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עמוד בית
Mon, 15.07.24

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September 2010
G. Rosner, P. Rozen, D. Bercovich, C. Shochat, I. Solar, H. Strul, R. Kariv and Z. Halpern

Background: Patients with multiple (< 100) colorectal adenomatous polyps are at increased risk for colorectal cancer. Genetic evaluation of those patients who test negative for APC gene mutation is both a clinical and economic burden but is critical for counseling and surveillance. In Israel, this is confounded by the fact that national health insurance does not fully cover genetic evaluation of APC gene exon 16.

Objectives: To perform a comprehensive genetic evaluation of APC gene mutation-negative polyposis patients with the aim of developing a future evaluation protocol.

Methods: Genetic analyses were performed in 29 APC gene mutation-negative Jewish individuals with 5 to ≥ 40 colonic adenomas who did not fulfill Amsterdam (clinical) criteria for Lynch syndrome. Analyses included completion of APC gene exon 16 sequencing, analysis for APC gene copy number variations (deletions or duplications), MUTYH gene sequencing, and microsatellite instability in CRC[1] patients fulfilling “Bethesda” (laboratory investigation) criteria for Lynch syndrome.

Results: Completion of APC gene exon 16 sequencing revealed one patient with the E1317Q polymorphism. All were normal by APC multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis. Pathogenic MUTYH mutations were found in three patients, all of North African origin; two additional patients had variants of unknown significance. One of six patients with Bethesda-positive criteria was MSI2-High with immunohistology consistent with MLH1 mutation.

Conclusions: Based on this small but well-characterized cohort with multiple colorectal adenomas, Lynch syndrome needs to be excluded if there are compatible criteria; otherwise MUTYH sequencing is probably the first step in evaluating APC-negative patients, especially for Jews of North African descent. Completing APC exon 16 sequencing and copy number variations analysis should probably be the last evaluations.

 






[1] CRC = colorectal cancer


December 2009
E. Shneyer, A. Strulov and Y. Rosenfeld

Background: According to the Israeli immunization schedule 1 year old babies should receive two concomitant vaccinations: MMR (measles-mumps-rubella), and DTap-Hib-IPV (diphtheria tetanus acellular pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae type b-poliomyelitis). However, about one-third of infants in Israel receive these vaccinations separately. Nurses at a primary care prevention clinic in Israel observed that the separate mode of vaccination is associated with a lower rate of side effects.

Objectives: To validate this observation and determine whether it represents an exception or the rule.

Methods: A nested prospective follow-up study was conducted in a primary care clinic in Israel. The survey included 191 mothers and their offspring born during 2004/2005. The mothers were interviewed over the telephone 2 weeks after the day of vaccination.

Results: The rate of adverse effects in children who received the injections separately was significantly lower than among those who were vaccinated simultaneously (40% vs. 57%).

Conclusions: It may be necessary to reconsider the current vaccination policy regarding concomitant injections.

July 2009
Y. Rosenfeld and A. Strulov

Background: The rate in Israel of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer procedures is the highest among industrialized countries. The procedure has the potential to make treated patients forever happy, should the desired result occur. It also entails, however, numerous potential complications. Patients who are candidates for the procedure should fully understand potential desired and undesired results, and should give their consent based on this understanding. The question whether currently used informed consent forms for these procedures indeed serve this purpose is, however, open.

Objectives: To explore the usefulness of informed consent forms for IVF&ET[1] that are currently used in Israel to represent the potential benefits and risks of the procedures to the patients.

Methods: Informed consent forms for IVF&ET were scrutinized for accuracy, clarity and relevance, by comparison to relevant medical literature. IVF&ET informed consent forms were also assessed whether they fulfill the requirements of the Israeli Law of Patient's Rights.

Results: Currently used "informed" consent forms for IVF&ET were found to be fundamentally inaccurate and outdated. In some cases (number of embryos to be transferred), the information is grossly obscure. In other cases (alternative management) there are glaring omissions.

Conclusions: Informed consent forms for IVF&ET that are currently used in Israel do not adequately serve their stated purpose. Potential risks and benefits are not presented clearly and alternative management strategies are also missing. Thus, they do not fulfill their social, ethical or legal goals. Updating these forms is urgently needed. New versions should clearly distinguish between common (controllable) and uncommon (uncontrollable) complications.






[1] IVF&ET = in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer


August 2005
A. Strulov
 Until the end of the 1980s almost no intensive intervention plan was applied to narrow the vast gap (over 100%) in infant mortality between Jews and Arabs in the Western Galilee region of Israel. A special committee appointed by the Ministry of Health instituted measures to reduce the gap, including monitoring mortality rates by establishing an online and real-time computerized information system to analyze the information without delay. Based on the epidemiologic findings, an intervention program was implemented, using health education to reduce mortality due to seasonal infections – gastroenteritis in summer and upper respiratory and hyperthermia in winter. Within 1 year these infections had abated, resulting in significantly reduced mortality. The next step was the development of an ultrasound preventive campaign using sophisticated sonography to screen pregnant women in risk groups for lethal congenital defects and convincing them to discontinue the pregnancy. These two measures reduced infant mortality dramatically. The campaign has been widened to the entire northern district and is presently addressing, as a primary prevention, the traditionally difficult problem of consanguineous marriages – the major cause of congenital defects in the Arab population.

April 2001
Hana Strul, MD, Michal Carmiel, MD and Fred Konikoff, MD
September 2000
Hana Strul MD and Nadir Arber MD

There is increasing evidence to suggest that aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. This observation is supported by animal studies that show fewer tumors per animal and fewer animals with tumors after administration of several different NSAIDs. Intervention data in familial adenomatous polyposis have established that the effect is exerted on the process of human colonic adenoma formation. Supportive evidence in sporadic colorectal neoplasia, derived from 22 of 24 studies (both case-control and cohort), found a reduced risk in men and women for cancers of the colon and the rectum and for both aspirin and the other NSAIDs. Earlier detection of lesions as a result of drug-induced bleeding does not seem to account for these findings. Although the molecular mechanism responsible for the chemopreventive action of this class of drugs is not yet completely understood, the protection may affect several pathways including both cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis.

In the third millennium the question is not if but how. Based on the consistency of epidemiological, clinical and experimental data, the association between regular long-term aspirin or NSAIDs intake and a decreased death rate from colorectal cancer is sound and there is no need for further placebo trials. At the same time, despite this consistency there is no clear data on the dose, duration or frequency of use for cancer-preventive activity.

January 2000
Rosa Michlin MD, Moshe Oettinger MD, Maruan Odeh MD, Samer Khoury MD, Ella Ophir MD, Mila Barak MD, Margareta Wolfson MD and Avshalom Strulov MD, MPH

Background: Obesity, a common condition in developed countries, is recognized as a threat to health.

Objectives: To describe the distribution of weight in pregnant women and evaluate the influence of obesity on pregnancy outcome in a high parity northern Israeli population.

Methods: The study included 887 women who gave birth in the Western Galilee Medical Center during the period August to November 1995. The patients were classified as underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese according to body mass index. Maternal demographic, obstetric, and perinatal variables were compared. A control group of 167 normal weight women were matched with the obese group for maternal age, parity, and gestational age.

Results: Obese mothers had a higher incidence of gestational diabetes and pregnancy-induced hypertension compared to normal weight mothers (5.4% vs. 1.8%, and 7.2% vs. 0.6% respectively, P<0.01), a higher rate of labor induction (20.4% vs. 10.2%, P<0.01), and a higher cesarean section rate (19.6% vs.10.8%, P<0.05). There was also a significant difference in the prevalence of macrosomia in the offspring (16.8% vs. 8.4%, P<0.05).

Conclusion: Obese pregnant women are at high risk for complications during delivery and therefore need careful pre-conception and prenatal counseling, as well as perinatal management.

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