrimental significant effect on the occurrence of perineal trauma.
 

February 2007
A. Nemet, M. Belkin, M. Rosner

Background: Decreased lacrimal gland output may cause dry eye syndrome. Using a rat model, we examined the feasibility of transplanting lacrimal gland cells from newborns.

Objectives: To restore lacrimal gland function in eyes with compromised tear production.

Methods: A model of dry eye in adult rats was developed by unilateral surgical removal of the main lacrimal gland. Tear secretion in both eyes was then assessed by masked Schirmer's test. Lacrimal gland tissue from newborn rats was transplanted into the fibrous connective tissue in which the lacrimal gland had been embedded. Masked Schirmer's test was repeated 4, 8 and 12 weeks after transplantation.

Results: Schirmer's test performed in 13 rats 10 days after unilateral lacrimal gland excision revealed significantly less wetting on the side with excised gland compared with the normal side (P < 0.003). The lack of secreting cells on the operated side was verified histologically. The reduction in tear secretion on the operated side remained significant for 8 weeks on average. In the six rats with transplanted lacrimal gland tissue however, there were no differences in tear reduction between the two eyes at 4, 8 or 12 weeks after the operation (P = 0.81, 0.56 and 0.8, respectively).

Conclusions: Transplantation of lacrimal gland tissue from newborn rats effectively restored eye wetting in this new model. Further research is needed to evaluate this new approach for treating lacrimal gland dysfunction. Using this model might also facilitate evaluation of potential clinical treatments for dry eyes.
 

August 2001
Alexander Blanjstein, MD, Ilan Cohen, MD, Lidia Diamant, Michael Heim, Israel Dudkiewicz, MD, Amnon Israeli, MD, Avraham Ganel, MD and Aharon Chechick, MD

Background: When encountering complaints of pain in the area of the Achilles tendon, the clinician seldom reaches a correct and precise diagnosis based solely on the grounds of physical examination and standard X-rays.

Objectives: To assess the usefulness of ultrasound in diagnosing pathologies of the Achilles tendon.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of patients presenting at our orthopedic clinics.

Results: Sonography was used to evaluate 41 patients with achillodynia. This modality enabled the diagnoses of 19 abnormal tendons (46%), peritendinous and other lesions a complete rupture in two patients (5%) a partial rupture of the Achilles tendon in 3 (7%) various degrees of calcification of the tendon in 7 (17%) and peritendinous lesions discerned by the tendon’s hypoechoic regions with disorganized arrange­ment of collagen fibrils in 4 patients (10%). Other lesions included tendonitis (3 patients, 7%), retrocalcaneal bursitis (3 patients, 7%), lipoma (1 patient, 2%), and foreign bodies (2 patients, 5%). The mean diameter of the pathological tendons was 10.4 +2.7 mm, while normal tendons measured 5.2 +0.8 mm (P<0.001).

Conclusion: As in many other soft tissue lesions, ultrasonography is a useful tool in the evaluation of the underlying pathology in patients presenting with achillodynia.

October 2000
Valentin Fulga MD, Ben-Ami Sela PhD and Michael Belkin MA MD

Background: Most corneal damage induced by contact lenses is due to interference with corneal oxygenation.

Objective: To investigate the effect on the rabbit cornea of a rigid gas-permeable contact lens with a newly designed periphery.

Method: We fitted New Zealand white rabbits (n=12) with RGP[1] contact lenses that were identical in all respects except for the design of the periphery. In each animal, one contact lens had an innovative periphery consisting of a microscopic diffractive relief lathed on the back surface; the other contact lens was of a conventional design. The lenses were worn continuously for 7 days. During this experimental period and for 1 additional week we assessed the corneal damage by daily testing lactic dehydrogenase activity in the tears.

Results: On the last day of the experimental week and the first 3 days of the healing period, mean tear LDH[2] activity was significantly lower in the eyes with the new contact lens design than in eyes with the conventional lenses.

Conclusions: The novel periphery design reduces corneal damage resulting from contact lens wear, as reflected by LDH levels in the tears. The new design probably facilitates the flow and exchange of tears under the contact lens, resulting in improved metabolism of the cornea. These findings may also prove applicable to soft contact lenses.






[1] RGP = rigid gas permeable



[2] LDH = lactic dehydrogenase


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