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עמוד בית
Fri, 01.03.24

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September 2023
Galit Almoznino DMD MSc MHA MPH, Maayan Sherman DMD, Doron J. Aframian DMD PhD, Yaron Haviv DMD PhD

Migraine is very common headache disorder, usually starting at a young age with a higher prevalence in females. In this narrative review, we summarize the prevalence, burden, and socio-demographic characteristics of migraineurs worldwide and specifically in Israel. We searched standard electronic bibliographic databases, including MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, Google Scholar, and Up to Date using combinations of search terms and reviewed the articles we found. The factors reviewed included prevalence and incidence, burden, sex differences, age distribution, cognitive function, socioeconomic status, religion, country of origin, and urban vs. rural dwelling.

June 2019
Hagar Interator MSx RD, Avivit Brener MD, Moshe Hoshen PhD, Inbar Safra MD, Ran Balicer MD PhD MPH, Moshe Leshno MD PhD, Raanan Shamir MD and Yael Lebenthal MD

Background: In Israel, coronary heart disease mortality rates are significantly higher among the Arab population than the Jewish population. Dyslipidemia prevention should begin in childhood.

Objectives: To identify sociodemographic disparities in the preventive health measurement of lipid profile testing and lipoprotein levels among Israeli children and adolescents.

Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 1.2 million children and adolescents insured by Clalit Health Services between 2007 and 2011 was conducted using sociodemographic data and serum lipid concentrations.

Results: Overall, 10.1% individuals had undergone lipid testing. Those with male sex (odds ratio [OR] = 0.813, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.809–0.816), Arab ethnicity (OR = 0.952, 95%CI 0.941–0.963), and low socioeconomic status (SES) (OR = 0.740, 95%CI 0.728–0.752) were less likely to be tested. By 2010, differences among economic sectors narrowed and Arab children were more likely to be tested (OR = 1.039, 95%CI 1.035–1.044). Girls had higher total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels compared to boys (P < 0.001). Jewish children had higher cholesterol and low-density and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, as well as lower triglyceride levels than Arabs (P < 0.001). Children with low SES had lower cholesterol, low-density and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: We found that boys, Arab children, and those with low SES were less likely to be tested. Over time there was a gradual reduction in these disparities. Publicly sponsored healthcare services can diminish disparities in the provision of preventive health among diverse socioeconomic groups that comprise the national population.

May 2019
Mahmud Mahamid MD, Amir Mari MD, Tawfik Khoury MD, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi MD PhD, Majeed Ghantous MD, Omar Abu-Elhija MD and Abdulla Watad MD

Background: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori varies geographically by age, race, and socioeconomic status (SES). However, the impact of ethnicity on endoscopic outcomes in infected individuals is not well known.

Objectives: To assess the impact of ethnicity among Israelis with biopsy-proven H. pylori infection.

Methods: A retrospective study, including patients who underwent gastroscopy and were diagnosed histologically with H. pylori infection, was conducted. Information on demographics, SES, medications, and co-morbidities were extracted from medical records. Univariate (Student's t-test, chi-square test) and multivariate (multinomial and logistic) regression analysis were conducted to examine the predictors of the clinical outcome.

Results: The study included 100 Israeli Jews and 100 Israeli Arabs diagnosed with biopsy-proven H. pylori infection. At univariate analysis, the number of households was higher among Arabs (P < 0.001), whose family income and parental education were lower than among Jews (P < 0.001 for both variables). The response to amoxicillin and clarithromycin differed between the two groups, being higher among Jews (P < 0.001).In clinical outcomes (gastritis severity, gastric and duodenal ulcer, intestinal metaplasia, atrophic gastritis, and MALT), no statistically significant differences could be detected between Jews and Arabs. Concerning intestinal metaplasia, lack of consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs resulted a statistically significant protective factor (odds ratio 0.128, 95% confidence interval 0.024–0.685, P = 0.016).

Conclusions: Although in the literature ethnicity seems to be a risk factor for H. pylori colonization, no statistical significance was detected in various endoscopic and histological findings related to H. Pylori infection between Israeli Arabs and Jews.

December 2017
Liat Shargian-Alon MD, Oren Pasvolsky MD and Pia Raanani MD

Background: During the past decades, beta thalassemia major (TM) and beta thalassemia intermedia (TI) have transformed from a universally fatal disease at a young age into a chronic disease. This advancement is attributed to improved chelation therapy as well as enhanced management strategies, with focused attention on disease and treatment-related complications.

Objectives: To describe characteristics of adults with thalassemia as well as treatment modalities, disease and treatment-related complications, and socioeconomic information of the patients.

Methods: We preformed a retrospective analysis of 14 adult patients > 35 years of age with TM and TI who were treated at our institute, a single center specializing in the care of adult thalassemia patients living in Israel, between the years 2006 and 2016.

Results: The median age of patients was 37 years and most patients were transfusion-dependent. The median number of chelation therapeutic lines was three, and 85.7% of patients were treated at one point by combination chelation therapy. Most patients suffered from at least some form of endocrine dysfunction (n=12), and four patients developed overt heart failure. Of the patients, 85% had completed at least a high school education, 78% were employed, and 64.2% were married.

Conclusions: Prolonged survival of thalassemia patients in recent years has been accompanied by a new set of challenges for both the patients and the treating staff. Further research is warranted to improve both medical management and the socioeconomic well-being of this unique group of adult thalassemia patients.

September 2009
H.D. Danenberg, G. Marincheva, B. Varshitzki, H. Nassar, C. Lotan

Background: Stent thrombosis is a rare but devastating complication of coronary stent implantation. The incidence and potential predictors were assessed in a "real world” single center.

 Objectives: To examine whether socioeconomic status indeed affects the occurrence of stent thrombosis.

Methods: We searched our database for cases of "definite" stent thrombosis (according to the ARC Dublin definitions). Each case was matched by procedure date, age and gender; three cases of stenting did not result in stent thrombosis. Demographic and clinical parameters were compared and socioeconomic status was determined according to a standardized polling and market survey database.

Results: A total of 3401 patients underwent stent implantation in our hospital during the period 2004–2006. Their mean age was 63 ± 11 years, and 80% were males. Twenty-nine cases (0.85%) of “definite” sub-acute/late stent thrombosis were recorded. Mortality at 30 days was recorded in 1 patient (3.5%). Thrombosis occurred 2 days to 3 years after stent implantation. All patients presented with acute myocardial infarction. Premature clopidogrel discontinuation was reported in 60%. Patients with stent thrombosis had significantly higher rates of AMI[1] at the time of the initial procedure (76 vs. 32%, P < 0.001) and were cigarette smokers (60 vs. 28%, P < 0.001). Drug-eluting stents were used less in the stent thrombosis group. There was no difference in stent diameter or length between the two groups. Socioeconomic status was significantly lower at the stent thrombosis group, 3.4 ± 2.4 vs. 5.4 ± 2.6 (mean ± SD, scale 1–10, P < 0.01).

Conclusions: The incidence rate of stent thrombosis is at least 0.85% in our population. It appears in patients with significantly lower socioeconomic status and with certain clinical predictors. These results warrant stricter follow-up and support the policy of healthcare providers regarding patients at risk for stent thrombosis.

[1] AMI = acute myocardial infarction

January 2005
Y.S. Brin, H. Reuveni, S. Greenberg Dotan, A. Tal and A. Tarasiuk

Background: Continuous positive airway pressure is the treatment of choice for patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

Objective: To determine the factors influencing treatment initiation with a CPAP[1] device in a healthcare system in which co-payment is required.

Methods: A total of 400 adult patients with OSAS[2] who required CPAP therapy completed questionnaires at three different stages of the diagnostic and therapeutic process: CPAP titration study (stage 1), patient adaptation trial (stage 2), and purchase of a CPAP device (stage 3). Logistic regression was used to analyze the variables influencing CPAP use at the different stages of the diagnostic and therapeutic processes.

Results: Only 32% of the patients who underwent CPAP titration study purchased a CPAP device. The number of subjects who purchased a CPAP device increased gradually as monthly income increased, 28% vs. 62% in the “very low” and “very high” income levels respectively. Reporting for the titration increased in patients with excessive daytime sleepiness and an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score above 9 (odds ratio = 1.9, P = 0.015). Higher socioeconomic status increased reporting to stage 2 (OR[3] = 1.23, P = 0.03) and CPAP purchase (stage 3, OR = 1.35, P = 0.002). Excessive daytime sleepiness increased reporting to stage 2 (OR = 2.28, P = 0.006). Respiratory disturbance index above 35 increased CPAP purchasing (OR = 2.01, P = 0.022). Support from the bed partner, referring physician and sleep laboratory team increased CPAP purchasing.

Conclusions: A supportive environment for a patient with OSAS requiring CPAP is crucial to increase initiation of CPAP treatment. Minimizing cost sharing for the CPAP device will reduce inequality and may increase CPAP treatment initiation.

[1] CPAP = continuous positive airway pressure

[2] OSAS = obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

[3] OR = odds ratio

September 2000
Arnon Broides MD, Shaul Sofer MD and Joseph Press MD

Background: The outcome of cardiopulmonary arrest in children is poor, with many survivors suffering from severe neurological defects. There are few data on the survival rate following cardiopulmonary arrest in children who arrived at the emergency room without a palpable pulse.

Objective: To determine the survival rate and epidemiology of cardiopulmonary arrest in children who arrived without a palpable pulse at a pediatric ER in southern Israel.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients with cardiopulmonary arrest who arrived at the ER of the Soroka University Medical Center during the period January 1995 to June 1997.

Results: The study group included 35 patients. Resuscitation efforts were attempted on 20, but the remaining 15 showed signs of death and were not resuscitated. None of the patients survived, although one patient survived the resuscitation but succumbed a few hours later. The statistics show that more cardiopulmonary arrests occurred among Bedouins than among Jews (32 vs. 3, P0.0001).

Conclusions: The probability of survival from cardiopulmonary arrest in children who arrive at the emergency room without palpable pulse is extremely low. Bedouin children have a much higher risk of suffering from out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest than Jewish children.

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