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עמוד בית
Sun, 25.09.22

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January 2022
Nissim Arish MD, Ariel Rokach MD MHA, Amir Jarjou'i MD, Naama Bogot MD, Irith Hadas Halperen MD, Maher Deeb MD, Eli Golomb MD, and Gabriel Izbicki MD
May 2017
Francesca Cainelli MD, Dair Nurgaliev MD PhD, Kadischa Nurgaliyeva MD, Tatyana Ivanova-Razumova MD, Denis Bulanin PhD and Sandro Vento MD
February 2011
H. Ityel, Y. Granot, H. Vaknine, A. Judich and M. Shimonov
December 2008
A. Hadary, I. Dashkovsky, A. Rapaport, J.C. Cozakov

Background: Non-traumatic rupture of the spleen is a rare condition. It can occur in a pathological spleen caused by any of a variety of diseases. For yet unknown reasons this condition may sometimes involve an apparently normal spleen as well.

Objectives: To examine the incidence, symptoms, causes, therapy and prognosis of "spontaneous" splenic rupture.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of seven patients diagnosed with splenic rupture not related to any traumatic event, who had been treated in the surgical department of a community hospital within the last 19 years.

Results: The male to female ratio was 5:2. In some patients, no background disease that could explain increased friability of splenic tissue could be identified. In some cases, where hemodynamic stability and absence of peritoneal signs afforded observation, splenectomy was delayed. In one case it was avoided altogether.

Conclusions: “Spontaneous” rupture of spleen should be suspected when abdominal symptomatology occurs against a background of an acute infectious disease, especially in young males, or a disease known to affect target organs of the reticular endothelial system. Preoperative use of imaging studies in hemodynamically stable patients can sometimes obviate surgery, or in cases of massive hemoperitoneum reduce intraoperative time.

December 2007
M. Bala, Y. Edden, Y. Mintz, D. Kisselgoff, I. Gercenstein, A.I. Rivkind, M. Farugy and G. Almogy

Background: Non-operative management of blunt splenic trauma is the preferred option in hemodynamically stable patients.

Objectives: To identify predictors for the successful non-operative management of patients with blunt splenic trauma.

Methods: The study group comprised consecutive patients admitted with the diagnosis of blunt splenic trauma to the Department of Surgery, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center in Jerusalem over a 3 year period. Prospectively recorded were hemodynamic status, computed tomography grade of splenic tear, presence and extent of extra-abdominal injury, number of red blood cell units transfused, and outcome. Hemodynamic instability and the severity of associated injuries were used to determine the need for splenectomy. Hemodynamically stable patients without an indication for laparotomy were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit and monitored.

Results: There were 64 adults (45 males, mean age 30.2 years) who met the inclusion criteria. On univariate analysis the 13 patients (20.3%) who underwent immediate splenectomy were more likely to have lower admission systolic blood pressure (P = 0.001), Glasgow Coma Scale < 8 (P = 0.02), and injury to at least three extra-abdominal regions (P = 0.06). Nine of the 52 patients (17.3%) who were successfully treated non-operatively suffered from grade ≥4 splenic tear. Multivariate analysis identified admission systolic BP[1] (odds ratio 1.04) and associated injury to less than three extra-abdominal regions (OD[2] 8.03) as predictors for the success of non-operative management, while the need for blood transfusion was a strong predictor (OR 66.67) for splenectomy.

Conclusions: Admission systolic blood pressure and limited extra-abdominal injury can be used to identify patients with blunt splenic trauma who do not require splenectomy and can be safely monitored outside an ICU[3] environment. 

 






[1] BP = blood pressure

[2] OD = odds ratio

[3] ICU = Intensive Care Unit


November 2005
N. Sharon, J. Schachter, R.T. Talnir, J. First, U. Rubinstein and R. Bilik
November 2002
August 2001
Altoon Dweck, MD, Ayala Abrahamov, MD, Irith Hadas-Halpern, MD, Ari Zimran, MD and Devorah Elstein, PhD
July 2000
Miguel Iuchtman MD, Ricardo Alfici MD, Ehud Sternberg MD, Leonid Trost MD and Menachem Litmanovitch MD

Background: Trauma is the leading cause of death in children. In abdominal lesions the spleen is the most commonly involved organ. During the last two decades much effort has focused on spleen tissue conservation.

Objectives: To analyze the rationale of a multimodality management policy that includes autotransfusion and mesh wrapping.

Methods: Data gathered over 14 years illustrate the introduction of new techniques and their impact on cases of severe spleen rupture.

Results: A total of 122 children were treated during the 14 year period, 1985-98. In 16 children an absorbable mesh wrapping, alone or in combination with other techniques, was used to obtain hemostatis and save spleen tissue.

Conclusions: Mesh wrapping, partial splenectomy and autotransfusion can be used, alone or in combination, to preserve severely injured spleens. According to our records, all children survived with a functional spleen. There were no cases of rebleeding. In only one case of prolonged postoperative fever could the cause be traced to an infected spleen hematoma that was drained transcutaneously. Autotransfusion is performed simply and without the use of a "cell saver." Its use can be crucial in small or field hospitals or in a situation of mass casualty.

February 2000
Rivka Kauli MD, Rina Zaizov MD, Liora Lazar MD, Athalia Pertzelan MD, Zvi Laron MD, Avinoam Galatzer MA, Moshe Phillip MD, Yitzhak Yaniv MD and Ian Joseph Cohen MB ChB

Background: Growth retardation in childhood was only recently recognized as a prominent feature of Gaucher disease type 1, but there are few data on both the pubertal development and the final outcome of growth and sexual maturation.

Objective: To investigate the natural pattern of growth and puberty in patients with Gaucher disease type 1 and the effect of splenectomy and enzyme replacement therapy.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed growth and puberty in 57 patients with Gaucher disease type 1; 52 were followed since childhood and/or prepuberty and 42 have reached sexual maturity and final height. In the analysis we considered severity of disease, time of splenectomy, and start of enzyme replacement therapy.

Results: Deceleration of growth at age 3–5 years was observed in 30 of 57 patients followed since early childhood while untreated: height-SDS decreased from -0.34±0.42 at age 0–3 years to -1.93±0.95 (P<0.01) at age 7–10 years and was more pronounced with severe disease. A high prevalence (59.6%) of delayed puberty, which was more frequent with severe disease, was observed in 47 patients followed before and throughout puberty. No primary endocrine pathology was found. All patients, untreated as well as treated, with growth and pubertal delay had a spontaneous catch-up, achieved full sexual maturation, and most (83.3%) reached a final height within the range of parental height–standard deviation score. Splenectomy (partial and/or total) performed in 20 patients while still growing had a beneficial effect on growth, which was temporary in some and did not affect puberty. ERT improved growth in 11 patients who started therapy before puberty, as evidenced by a progressive increase in the height-SDS, and seemed to normalize the onset of puberty.

Conclusions: Growth retardation in childhood and delay of puberty are characteristic of Gaucher disease type 1 and are more frequent with severe disease. There is a spontaneous catch-up later in life and most patients reach a final height within their genetic growth potential. Enzyme replacement therapy apparently normalizes growth and possibly also the onset of puberty.

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ERT = enzyme replacement therapy

SDS = standard deviation score

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