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עמוד בית
Tue, 25.06.24

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April 2018
Ildikó Pál MD, Árpád Illés MD PhD, Lajos Gergely MD PhD, Tibor Pál, Zita Radnay MD, Zoltán Szekanecz MD PhD, Erika Zilahi MD PhD and László Váróczy MD PhD

Background: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) accounts for 30% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) and 80% of agressive lymphomas. Besides the traditional International Prognostic Index (IPI), some other factors may also influence the prognosis of DLBCL patients.

Objectives: To study how the genetic polymorphisms in the metabolic pathway influence the event-free and overall survivals and therapeutic responses in DLBCL.

Methods: The study was comprised of 51 patients (32 men, 19 women). The average age was 53.1 years. DLBCL was diagnosed between 2011 and 2016 and the average follow-up time was 3.78 years. These patients received 1–8 cycles (an average of 6.2 cycles) of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristin, prednisolon (R-CHOP) immunochemotherapy. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1, GSTP1, NAT1, and NAT2 genes.

Results: Our results showed that the polymorphisms of CYP2E1, GSTP1, and NAT1 genes did not influence the prognosis of DLBCL patients significantly. In terms of the NAT2 gene, GG homozygous patients showed slightly better therapeutic response and survival results compared to those bearing an A allele; however, the differences were not statistically significant.

Conclusions: Our results could not confirm that genetic polymorphism in metabolic pathways has any predictive role in DLBCL. 

 

March 2018
Yasmine Ghantous DMD MSc, Sharon Akrish DMD, Yoav Leiser DMD Phd and Imad Abu El-naaj DMD

Background: Several types of human papillomavirus (HPV) have been found to be associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Still, the significance of HPV infection and its relationship to patient prognosis remains an important matter of debate.

Objectives: To investigate the incidence of HPV infection in OSCC patients in northern Israel populations to determine its role in the etiology and prognosis of OSCC.

Methods: OSCC tissues were gathered from the pathology departments at Rambam and Padeh medical centers in northern Israel. HPV DNA typing and immunohistochemistry for p16INK4A antibodies were conducted to evaluate their incidence in OSCC tissues. Statistical analysis regarding its expression in the different sub-populations (Jews, Arabs, Druze) was conducted using chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests.

Results: The study included 82 patients: 53 men and 29 woman; median age 62.1 years; 54 Jews, 25 Arabs, and 3 Druze. The overall incidence of HPV expression was 45% (n=37). The median age of HPV-positive patients was 53 years vs. 65.8 in the negative group (P < 0.001). The 5 year overall survival of HPV-positive patients was not significantly higher than HPV-negative patients. A significant association was found between P16 expression and overall survival (log-rank P = 0.001).

Conclusions: HPV infection in OSCC was not found to be significant in this study; however, P16 expression in the tumor tissue was found to be a positive prognostic factor for better survival.

December 2017
Dante Antonelli MD, Ofir Koren MD, Menachem Nahir MD, Ehud Rozner MD, Nahum A. MD and Yoav Turgeman MD

Background: Survival of patients who were discharged from the hospital following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has not been well defined.

Objective: To verify predictor variables for prognosis of patients following OHCA who survived hospitalization.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed clinical, demographic, and outcome data of consecutive patients who were hospitalized from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2014, into the intensive coronary care unit (ICCU) after aborted OHCA and discharged alive. The patients were followed until December 31, 2015.

Results: Of the 180 patients who were admitted into ICCU after OHCA, 64 were discharged alive (59.3%): 55 were male (85.9%), 14 died 16.5 ± 18 months after their discharge. During 1 year follow-up, nine patients (14.1%) died after a median period of 5.5 months and 55 patients (85.9 %) survived. Diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure (CRF) were more frequent in patients who died within 1 year after their hospital discharge than those who survived. Ventricular fibrillation, such as initial arrhythmia, and opening of occluded infarct related artery were more frequent in survivors.

Conclusions: Most of the patients who were discharged after OHCA were alive at the 1 year follow-up. The risk of death of cardiac arrest survivors is greatest during the first year after discharge. CRF remains a poor long-term prognostic factor beyond the patients' discharge. Ventricular fibrillation, as initial arrhythmia, and opening of occluded infarct related artery have a positive impact on long-term survival.

Jad Khatib MD, Naama Schwartz PhD and Naiel Bisharat MD PhD

Background: In 2006, the Israeli Ministry of Health distributed guidelines for improving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge among hospital staff. The impact of these guidelines on survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) is unclear.

Objectives: To compare rates of incidence and survival to discharge after IHCA, preceding and subsequent to issuance of the guidelines: 1995–2005 and 2006–2015.

Methods: Data were retrieved from the computerized records of patients who had an IHCA and underwent CPR. In addition, we retrieved data available from the hospital's resuscitation committee that included number, type, methods of training in CPR refresher courses, type and number of audits carried out during the past 10 years, and type of CPR quality assessments.

Results: From 1995 to 2015, IHCA incidence increased from 0.7 to 1.7 per 1000 admissions (P < 0.001), while survival rate did not increase (P = 0.37). Survival for shockable rhythms increased from 15.4 to 30.2% (P = 0.05) between the two time periods. The ratio of non-shockable to shockable rhythms increased from 2.4 to 4.6 (P = 0.01) between the two time periods.

Conclusions: Overall IHCA survival did not improve following the issuance of guidelines requiring CPR refresher courses, although survival improved for patients with initial shockable dysrhythmia. A decrease of events with initial shockable dysrhythmia, an increase with acute renal failure, and a decrease occurring in intensive care units contributed to understanding the findings. We found that CPR refresher courses were helpful, although an objective measure of their effectiveness is lacking.

 

August 2016
Dani Bercovich PhD, Geoffrey Goodman PhD and M. Eric Gershwin MD

Immune function is the most basic physiological process in humans and indeed throughout the animal kingdom. Interestingly, the vast majority of textbooks of physiology do not include a chapter on immunity. Our species survival is dependent on the diversity of the immune response and the ability for antigen presentation and effector mechanisms to be enormously promiscuous. As physicians, we are likely all too aware of how brief our life span is and the myriad of diseases and events that shorten it. It is not surprising that we question where our life comes from and our relationship within the universe. Many hypotheses have been offered regarding the likelihood that intelligent life exists elsewhere. We propose that such issues be discussed in the context of basic biologic observations on earth, such as the sight of a dense flock of tens of thousands of starlings maneuvering in rapid twists and turns at dusk before settling in trees for the night. The mathematical likelihood for life elsewhere was proposed by Frank Drake in a classic equation whose 'thesis' has stimulated the search for alien civilizations and the nature of life. A fundamental gap in this equation is the presence of a diverse immune response, a feature essential for survival of Life, presumably also extra-terrestrially.

February 2016
Yuval Nachalon MD, Ohad Hilly MD, Karl Segal MD, Eyal Raveh MD, Dania Hirsch MD, Eyal Robenshtok MD, Ilan Shimon MD, Jacob Shvero MD, Carlos Benbassat MD and Aron Popovtzer MD

Background: Radiation exposure is a well-known risk factor for well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC). However, disease characteristics, optimal treatment, time from exposure to disease appearance, and the effect on outcome of age at initial exposure have yet to be determined. 

Objectives: To identify the characteristics of radiation-induced thyroid carcinoma.

Methods: We retrieved the charts of all patients previously exposed to radiation who were diagnosed with WDTC between the years 1985 and 2013 in a tertiary referral center. 

Results: Forty-four patients were reviewed. Median time from radiation exposure to diagnosis was 23 years. These patients had higher rates of aerodigestive symptoms and distant metastases on presentation than seen in non-radiated patients. Patients who were exposed to radiation before age 15 years tended to develop the disease at a younger age but had a longer latency period (34.7 ± 15.3 vs. 16.3 ± 10 years, P < 0.001) and none had significantly higher rates of vocal cord palsy, hoarseness on presentation, or aggressive variants on histology compared to patients exposed to radiation at an older age. Disease-specific survival (DSS) was the same for both groups and were similar to that seen in the general population (95% 20 year DSS).

Conclusions: Radiation-induced thyroid cancer has a more aggressive presentation and the age at exposure affects the presentation of disease. Nonetheless, appropriate treatment leads to a favorable prognosis.

 

March 2015
Maya Paryente Wiessman MD, Idit F. Liberty MD, Renana Wilkof Segev BSc, Tiberiu Katz MD, Muhammad Abu Tailakh RN MPH and Victor Novack MD PhD

Abstract

Background: Diabetes mellitus-related lower extremity amputation is a major complication severely affecting patient survival and quality of life.

Objectives: To analyze epidemiological and clinical trends in the incidence and survival of lower extremity amputations among diabetes patients.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study of 565 consecutive diabetes patients who underwent their first non-traumatic lower extremity amputation between January 2002 and December 2009.

Results: Major amputations were performed in 316 (55.9%) patients: 142 above the knee (25.1%) and 174 below (30.8%); 249 (44.1%) had a minor amputation. The incidence rates of amputations decreased from 2.9 to 2.1 per 1000 diabetes patients. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that first year mortality rates were lower among patients with minor amputations (31.7% vs. 39.6%, P = 0.569). First year mortality rates following below-knee amputation were somewhat lower than above-knee amputation (33.1 vs.45.1%, respectively). Cox regression model of survival at 1 year after the procedure found that age (HR 1.06 per year, 95% CI 1.04–1.07, P < 0.001), above-knee amputation (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.01–1.83, P = 0.045) and ischemic heart disease (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.26–2.24, P < 0.001) significantly increased one year mortality risk.

Conclusions: In this population-based study the incidence rate of non-traumatic amputations in diabetes patients between January 2002 and December 2009 decreased slightly. However, one year mortality rates after the surgery did not decline and remained high, stressing the need for a multidisciplinary effort to prevent amputations in diabetes patients.

June 2014
Dana Livne-Segev, Maya Gottfried, Natalie Maimon, Avivit Peer, Avivit Neumann, Henry Hayat, Svetlana Kovel, Avishay Sella, Wilmosh Mermershtain, Keren Rouvinov, Ben Boursi, Rony Weitzen, Raanan Berger and Daniel Keizman

Background: The VEGFR/PDGFR inhibitor sunitinib was approved in Israel in 2008 for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), based on an international trial. However, the efficacy of sunitinib treatment in Israeli mRCC patients has not been previously reported.

Objectives: To report the outcome and associated factors of sunitinib treatment in a large cohort of Israeli mRCC patients.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of an unselected cohort of mRCC patients who were treated with sunitinib during the period 2006–2013 in six Israeli hospitals. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association between treatment outcome and clinicopathologic factors.

Results: We identified 145 patients; the median age was 65 years, 63% were male, 80% had a nephrectomy, and 28% had prior systemic treatment. Seventy-nine percent (n=115) had clinical benefit (complete response 5%, n=7; partial response 33%, n= 48; stable disease 41%, n=60); 21% (n=30) were refractory to treatment. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 12 months and median overall survival 21 months. Factors associated with clinical benefit were sunitinib-induced hypertension: [odds ratio (OR) 3.6, P = 0.042] and sunitinib dose reduction or treatment interruption (OR 2.4, P = 0.049). Factors associated with PFS were female gender [hazard ratio (HR) 2, P = 0.004], pre-sunitinib treatment neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio ≤ 3 (HR 2.19, P = 0.002), and active smoking (HR 0.19, P < 0.0001). Factors associated with overall survival were active smoking (HR 0.25, P < 0.0001) and sunitinib-induced hypertension (HR 0.48, P = 0.005). To minimize toxicity, the dose was reduced or the treatment interrupted in 39% (n=57). 

Conclusions: The efficacy of sunitinib treatment for mRCC among Israeli patients is similar to that of international data.

April 2014
Arie Apel MD, Meirav Kedmi MD, Etai Levi MD, Miriam Berkowicz MD, Yaron Davidovitz MD, Abraham Kneller MD, Elena Ribakovsky MD, Avichai Shimoni MD, Arnon Nagler MD MSc and Abraham Avigdor MD
 Background: Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a rare disease with a poor outcome in adults. Over the years different protocols have been developed with the aim of improving the outcome. The German study group protocols (GMALL), which are the most frequently used in our institutions, changed significantly between the periods 1989–93 and 1999–2003.

Objectives: To investigate whether the change in protocols over the years resulted in an outcome difference at two hospitals in Israel.

Methods: We thoroughly reviewed the records of 153 patients from Sheba Medical Center and Soroka Medical Center, of whom 106 comprised the study group. The patients were divided into two groups according to the treatment protocol used: 40 patients with the 1989/93 protocol and 66 with the 1999/2003 protocol. Outcome was analyzed for the two groups.

Results: We found a significant difference in disease-free survival (DFS) between the two groups for B cell-ALL (B-ALL) patients who achieved complete remission after induction. There was no difference in overall survival. We did not find any difference in outcome for T cell-ALL patients or for CD20-positive patients.

Conclusions: In our retrospective analysis, GMALL 99/2003 led to a better DFS for B-ALL patients who were in complete remission after induction. This is possibly related to the differences in medications between the protocols, but may also be due to better supportive care. Despite the proven advantage of the newer protocols regarding overall survival, in our experience there was no other significant difference between the two regimens. 

January 2014
Johad F. Khoury, Myriam Weyl Ben-Arush, Michael Weintraub, Elisha Waldman, Boris Futerman, Eugene Vlodavsky and Sergey Postovsky
 Background: In osteosarcoma the histological response, measured by the percentage of tumor necrosis, constitutes one of the most significant predictive factors, with better survival in patients whose tumor necrosis is ≥ 90%.

Objectives: To determine if the decrease rate of serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP) levels during the first month of neoadjuvant chemotherapy could serve as a predictive indicator of tumor necrosis and clinical outcome.

Methods: We analyzed the medical files of 53 osteosarcoma patients (19 females, 34 males) (median age 16 years, range 8–24); the disease was metastatic in 12 and localized in the other 41.

Results: The histological responses were good in 38 patients (71.7%) and poor in 15 (28.3%). At a median follow-up of 50 months, 34 patients (64.2%) had no evidence of disease and 19 (35.8%) had died from the disease. High levels of SAP at diagnosis correlated with worse survival (P = 0.002). There was no difference in overall survival between patients whose SAP decrease rate was > 25% and those with a rate < 25% (P = 0.14). Among female patients, "rapid" SAP responders had better survival than "slow" responders (P = 0.026). In patients with metastases the SAP decrease rate was positively correlated with survival (P = 0.042).

Conclusions: There was no evidence that "rapid" SAP responders had a higher percentage of tumor necrosis than "slow" responders, although female "rapid" SAP responders had a better prognosis than "slow" responders. Patients with metastases at presentation and "rapid" SAP response had better prognoses.

May 2011
L. Shen, Y. Matsunami, N. Quan, K. Kobayashi, E. Matsuura and K. Oguma

Background: Major changes in the evaluation and treatment of curable colorectal cancer (CRC) have emerged in the last two decades. These changes have led to better patient outcome over time.

Objectives: To evaluate the impact of these changes as reflected in the difference in long-term outcome of a consecutive group of recently laparoscopically operated curable CRC[1] patients and a consecutive group of patients operated 20 years earlier in the same department.

Methods: Data of the new group were taken from our prospectively collected data of patients who underwent elective laparoscopic surgery for CRC in recent years. Data regarding patients operated on 20 years ago were retrieved from previous prospectively collected data on the long-term survival of CRC patients operated in the same department.

Results: The recently operated group comprised 203 patients and the previous group 199 patients. Perioperative mortality was 0.5% in the new group versus 1.5% in the old group (not significant). There were more early-stage and more proximal tumors in the recently operated group. A Kaplan-Meier 5-year survival analysis revealed no difference between stage I patients of the two groups. However, there was a significant increase in 5-year survival in the new group for stage II (85% vs. 63%, P = 0.004) and for stage III patients (57% vs. 39%, P = 0.01). This trend was maintained after removing the rectal cancer patients from the calculated data.

Conclusions: We have demonstrated improved survival for stage II and III CRC patients over a 20-year period in the same medical center. This change most likely reflects advances both in imaging techniques leading to more accurate staging and in adjuvant treatments.






[1] CRC = colorectal cancer


February 2011
Y. Naaman, D. Shveiky, I. Ben-Shachar, A. Shushan, J. Mejia-Gomez and A. Benshushan

Background: Uterine sarcoma constitutes a highly malignant group of uterine tumors. It accounts for 2–6% of uterine malignancies and its incidence is 1.7 in 100,000 women. The three most common variants of uterine sarcoma are endometrial stromal sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma and carcinosarcoma. Based on relatively small case series, the literature provides little information on the risk factors, the natural course of the disease and the preferred treatment.

Objectives: To evaluate uterine sarcoma patients treated in a tertiary referral center in Israel over a 20 year period (1980–2005).

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of the charts of 40 uterine sarcoma patients, including their tumor characteristics, stage at diagnosis, treatment modalities, follow-up and survival.

Results: The patients’ mean age was 53 years (range 32–76); 30% of the patients had carcinosarcoma, 55% had leiomyosarcoma and 15% had ESS[1]. Half of the patients presented with stage I disease, 23% stage II, 10% stage III and 15% stage IV. Thirty-nine patients were treated by surgery. Adjuvant radiotherapy was administered to 39% of the patients, adjuvant chemotherapy to 21% and combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy to 9%. The mean follow-up period was 44 months, at which time disease had recurred in 44% of the patients. The disease stage was correlated with the 5-year survival rate, which was 73.1% for stages I-II and 22.2% for stages III- IV.

Conclusions: In accordance with other larger studies our data show that the only prognostic factor that was significantly correlated with prognosis was the stage of the disease at diagnosis. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, survival has not improved over the last 25 years.






[1] ESS = endometrial stromal sarcoma



 
L. Kogan, J. Menczer, E. Shejter, I. Liphshitz and M. Barchana

Background: The age-standardized incidence rate of invasive cervical cancer in Israeli Jewish women is persistently low. Selected demographic characteristics of Israeli Jewish women with cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were reported recently. 

Objectives: To assess selected clinical characteristics of Israeli Jewish women with cervical SCC.

Methods: Included were all Israeli Jewish women with SCC diagnosed during the 3-year period 2002­–2004. Data were obtained from the Israel National Cancer Registry and the Central Population Registry. Discharge summaries of the patients were reviewed and clinical data were abstracted.

Results: The study was based on 350 Israeli Jewish women with histologically confirmed cervical SCC diagnosed during the 3-year study period. The median age of the patients was 50.3 years. The most common main complaint was discharge/bleeding (35.7%) and only a small percentage (7.4%) was diagnosed subsequent to an abnormal cytological smear. The rate of patients diagnosed in stage I was 47.7%. The overall absolute 5-year survival and survival in stage I was 70% and 83.8% respectively. The rate of Israeli born patients diagnosed in stage I and their overall absolute 5-year survival was significantly higher than in the other ethnic groups.

Conclusions: Age, the most frequent main complaint, the percent of patients diagnosed in stage I and the 5-year survival (overall and in stage I) are similar to data in other countries. The survival of Israeli born women seems to be better than that of other ethnic groups.
 

July 2009
N. Bentur and S. Resnitzky

Background: Information regarding long-term survival after stroke in many countries is scarce.

Objectives: To both assess 5 year survival after stroke in the Israeli population and determine its independent prognostic factors.

Methods: We followed 616 people with acute stroke who were admitted consecutively to seven large general hospitals in Israel. The data were collected on admission to the hospital, at discharge, at 3, 6 and 12 months thereafter, and 5 years after the stroke.

Results: The 5 year cumulative probability of survival was 49.2% (95% CI 45.0–53.7%). In the multivariate Cox analysis, lower age and functioning independently before the event were associated with a lower risk of death, while other demographic characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors were not found to be associated with mortality.

Conclusions: Five year survival after stroke in Israel, though high, is similar to other western countries. There is a need to ensure early, active and sustained implementation of strategies for preventing stroke events.

May 2009
S. Frenkel, K. Hendler and J. Pe’er

Background: Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular tumor in adults. In the last two decades the Hadassah-Hebrew University ocular oncology clinic has become a referral center for uveal melanoma patients.

Objectives: To describe the characteristics of uveal melanoma patients in Israel, their treatment modalities and outcomes during the years 1988–2007.

Methods: Data were collected from the files of uveal melanoma patients in the departments of ophthalmology and oncology in our facility. Statistical analysis was performed using JMP statistical software.

Results: Data were available for 558 patients. The annual incidence of uveal melanoma in the last 5 years was 47.2 ± 7.1 new cases per year (mean ± standard error). There were 309 women (55.4%). The age at diagnosis was 60.8 ± 16.5 years (range 5–95). Overall, 6.6%, 16.8% and 86.9% involved the iris, ciliary-body and choroid, respectively. Tumors were classified as small, medium and large (9.0%, 64.5% and 17.9%, respectively) according to the COMS grouping criteria. The most common primary treatment was brachytherapy (74%), followed by enucleation (17.9%). Local recurrence was noted in 11.1% of patients, while metastases developed in 13.3%. The 5, 10 and 15 year melanoma-related mortality rate was 11.4%, 17.0% and 23.3%, respectively. Of the overall study population 9.3% died of metastatic uveal melanoma.

Conclusions: Uveal melanoma patients in Israel have tumors with characteristics similar to those in other countries. Brachytherapy is the predominant treatment, the local recurrence rate is low, and survival is comparable to that reported in the medical literature.

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