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עמוד בית
Sun, 03.03.24

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October 2018
Howard S. Oster MD PhD, Shani Svorai-Litvak MD, Ilya Kirgner MD, Albert Kolomansky MD, Robert S. Siegel MD and Moshe Mittelman MD

Background: With advances in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), patient cohorts from different time periods might be different.

Objectives: To compare presentation and outcomes between two cohorts.

Methods: Data were collected from George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA 1986–1987 (DC), and Tel Aviv Medical Center, Israel 1999–2009 (TA).

Results: The study comprised 227 patients (139 TA, 88 DC). TA patients were older (75.4 ± 9.8 vs. 63.8 ± 14.3 years, P < 0.001) and had more cardiovascular diseases (56.8% vs. 14.8%, P < 0.001), fewer cytopenias (1.67 ± 0.82 vs. 2.0 ± 0.93, P = 0.003), and lower mean corpuscular volume (94.3 ± 9.9 fl vs. 100.5 ± 15.3 fl, P < 0.001). Hemoglobin, leukocyte, neutrophil, and platelet counts were similar. More TA patients had dysplasias. Bone marrow cellularity and cytogenetics were similar, but more TA patients had blasts < 5% (73.4% vs. 50.6%, P = 0.003). More TA patients had early French-American-British (FAB) disease (66.9% vs. 40.9%, P < 0.001) and lower risk disease per International Prognostic Scoring System (81% vs. 50%, P < 0.001). The 5 year survival (5YS) of TA patients was not significantly greater (62% vs. 55%). 5YS by FAB was also slightly greater for TA patients (77% vs. 65% for early FAB; 43% vs. 37% for advanced FAB, P > 0.05).

Conclusions: Although patients diagnosed with MDS at a later period were older and had more cardiovascular co-morbidities, they had fewer cytopenias, tended to have earlier disease, and had minimally greater, but not significant, 5YS.

February 2013
Y. Shilo, S. Efrati, Z. Simon, A. Sella, E. Gez, E. Fenig, M. Wygoda, A. Lindner, G. Fishlev, K. Stav, A. Zisman, Y.I. Siegel and D. Leibovici

 Background: Hemorrhagic radiation cystitis (HRC) is a significant clinical problem that occurs after pelvic radiation therapy and is often refractory.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) for HRC.

Methods: Daily 90 minute sessions of HBO at 2 ATM 100% oxygen were given to 32 HRC patients with American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) grades 3-4 hematuria.

Results: The median age was 72.5 (48–88 years). The median time interval between radiation therapy and HBO was 4 years (1–26 years). The patients received a median of 30 HBO sessions (3–53). Hematuria resolved in 27 patients (84%) and persisted in 5. Cystectomy was required in two, and ileal-conduit and bilateral percutaneous nephrostomies were performed in one and two patients, respectively. With a median follow-up of 12 months (5–74 months), the hematuria cleared completely in 16 patients (59%) and mild hematuria requiring no further treatment recurred in 10 others. Another patient with ASTRO grade 4 hematuria needed bladder irrigation and blood transfusions. Complications included eardrum perforation in four patients and transient vertigo and mild hemoptysis in one case each. None of them required HBO discontinuation.

Conclusions: HBO controlled bleeding in 84% of the patients. A durable freedom from significant hematuria was achieved in 96% of the patients. HBO seems to be an effective and safe modality in patients with HRC.

February 2012
November 2010
B. Chikman, R. Lavy, T. Davidson, I. Wassermann, J. Sandbank, N. Siegelmann-Danieli and A. Halevy

Background: Infiltrating ductal carcinoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma account for more than 90% of all invasive breast cancer histological types. The rate of ILC[1] is reported to be increasing steadily in the United States and Europe.

Objectives: To describe the trend in the incidence of ILC in a large cohort of patients who underwent surgery in a single institution over an 18 year period.

Methods: Our comprehensive database of 2175 consecutive patients with invasive breast cancer diagnosed during the period 1992–2009 served for the analysis. Several potential factors associated with lobular carcinoma as compared with ductal carcinoma were evaluated.

Results: During this period, a 2.4-fold increase in the incidence of pure ILC was noted, from 4.6% in the years 1992–1994 to 10.9% in 2004–2006, followed by a modest decrease to 8.7% in 2007–2009. A significant association of lobular malignancies with external hormonal use was noted, including hormone replacement therapy exposure in patients diagnosed at age 50–64, and ovarian overstimulation during in vitro fertilization in those diagnosed at age 50 or less.  

Conclusions: Better diagnostic tools – such as the liberal use of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging – and more accurate pathological definition for ILC type appear to influence the changes in the incidence of ILC in the subgroups of invasive breast cancer.

[1] ILC = infiltrating lobular carcinoma

September 2010
I. Jeroukhimov, N. Poluksht, N. Siegelmann-Danieli, R. Lavy, I. Wassermann, Z. Halpern, R. Gold-Deutch and A. Halevy

Background: One of the ominous complications following proximal gastrectomy or total gastrectomy is a leak from the esophagogastric or esophagojejunal anastomosis. An upper gastrointestinal swallow study is traditionally performed to confirm the anastomotic patency and lack of any leak before oral feeding can be initiated.

Objectives: To challenge the routine use of UGISs[1] following proximal or total gastrectomy in order to check the integrity of the gastroesophageal or jejunoesophageal anastomosis.

Methods: The charts of 99 patients who underwent PG[2] or TG[3]  for malignant pathology were retrospectively reviewed. UGISs were performed on day 6 following surgery using a water-soluble material.

Results: The UGISs were normal in 95 patients, with none displaying any complication related to the gastroesophageal or jejunoesophageal anastomosis. All four patients who experienced a leak from the anastomosis had an early stormy postoperative course.

Conclusions: Routine use of an UGIS to detect a leak following PG or TG is not justified. UGIS should be performed whenever signs of abdominal sepsis develop following this type or surgery.

[1] UIGS = upper gastrointestinal swallow study

[2] PG = proximal gastrectomy

[3] TG = total gastrectomy

July 2007
S.Atar, K.Tolstrup, B.Cercek, and R.J. Siegel.

Background: Chlamydia pneumoniae has previously been associated with higher prevalence of valvular and cardiac calcifications.

Objectives: To investigate a possible association of seropositivity for C. pneumoniae and the presence of cardiac calcifications (mitral annular or aortic root calcification, and aortic valve sclerosis).

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed serological data (immunoglobulin G TWAR antibodies) from the AZACS trial (Azithromycin in Acute Coronary Syndromes), and correlated the serological findings according to titer levels with the presence of cardiac calcifications as detected by transthoracic echocardiography.

Results: In 271 patients, age 69 ± 13 years, who underwent both serological and echocardiographic evaluation, we found no significant association between the "calcification sum score" (on a scale of 0–3) in seropositive compared to seronegative patients (1.56 ± 1.15 vs.1.35 ± 1.15, respectively, P = 0.26). The median "calcification sum score" was 1 (interquartile range 0–3) for the seronegative group, and 2 (interquartile range 0–3) for the seropositive group (P = 0.2757). In addition, we did not find a significant correlation of any of the individual sites of cardiac calcification and Chlamydia pneumoniae seropositivity.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that past C. pneumoniae infection may not be associated with the pathogenesis of valvular and cardiac calcifications.

August 2006
August 2005
D. Leibovici, A. Cooper, A. Lindner, R. Ostrowsky, J. Kleinmann, S. Velikanov, H. Cipele, E. Goren and Y.I. Siegel
 Background: Stents offer a simple and effective drainage method for the upper urinary tract. However, ureteral stents are associated with frequent side effects, including irritative voiding symptoms and hematuria.

Objectives: To determine the side effects associated with ureteral stents and their impact on sexual function and quality of life.

Methods: Symptom questionnaires were administered to 135 consecutive patients with unilateral ureteral stents. The questionnaire addressed irritative voiding symptoms, flank pain, hematuria, fever, loss of labor days, anxiety, sleep impairment, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, dyspareunia, painful ejaculation, and a subjective overall impact on quality of life. The items were graded from 1 (minimal or no symptoms) to 5 (maximal symptoms). The patients were seen and questionnaires filled at 2 weekly intervals following stent insertion until stent extraction. Following removal of the stent, stent patency, impaction and migration rates were determined. Admissions to hospital and ancillary procedures to retreive stents were noted.

Results: The findings presented refer to questionnaire items scoring 3 or more. Dysuria, urinary frequency and urgency were reported by 40%, 50% and 55% of the patients, respectively. Flank pain, gross hematuria or fever was reported by 32%, 42% and 15% respectively. Among working patients, 45% lost at least 2 labor days during the first 14 days, and 32% were still absent from work by day 30. A total of 435 labor days were lost in the first month. Anxiety and sleep disturbance were reported by 24% and 20% respectively, and 45% of patients reported impairment in their quality of life. Decreased libido was reported by 45%, and sexual dysfunction by 42% of men and 86% of women. Stent removal necessitated ureteroscpoy in 14 patients (10.5%), due to upward migration in 11 (8.2%) and incrustration and impaction in 3. Spontaneous stent expulsion occurred in one patient. Forty-six (34%) stents were obstructed at the time of removal. Obstructed stents were associated with a longer mean dwell time as compared to the whole population, 75 versus 62 days respectively (P = 0.04).

Conclusions: Ureteral stents are associated with frequent side effects and significantly impact on patient quality of life. Our findings should be considered when deciding on ureteral stent insertion and dwell time.

February 2005
K. Stav, N. Rahimi-Levene, A. Lindner, Y.I. Siegel and A. Zisman
 Bleeding during retropubic radical prostatectomy arises from venous structures in the majority of cases. Since its introduction two decades ago, the nerve-sparing procedure with surgical control of the dorsal venous complex has led to a reduction in blood loss and blood transfusion rate. The reduction in blood loss is a result of better understanding of the prostatic blood vessel anatomy, extensive surgical experience over time, and reduction in transfusion triggers with an acceptance of lower postoperative hemoglobin values. Increased blood loss during RRP[1] is associated with poorer outcomes most probably due to surgical difficulties. But as for now, there are no decisive risk factors for clinically significant bleeding during RRP although newer technologies for hemostasis of the dorsal vein complex are being utilized.


[1] RRP = retropubic radical prostatectomy
August 2004
K. Stav, D. Leibovici, E. Goren, A. Livshitz, Y.I. Siegel, A. Lindner and A. Zisman

Background: Cystoscopy, the principal means of diagnosis and surveillance of bladder tumors, is invasive and associated with unpleasant side effects

Objectives: To determine the early complications of rigid cystoscopy and the impact on patients' quality of life and sexual performance.

Methods: One hundred consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic rigid cystoscopy filled in questionnaires including anxiety and pain levels (0–5 visual analogue scale), adverse events, short-form health survey, International Prostate Symptom Score, and functional sexual performance. Questionnaires were administered before, immediately after, and 1, 2 days, 2 and 4 weeks following cystoscopy.

Results: The pre-cystoscopy anxiety level was 2.01. The average pain during the examination was 1.41. SF-36[1] score was not affected by cystoscopy. The subjective impact on patients' quality of life was 0.51. The mean IPSS[2] increased following cystoscopy (6.75 vs. 5.43, P = 0.001) and returned to baseline 2 weeks later. A decline in libido was reported by 55.6% (25/45) and 50% (3/6) of the sexually active men and women, respectively. Cystoscopy was associated with a decreased Erectile Dysfunction Intensity Score, from 15.6 to 9.26 during the first 2 weeks (P = 0.04). The overall complication rate was 15% and included urethrorrhagia and dysuria. None of the patients had fever or urinary retention and none was hospitalized. The complication rate was higher in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (24% vs. 9.7%, P = 0.001).

Conclusions: Rigid cystoscopy is well tolerated by most patients and has only a minor impact on quality of life. However, cystoscopy transiently impairs sexual performance and libido. The early complications are mild and correlate with a diagnosis of BPH[3].

[1] SF-36 = short-form health survey

[2] IPSS = International Prostate Symptom Score

[3] BPH = benign prostatic hyperplasia

March 2002
Kobi Stav, MD, Dan Leibovici, MD, Yoram I. Siegel, MD and Arie Lindner, MD, MPH
July 2001
Dan Leibovici, MD, Amnon Zisman, MD, Yoram I. Siegel, MD and Arie Lindner, MD

Background: Cryosurgery is a minimally invasive treat­ment option for prostate cancer.

Objectives: To report on the first series of cryosurgical ablation for prostate cancer performed in Israel.

Methods: Cryosurgical ablation of the prostate was undertaken in 2 patients aged 53-72 diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The procedures were performed percutaneously and were monitored by real-time trans-rectal ultrasound. The CRYOHIT machine applying Argon gas was used with standard or ultra-thin cryoprobes. The average follow-up was 12.8 months postsurgery (range 1- 24 months).

Results: No rectal or urethral injuries occurred and all patients were discharged from hospital within 24-48 hours. The duration of suprapubic drainage was 14 days in 10 patients and prolonged in 2. Early complications included penoscrotal edema in four patients, perineal hematoma in three, hemorrhoids in two and epidydimitis in one. Long-term complications included extensive prostatic sloughing in one patient and a perineal fistula in another, both of whom required prolonged suprapubic drainage. Minimal stress incontinence was noted in two patients for the first 8 weeks after surgery. None of the patients has yet regained spontaneous potency. A prostate-specific antigen nadir of less than 0.5 ng/ml was achieved in eight patients and an undetectable PSA level below 0.1 ng/ml in five patients.

Conclusion: Cryoablation for prostate cancer is safe and feasible, and the preliminary results are encouraging. Further study is needed to elucidate the efficacy of the procedure.

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