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עמוד בית
Tue, 16.07.24

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July 2005
T. Gaspar, D. Dvir and N. Peled
 Background: Computed tomography angiography enables non-invasive evaluation of the coronary arteries.

Objectives: To evaluate the accuracy of 16-slice multi-detector CT angiography in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, and assess coronary bypass grafts and coronary anomalies.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 223 patients who were examined at our medical center over a period of 2 years with a 16-slice CT angiography scanner and retrospective electrocardiographic gating.

Results: There were no significant complications, and good visualization of the coronary arteries was achieved in all but eight patients. A high correlation with the results of the invasive angiography was noted (sensitivity 85%, specificity 93%, negative predictive value 98%). Altogether, 131 bypass conduits were examined with excellent graft visualization. Several coronary anomalies were detected, as were significant extra-cardiac findings.

Conclusions: Multi-slice CT angiography is a reliable non-invasive diagnostic procedure for demonstration of the coronary arteries and bypass grafts. In the future it will probably replace part of the diagnostic invasive coronary angiography and, as a result, a large proportion of coronary angiography procedures will be therapeutic.

S.D. Duek, M.M. Krausz and D.D. Hershko
Background: Transanal endoscopic microsurgery has recently gained acceptance as an alternative minimally invasive surgical technique for the curative management of large rectal adenomas and selected early rectal carcinomas.

Objectives: To analyze our 8 year experience using TEM[1] for the management of rectal cancer.

Methods: Local resection by TEM was performed in patients with benign tumors and early rectal cancer. In addition, selected patients with T2 and T3 rectal cancers who were either medically unfit or unwilling to undergo radical surgery were also treated with this modality. Radical surgery was offered to all patients with incomplete tumor excision by TEM.

Results: Overall, 116 TEM operations for rectal tumors were carried out between 1995 and 2003, including 74 patients with rectal adenomas and 42 patients with rectal carcinomas. Twenty-five patients had T1 tumors that were all successfully removed, with clear tumor margins, by TEM. Fourteen patients had T2 cancer and 3 of them (21%) required additional radical surgery due to incomplete excision. Local recurrence was observed in one patient with T2 cancer. There was no mortality. Major surgery, or radiotherapy-related complications requiring additional surgical intervention was needed in five patients with T2 cancer.

Conclusions: Local excision by TEM is a safe surgical procedure and should be offered to highly selected patients with early rectal cancer.


 


[1] TEM = transanal endoscopic microsurgery


June 2005
I.L. Nudelman, V. Fuko, A. Geller, E. Fenig and S. Lelchuk
 Background: Abdominoperineal resection entails the need for a permanent colostomy, which significantly reduces patient self-image and quality of life.

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of preoperative chemoradiation in increasing the resectability rates of rectal cancer and increasing the anal sphincter preservation rate.

Methods: The study group included 66 patients aged 33–84 years with T2–T3 rectal carcinoma who were treated in our institute from 1997 to 2002 with preoperative chemoradiation followed by surgery 6 weeks later. All patients underwent preoperative transrectal endoscopic ultrasound for tumor staging and localization. The duration of follow-up was 25 months.

Results: Chemoradiation led to tumor downstaging in 61 patients (92.4%), all of whom underwent low anterior resection. Only 11.4% of this group needed a temporary (6 weeks) loop colostomy/ileostomy. None of the 16 patients with post-treatment T0 tumors had evidence of malignant cells on pathologic study. Five patients (7.6%) failed to respond to chemoradiation and underwent APR[1]. There were no major complications, such as leakage, and no deaths.

Conclusions: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation is an effective modality to downstage advanced rectal cancer, improving patient quality of life by significantly reducing the need for a terminal permanent colostomy, or even a temporary one.


 





[1] APR = abdominoperineal resection


May 2005
M. Mekel, A. Mahajna, S. Ish-Shalom, M. Barak, E. Segal, A. Abu Salih, B. Bishara, Z. Shen-Or and M.M. Krausz
 Background: Minimal invasive surgery for parathyroidectomy has been introduced in the treatment of hyperparathyroidism.

Objective: To evaluate the contribution of the sestamibi-SPECT (MIBI) localization, cervical ultrasonography, and intraoperative rapid turbo intact parathormone assay in minimal invasive parathyroidectomy.

Methods: Between August 1999 and March 2004, 146 consecutive hyperthyroid patients were treated using the MIBI and ultrasound for preoperative localization and iPTH[1] measurements for intraoperative assessment.

Results: Parathyroid adenoma was detected in 106 patients, primary hyperplasia in 16, secondary hyperplasia in 16, tertiary hyperplasia in 5 and parathyroid carcinoma in 1 patient. Minimal invasive exploration of the neck was performed in 84 of the 106 patients (79.2%) with an adenoma, and in 17 of them this procedure was performed under local cervical block anesthesia in awake patients. Adenoma was correctly diagnosed by MIBI scan in 74% of the patients, and by ultrasound in 61%. The addition of ultrasonography to MIBI increased the accuracy of adenoma detection to 83%. In 2 of the 146 patients (1.4%) iPTH could not be significantly reduced during the initial surgical procedure. Minimal invasive surgery with minimal morbidity, and avoiding bilateral neck exploration, was achieved in 79.2% of patients with a primary solitary adenoma.


 





[1] iPTH = intact parathormone


April 2005
February 2005
K. Stav, N. Rahimi-Levene, A. Lindner, Y.I. Siegel and A. Zisman
 Bleeding during retropubic radical prostatectomy arises from venous structures in the majority of cases. Since its introduction two decades ago, the nerve-sparing procedure with surgical control of the dorsal venous complex has led to a reduction in blood loss and blood transfusion rate. The reduction in blood loss is a result of better understanding of the prostatic blood vessel anatomy, extensive surgical experience over time, and reduction in transfusion triggers with an acceptance of lower postoperative hemoglobin values. Increased blood loss during RRP[1] is associated with poorer outcomes most probably due to surgical difficulties. But as for now, there are no decisive risk factors for clinically significant bleeding during RRP although newer technologies for hemostasis of the dorsal vein complex are being utilized.

__________________

[1] RRP = retropubic radical prostatectomy
U. Peleg, S. Schwartz, G. Sirota, I. Hochman, D. Cohen and E. Picard
June 2004
E. Eviatar, M. Vaiman, N. Shlamkovitch, S. Segal, A. Kessler and U. Katzenell

Background: The external approach is the golden standard for sinonasal tumor removal but it is associated with several side effects, including facial scars, intracranial and extracranial complications, a long hospitalization period and high costs. Endoscopic sinus surgery enables resection of benign and selected malignant sinonasal tumors and has the advantages of no facial scars, better functional and structural preservation of the sinonasal complex, minimal trauma to surrounding tissue, a shorter hospitalization stay and lower costs.

Objectives: To evaluate the advantages and limitations of endoscopic resection of benign and malignant sinonasal tumors, their recurrence and complication rates.

Methods: The medical and radiology records of 56 patients who underwent endonasal endoscopic resection of benign and malignant sinonasal tumors between 1996 and 2003 were retrospectively reviewed. Tumors located in the center of the nose and sinuses were endoscopically resected.

Results: Six cases of malignant tumor and 50 cases of benign tumor underwent resection by ESS[1]. One of the patients with malignant tumor died, the remainder showing no evidence of disease on follow-up of 3–60 months (mean 26.8 months). Inverted papilloma was the most common benign tumor (40 patients). Seven patients (18%) had recurrence followed by endonasal resection. No major complications were recorded. Hospitalization stay was 2–7 days (mean 3.6 days).

Conclusions: Endoscopic resection of benign sinonasal tumors that are centrally located in the nose and sinuses should be considered before the external approach is used. In very carefully selected cases of malignant tumors ESS is oncologically acceptable, but more experience is needed for discerning the indications for endoscopic resection of malignant tumors. The complication rate for endoscopic resection is low, there are no facial scars, hospitalization stay is short, and costs are low.






[1] ESS = endoscopic sinus surgery


March 2004
E. Raanani, A. Keren, A. Kogan, R. Kornowski and B.A. Vidne

Background: Reports from Europe and North America indicate that significant changes have occurred in the practice of cardiac surgery in the last two decades.

Objectives: To examine the trends and case-mix in cardiac surgery in Israel and their relationship with changes in invasive cardiology.

Methods: We analysed data collected by the Ministry of Health from all cardiac centers in Israel from 1985 to 2002.

Results: Three periods were identified: the 1980s, when a relatively small number of operations were performed; 1990–1994, characterized by a dramatic rise in the number of operations; and 1994–present, characterized by a small decline and stabilization in the rate of operations. The percentage of valve procedures increased significantly from 15% of all cardiac surgeries in 1991 to 21% in 2002 (P = 0.002). In addition, the chance of a diagnostic coronary angiography being followed, in the same patient, by an interventional procedure such as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or by a coronary artery bypass graft increased dramatically from 42% in 1991 to 69% in 2002. At Rabin Medical Center, there was a constant decline in the percent of repeated CABGs[1] out of the total CABGs performed, from 6.7% in 1996 to 1.3% in 2002.

Conclusions: Despite the rise in the rate of percutaneous coronary interventions since 1991, there has been no significant decline in the rate of CABGs performed. However, there is a significant shift to more complex operations. The number of repeated CABG operations has significantly decreased and, in view of the growing use of arterial grafts and further improvements in invasive cardiology techniques, we expect this decline to continue.






[1] CABG = coronary artery bypass graft


A. Pollack, G. Landa, G. Kleinman, H. Katz, D. Hauzer and A. Bukelman

Background: Eyes scheduled for posterior segment surgery may have cataract, which obscures the visualization of the retina. Surgery may be carried out either by a two-step procedure: i.e., removal of the cataract followed later by posterior segment surgery; or it may be done in a single session: i.e., combined surgery of both the anterior and posterior segments.

Objective: To evaluate the outcomes of combined surgery by phacoemulsification and vitrectomy.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 42 patients with coexisting cataract and vitreoretinal disease who underwent combined surgery by phacoemulsification and pars plana vitrectomy at one session.

Results: Indications for surgery were vitreous hemorrhage in 71.4%, retinal detachment in 11.9%, macular hole in 11.9%, and epiretinal membrane in 4.8%. There were no significant intraoperative complications.The main early postsurgical complications were fibrinous formation in 11.9%, elevated intraocular pressure in 23.8%, and recurrent vitreous hemorrhage in 9.5%. There were a few late complications related to phacoemulsification: posterior synechia in 9.5%, posterior capsular opacification in 7.1%, and dislocating intraocular lens in 4.8%. Recurrent retinal detachment occurred in five eyes and rubeoisis iridis in one. Visual acuity was improved in 85.8%, stable in 7.1% and worse in 7.1%.

Conclusions: Phacoemulsification performed at the time of posterior segment surgery enables good visualization during the vitrectomy, facilitates surgery, and is associated with only minor complications. In cases with cataract and vitreoretinal diseases, combined surgery by phacoemulsification and vitrectomy in one session may be considered.
 

October 2003
R. Gerrah, U. Izhar, A. Elami, El Milgalter, E. Rudis and G. Merin

Background: Cardiac surgery is being performed with increasing frequency in patients aged 80 years and older.

Objectives: To examine the long and short-term results of surgery in this age group.

Methods: We retrospectively investigated 202 consecutive patients aged 80 years or older who underwent cardiac surgery between 1991 and 1999. Ninety-six operations (48%) were urgent.

Results: The study group comprised 140 men (69%) and 62 women (31%) with a mean age of 82.1 years (range 80–89). Preoperatively, 120 patients (59%) had unstable angina, 37 (18%) had left main coronary artery disease, 22 (11%) had renal failure, 17 (8.5%) had a history of stroke, and 13 (6.5%) had previous cardiac surgery. Hospital mortality for the whole group was 7.4%. Postoperative complications included: re-exploration for bleeding in 15 (7.4%), stroke in 8 (4%), sternal wound infection in 3 (1.5%), low cardiac output in 17 (8.4%), new Q wave myocardial infarction in 5 (2.5%), renal failure in 17 (8.5%), and atrial fibrillation in 71 (35%). The actuarial survival for patients discharged from the hospital was 66% at 5 years and 46% at 8 years. The type of surgical procedure was significantly associated with increased early mortality (coronary artery bypass grafting only in 2.9%, CABG[1] + valve in 16.1%, valve only in 16.7%; P = 0.01). Significant predictors (P < 0.05) for late mortality included type of surgical procedure, congestive heart failure, and postoperative low cardiac output.

Conclusions: When appropriately applied in selected octogenarians, cardiac surgery can be performed with acceptable mortality and good long-term results.






[1] CABG = coronary artery bypass grafting


Z. Israel

Tremor is extremely common and often functionally disabling. When tremor becomes medically intractable, surgery is a good and safe option for appropriate candidates. Both stereotactic thalamotomy and thalamic deep brain stimulation by means of an implanted electrode offer very high rates of success with an acceptably low complication rate.

September 2003
R. Gerrah, E. Rudis, A. Elami, E. Milgalter, U. Izhar and G. Merin

Background: About 40% of patients with infective endocarditis will require surgical treatment. The guidelines for such treatment were formulated by the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association in 1998.

Objectives: To examine our experience with surgical treatment of infective endocarditis in light of these guidelines.

Methods: Surgery was performed in 59 patients with infective endocarditis between 1990 and 1999. The patients' mean age was 48 years (range 13–80). The indications for surgery were hemodynamic instability, uncontrolled infection, and peripheral embolic events. The surgical treatment was based on elimination of infection foci and correction of the hemodynamic derangement. These objectives were met with valve replacement in the majority of patients. Whenever conservative surgery was possible, resection of vegetation and subsequent valve repair were performed and the native valve was preserved.

Results: Six patients (10%) died perioperatively from overwhelming sepsis (n=3), low cardiac output (n=2) and multiorgan failure (n=1). The mean hospital stay was 15.6 days. Of 59 patients, 47 (80%) underwent valve replacement and in 11 (19%) the surgical treatment was based on valve repair. After 1 year of follow up, there was no re-infection.

Conclusion: The new guidelines for surgical treatment of infective endocarditis allow better selection of patients and timing of surgery for this aggressive disease, which consequently decreases the mortality rate. Valve repair is feasible and is preferred whenever possible. According to the new guidelines, patients with neurologic deficit in our series would not have been operated upon, potentially decreasing the operative mortality to 7%.

R. Greenberg, Y. Barnea, S. Schneebaum, H. Kashtan, O. Kaplan and Y. Skornik

Background: Drains are inserted in the dissected axilla of most patients during surgery for breast cancer.

Objective: To evaluate the presence and prognostic value of MUC1 and Met-HGF/SF in the axillary drainage of these patients.

Methods: The study group included 40 consecutive patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast who were suitable for breast-conserving treatment; 20 malignant melanoma patients found to have negative axillary sentinel lymph node served as the control group. The output of the drains, which had been placed in the axilla during operation, was collected, and the presence of MUC1, Met-hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor and b-actin were assessed in the lymphatic fluid by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays. The data were compared to the pathologic features of the tumor and the axillary lymph nodes, and to the estrogen and progesterone receptors status.

Results: RT-PCR[1] assays of the axillary lymphatic drainage were positive for MUC1 and Met-HGF/SF[2] in 15 (37.5%) and 26 (65%) of the patients, respectively. Patients in whom MUC1 and Met-HGF/SF were not found in the axillary fluid had smaller tumors and less capillary and lymphatic invasion, compared to patients with positive assays (P < 0.02 for all these comparisons). The lymph nodes were negative for metastases in all patients with negative assays (P < 0.001). The presence of MUC1 and Met-HGF/SF showed negative correlations with the estrogen and progesterone receptors (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: MUC1 and Met-HGF/SF can be detected in the axillary fluids of patients with breast cancer. The expression of both tumor markers in the axillary drainage is strongly associated with unfavorable tumor features and can be used as a prognostic factor.






[1] RT-PCR = reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction



[2] HGF/SF = hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor


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