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עמוד בית
Tue, 28.05.24

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October 2011
A. Gadoth, E. Aurie, H. Shaim and N.M. Bornstein

Background: In the past, carotid endarterectomy (CEA) was the only modality for invasive intervention in cases of carotid stenosis. Due to improvements in endovascular techniques (stenting), there is a growing debate regarding the preferred procedure for carotid intervention.

Objectives: To compare the 30 day complication rate after CEA and carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) in a tertiary medical center in Israel between the years 2008 and 2010.

Methods: We reviewed the medical charts of all the patients who underwent either CEA or CAS of the internal carotid artery due to symptomatic and asymptomatic stenosis during the period 20082010 (total of 128 patients).

Results: There was no difference between the groups in the rate of severe complications in the peri-procedural period. Mild complications were non-significantly more common in the CEA group (17%) compared to the CAS group (7.1%).

Conclusions: There was no significant difference in the mild and severe complications rate between CEA and CAS in the peri-procedural period.

May 2011
E. Hayim Mizrahi, A. Waitzman, M. Arad and A. Adunsky

Background: Total cholesterol is significantly associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke. Patients with ischemic stroke and high cholesterol levels may show better functional outcome after rehabilitation.

Objectives: To study the possible interrelations between hypercholesterolemia and functional outcome in elderly survivors of ischemic stroke.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review study of consecutive patients (age ≥ 60 years) with acute stroke admitted to a geriatric rehabilitation ward in a university-affiliated hospital. The presence or absence of hypercholesterolemia was based on registry data positive for hypercholesterolemia, defined as total cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dl (5.17 mmol/L). Functional outcome of patients with hypercholesterolemia (Hchol) and without (NHchol) was assessed by the Functional Independence Measurement scale (FIMTM) at admission and discharge. Data were analyzed by t-test and chi-square test, as well as linear regression analysis.

Results: The complete data for 551 patients (age range 60–96 years)w ere available for final analysis; 26.7% were diagnosed as having hypercholesterolemia. Admission total FIM[1] scores were significantly higher in patients with Hchol[2] (72.1 ± 24.8) compared with NHchol[3] patients (62.2 ± 24.7) (P < 0.001). A similar difference was found at discharge (Hchol 90.8 ± 27.9 vs. NHchol 79.7 ± 29.2, P < 0.001). However, total FIM change upon discharge was similar in both groups (18.7 ± 13.7 vs. 17.6 ± 13.7, P = 0.4). Regression analyses showed that high Mini Mental State Examination scores (β = 0.13, P = 0.01) and younger age (β = -0.12, P = 0.02) were associated with higher total FIM change scores upon discharge. Total cholesterol was not associated with better total FIM change on discharge (β = -0.012, P = 0.82).

Conclusions: Elderly survivors of stroke with Hchol who were admitted for rehabilitation showed higher admission and discharge FIM scores but similar functional FIM gains as compared to NHchol patients. High cholesterol levels may be useful in identifying older individuals with a better rehabilitation potential.

[1] FIM = Functional Independence Measurement

[2] Hcol = hypercholesterolemia

[3] NHchol = non-hypercholesterolemia

November 2010
S.D Israeli-Korn, Y. Schwammenthal, T. Yonash-Kimchi, M. Bakon, R. Tsabari, D. Orion, B. Bruk, N. Molshatzki, O. Merzeliak, J. Chapman and D. Tanne

Background: Multiple case series, mostly highly selected, have demonstrated a very high mortality following acute basilar artery occlusion. The more widespread availability and use of non-invasive vascular imaging over recent years has increased the rate of ABAO[1] diagnosis.

Objectives: To estimate the proportion of diagnosed ABAO among all-cause ischemic stroke in an era of increasing use of non-invasive vascular imaging and to compare the characteristics and outcomes between these two groups.

Methods: We compared 27 consecutive cases of ABAO identified in a university hospital between 2003 and 2007 to 311 unselected cases of ischemic stroke from two 4 month surveys.

Results: ABAO diagnosis increased from 0.3% of all-cause ischemic stroke (2003–2004) to 1.1% (2007), reflecting the increased use of non-invasive vascular imaging. In comparison to all-cause ischemic stroke, ABAO patients were younger (mean age 60 vs. 71 years), were more likely to be male (89% vs. 60%), had less atrial fibrillation (7% vs. 26%), more severe strokes (baseline NIHSS over 20: 52% vs. 12%), higher admission white cell count (12,000 vs. 9000 cells/mm3) lower admission systolic blood pressure (140 ± 24 vs. 153 ± 27 mmHg), higher in-hospital mortality rates (30% vs. 8%) and worse functional outcome (modified Rankin scale ≤ 3, 22% vs. 56%) (P < 0.05 for all). Rates of reperfusion therapy for ABAO increased from 0 in 2003–2004 to 60% in 2007.

Conclusions: In this study, ABAO patients represented approximately 1% of all-cause ischemic stroke and were about a decade younger than patients with all-cause ischemic stroke. We report a lower ABAO mortality compared to previous more selected case series; however, most survivors had a poor functional outcome. Given the marked clinical heterogeneity of ABAO, a low threshold for non-invasive vascular imaging with a view to definitive reperfusion treatment is needed.

[1] ABAO = acute basilar artery occlusion

August 2010
A. Weissler, L. Perl, Y. Neuman, Y.A. Mekori and A. Mor

The features of infective endocarditis include both cardiac and non-cardiac manifestations. Neurologic complications are seen in up to 40% of patients with infective endocarditis and are the presenting symptom in a substantial percentage. We describe in detail the clinical scenarios of three patients admitted to our hospital, compare their characteristics and review the recent literature describing neurologic manifestations of infective endocarditis. Our patients demonstrate that infective endocarditis can develop without comorbidity or a valvular defect. Moreover, our patients were young and lacked the most common symptom of endocarditis: fever. The most common neurologic manifestations were focal neurologic deficits and confusion. We conclude that infective endocarditis should always be considered in patients presenting with new-onset neurologic complaints, especially in those without comorbidities or other risk factors. A prompt diagnosis should be reached and antibiotic treatment initiated as soon as possible.

April 2010
A. Tsur and Z. Segal

Background: Falls are common events among hospital inpatients and constitute a major health problem in the rehabilitation setting. Many risk factors for falls have been identified for stroke patients, such as muscle weakness, medication side effects, hypoglycemia, hypotension, etc.

Objectives: To assess the risk factors for falls among patients hospitalized for rehabilitation following acute stroke.

Methods:  In a retrospective study of 56 falls over a period of 5 years in 41 stroke patients hospitalized for rehabilitation we surveyed the nurses’ safety risk assessment of the fall. Thirty patients fell once, 9 patients twice and 2 patients four times. The data were obtained from the medical and nursing records. Safety precautions were taken by the nurses for the entire group of patients.

Results: Most of the falls occurred among male patients who had reduced muscular tone (70%), paralysis (54%) and/or hypoesthesia in the involved side of the body. Patients who suffered from hemiplegia fell more often than those with hemiparesis (Wilcoxon rank sum test, P = 0.04, one-sided). Forty-eight percent of the falls occurred during the first month after the last stroke onset, 70% during the morning or the afternoon, and 62% occurred close to the patient’s bed. In 89% of falls the patients used hypoglycemic, antihypertensive, tranquilizing or neuroleptic drugs. Communication disorders (29%), hemianopia or blindness (21%) and visuospatial agnosia (18%) were incremental risk factors for falls. Fifty percent of the falls were caused by either an intrinsic or extrinsic mechanism.

Conclusions: These data suggest that the group of stroke patients at risk for falls in a rehabilitation department can be identified by a variety of impairment and functional assessments. The information may be potentially useful for designing interventions directed at reducing fall frequency among stroke survivors.

December 2009
A.Y. Gur, L. Shopin and N.M. Bornstein

Background: Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator has been approved treatment for acute (≤ 3 hours) ischemic stroke in Israel since late 2004. The Israeli experience with IV tPA[1] is still limited. Several factors may influence the response to IV thrombolysis, including time-to-treatment parameters and tandem internal carotid artery/middle cerebral artery stenosis/occlusion.

Objectives: To compare our experience with IV tPA treatment of patients with acute ischemic stroke to the findings of the SITS-MOST (Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-MOnitoring STudy, international data) and of the Sheba Medical Center (national data) and to compare the early outcome among patients with ischemic stroke in the MCA[2] with and without severe ICA[3] stenosis.

Methods: We obtained demographic data, timing details, stroke severity, hemorrhagic complications, mortality, and early outcome from the records of IV tPA-treated acute ischemic stroke patients.

Results: Fifty-eight patients (median age 69 years, 26 females) with acute ischemic stroke were treated by IV tPA at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center in 2006–2007. Median time between stroke onset and IV tPA administration was 148 minutes for the Sourasky center, 150 minutes for the Sheba center, and 140 minutes for SITS-MOST. The Sourasky mortality rate was 10.5%. Of the 31 patients who suffered MCA stroke, 8 had severe ipsilateral ICA stenosis. These 8 had significantly lower neurological improvement than the 23 without ipsilateral ICA stenosis (1/8 versus 15/23, P <0.001).

Conclusions: Our data demonstrate fairly similar parameters of IV tPA treatment compared to other centers and suggest that patients with severe ICA stenosis might be less likely to benefit from IV tPA.


[1] tPA = tissue plasminogen activator

[2] MCA = middle cerebral artery

[3] ICA = internal carotid artery

November 2009
J.E. Cohen, S. Boitsova and E. Itshayek
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