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עמוד בית
Thu, 18.07.24

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April 2020
Shir Azrielant MD, Israel Khanimov MD, Eli Sprecher MD PhD and Eran Ellenbogen MD

Background: Solar urticaria (SU) is a rare and disabling photodermatosis. SU typically manifests as urticarial wheals and erythema appearing shortly after sun exposure. SU is often initially diagnosed clinically with subsequent confirmation through photoprovocation tests. Early diagnosis is important for correct management of patients.

Objective: To present the clinical features of three cases of atypical presentation of SU and to discuss possible underlying mechanisms.

Methods: We report a series of three patients who presented with transient pruritic erythema without wheals after sun exposure. All patients had photoprovocation tests conducted to confirm SU diagnosis and to determine their action spectra. Treatment outcomes were recorded.

Results: All three patients developed classical manifestations of SU during photoprovocation tests within the UVA1 spectrum. Two patients required high-dose irradiation to provoke urticaria.

Conclusions: Erythema without urticaria can be the primary manifestation of SU, especially in countries with sunny climates where natural skin hardening is common. Such cases require a high index of suspicion for SU and highlight the importance of photoprovocation testing to confirm the diagnosis.

February 2019
Eran Ellenbogen MD, Shmuel Epshteyn MD, Shir Azrielant MD, Mor Pavlovsky MD, Andrea Gat MD, Eli Sprecher MD PhD and Ilan Goldberg MD

Background: Frozen section (FS) is often performed when histopathological evaluations are urgently required for implementation of therapeutic measures. In dermatology, this method is most commonly used to evaluate excision margins of tumors. FS are also routinely employed to differentiate toxic epidermal necrolysis from staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. However, little is currently known about the performance of FS in the diagnosis of inflammatory dermatoses.

Objectives: To compare histopathological diagnoses in a series of patients with a clinical diagnosis of an inflammatory dermatosis for which FS and paraffin-section (PS) specimens were obtained on the same day.

Methods: We conducted a single-center retrospective analysis of 43 cases. All histological slides were reviewed by a single dermato-pathologist. Concordance was calculated between FS and PS.

Results: Patients were divided into three groups according to diagnosis: papulosquamous diseases (group I), drug eruptions (group II), and a heterogeneous group (group III) that included cases of bullous vasculitis and Sweet syndrome. Among the three groups, the results of FS and of PS were discordant only in five cases (5/43, 11.6%). Compared to PS, FS had a sensitivity of 92.9% [95% confidence interval (95%CI) 64.17–99.63%] and a specificity of 100% in group I, sensitivity of 90.9% (95%CI 57.12–99.52%) and specificity of 100% in group II, and sensitivity of 83.33% (95%CI 60.78–94.16%) and specificity of 100% in group III. The degree of agreement between the results of the FS and of the PS was almost perfect (kappa = 0.95, 0.93 and 0.85 respectively).

Conclusions: This study suggests that FS is a valid approach for the rapid diagnosis of inflammatory dermatoses. This method is as specific as PS, although it is less sensitive.

March 2014
Ilan Goldberg, Oksana Finkel, Andrea GatD, Eli Sprecher and Helena Martinez de Morentin
Erythema nodosum and pyoderma gangrenosum are common skin manifestations in inflammatory bowel diseases. Curiously, these two cutaneous features have seldom been reported to occur simultaneously.  We present three patients affected with inflammatory bowel disease, with concomitant erythema nodosum and pyoderma gangrenosum.

February 2010
January 2009
I.R. Makhoul, H. Sprecher, R. Sawaid, P. Jakobi, T. Smolkin, P. Sujov, I. Kassis and S. Blazer

Background: According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control guidelines, prolonged rupture of membranes mandates intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis for group B Streptococcus whenever maternal GBS[1] status is unknown.

Objectives: To evaluate the local incidence, early detection and outcome of early-onset GBS sepsis in 35–42 week old neonates born after PROM[2] to women with unknown GBS status who were not given intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis.

Methods: During a 1 year period, we studied all neonates born beyond 35 weeks gestation with maternal PROM ≥ 18 hours, unknown maternal GBS status and without prior administration of IAP[3]. Complete blood count, C-reactive protein, blood culture and polymerase chain reaction amplification of bacterial 16S rRNA gene were performed in blood samples collected immediately after birth. Unfavorable outcome was defined by one or more of the following: GBS bacteremia, clinical signs of sepsis, or positive PCR[4].

Results:  Of the 3616 liveborns 212 (5.9%) met the inclusion criteria. Only 12 (5.7%) of these neonates presented signs suggestive of sepsis. PCR was negative in all cases. Fifty-eight neonates (27.4%) had CRP[5] > 1.0 mg/dl and/or complete blood count abnormalities, but these were not significantly associated with unfavorable outcome. Early-onset GBS sepsis occurred in one neonate in this high risk group (1/212 = 0.47%, 95% CI 0.012–2.6). 

Conclusions: In this single-institution study, the incidence of early-onset GBS sepsis in neonates born after PROM of ≥ 18 hours, unknown maternal GBS status and no intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis was 0.47%.


[1] GBS = Group B Streptococcus

[2] PROM = prolonged rupture of membranes

[3] IAP = intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis

[4] PCR = polymerase chain reaction

[5] CRP = C-reactive protein

October 2008
D. Hershkovitz and E. Sprecher

For centuries skin pigmentation has played a major societal role. Genetic disorders of skin pigmentation have therefore always evoked the curiosity of both laypersons and physicians. Normal skin pigmentation is a complex process that begins with the synthesis of melanin within the melanocytes, followed by its transfer to neighboring keratinocytes where it is translocated to the upper pole of the nucleus and degraded as the keratinocyte undergoes terminal differentiation. Mutations in various genes involved in melanocyte migration during embryogenesis, melanin synthesis and melanosomal function and transfer have been shown to cause pigmentation disorders. In the present review, we discuss normal skin pigmentation and the genetic underpinning of selected disorders of hypo- and hyperpigmentation.

March 2000
Michael A. Weingarten MA BM BCh, Irene Katzir MD, Elliot Sprecher PhD,Svetlana Kobzantsev MD, Cara Zelzer MD and Ernesto Kahan MD

Background: The pattern of diabetes and ischemic heart disease among emigrants from pre-industrialized societies to more developed countries may be explained by both genetic and environmental factors.

Objectives: To describe and interpret the pattern of diabetes and ischemic heart disease among Yemenite immigrants in Israel and their second-generation offspring.

Methods: Medical record charts of adult Yemenites were surveyed in a primary care health center, and the data were compared with prevalence rates derived from a non-Yemenite population.

Results: There was a marked excess of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus among Yemenite immigrants over 45 years of age, but not of hypertension or ischemic heart disease. Yemenites with diabetes were far less likely to develop ischemic heart disease than non-Yemenites with diabetes (odds ratio for non-Yemenites compared with Yemenites, 3.5; confidence interval 1.54<OR<7.77).

Conclusions: There was less of an association between diabetes and ischemic heart disease among Yemenites. This finding requires further investigation of the relative roles of genetic and environmental factors. 



OR= odds ratio

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