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עמוד בית
Fri, 21.06.24

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August 2023
Noam Savion MD, Noa Guzner MD, Saar Hashavya MD, Shimon Reif MD, Lea Ohana Sarna Cahan MD

Background: Brucellosis is an endemic infection affecting the Mediterranean Basin, Arabian Peninsula, India, Mexico, and South America. Data on brucellosis infections in children are limited.

Objectives: To review and characterize the clinical presentation of pediatric patients diagnosed with brucellosis in a tertiary medical center.

Methods: Retrospective data analysis was conducted on all pediatric patients from January 2010 to December 2020 admitted to the pediatric department with a diagnosis of brucellosis based on a positive serology test or growth of Brucella bacteria in blood culture.

Results: The study comprised 53 children aged 0–18 years. The mean age at presentation was 11.01 ± 4.91 years; 39 male (73.6%). Pre-infection exposure to unpasteurized milk or unvaccinated livestock was reported in 37 (69.8%). Fever was present in 64.6%, followed by arthralgia (49%), loss of appetite (42.3%), and weight loss (24.6%). Gastrointestinal symptoms were reported in 52.8% and included abdominal pain (34.6%), nausea (28.3%), vomiting (24.5%), and diarrhea (2.6%). Eight patients experienced pancytopenia (15.1%). The median length of intravenous antibiotic treatment was 7 days (range 3–14 days) and for oral antibiotic treatment 6 weeks (range 2–24 weeks). Most patients were initially treated with intravenous gentamycin (90.5%) and long-term oral antibiotics, most commonly doxycycline. Two (3.7%) required admission to the pediatric intensive care unit. No mortality was documented, and all cases of relapses were successfully treated.

Conclusions: Pediatric brucellosis is an acute febrile disease often associated with rheumatologic complaints. Patients 8–18 years of age also presented with headache, weight loss, and night sweats.

April 2014
Oded Shamriz MD, Inbal Cohen-Glickman PharmD, Shimon Reif MD and Eyal Shteyer MD
 With growing awareness of the importance of pain control in all procedures, the use of lidocaine-prilocaine cream (EMLA) for all ages is increasing. Lidocaine-prilocaine cream has been implicated as a cause of methemoglobinemia. Diagnostic clues may be oxygen-resistant cyanosis and an oxygen ‘‘saturation gap’’ between arterial blood saturation and pulse oximetry. Treatment with intravenous methylene blue is often effective. Since EMLA is often mistakenly considered risk-free it is routinely applied by medical staff in the emergency room. Subsequent to the case of EMLA-induced methemoglobinemia in an 8 year old girl we wish to alert the medical community to this phenomenon, and in this work review the relevant literature.

March 2010
K. Weiss, A. Fattal-Valevski and S. Reif

Background: Infants who have experienced an apparent life-threatening event typically undergo an extensive evaluation to rule out serious underlying conditions.

Objectives: To evaluate the yield of different tests performed after an apparent life-threatening event and to identify high risk groups in which more extensive diagnostic tests are required.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in a children's hospital over a 4 year period during which the charts of infants who were admitted with an apparent life-threatening event were reviewed. The yield for each diagnostic test was established according to the ratio of positive results contributing to the diagnosis of the apparent life-threatening event.

Results: The study included 69 infants between the ages of 1 week and 1 year. There were abnormal findings in 36% of the cases. Gastroesophageal reflux was the most common diagnosis (60%). In the remaining patients the diagnosis was either seizures (12%) or respiratory tract infections (28%). Tests used for the diagnosis of cardiac, metabolic and non-respiratory infections had no yield. A positive correlation was found between abnormal test results and abnormal physical examination (P = 0.001), an abnormal perinatal history (P = 0.017), and age older than 2 months (P = 0.002).

Conclusions: The yield of most of the tests performed after an apparent life-threatening event is low, especially in infants with a normal perinatal history and physical examination.

February 2007
R. Somech, S. Reif, A. Golander,Z. Spirer

Background: Leptin, a pleiotropic hormone, has been suggested to be part of an acute phase response during an inflammatory stimulus. Its correlation with other acute phase reactants during minor infection in children has not been investigated.

Objectives: To study the correlation between serum leptin levels to those of C-reactive protein, a well-documented acute-phase reactant, in a series of pediatric patients with acute minor infections.

Methods: Leptin and CRP[1] levels were measured in 62 blood samples of pediatric patients presenting with mild febrile illness who were admitted to Dana Children’s Hospital in Israel. All children were finally diagnosed as having minor infection based on the negative blood/urine cultures and favorable outcome.

Results: Serum leptin level was positively correlated with CRP (r2 = 0.5), total white blood cells (r2 = 0.33) and absolute neutrophil count (r2 = 0.31). The regression coefficient was the highest between leptin and CRP.

Conclusions: Circulating leptin concentrations are positively correlated with CRP levels during acute minor infection in children visiting the emergency room for febrile illnesses. Our observation suggests that leptin is indeed a part of acute-phase proteins. The wide scattering showed that it is not a better marker in minor infections than CRP, but it may contribute to weight loss and anorexia seen in the minority of patients during mild infections.






[1] CRP = C-reactive protein


April 2005
O. Barkay, M. Moshkowitz and S. Reif
 Background: Approximately one‑fourth of new Crohn’s disease diagnoses are made in individuals under the age of 20 years in whom proximal Crohn’s disease tends to be more common.

Objectives: To describe the role of wireless capsule endoscopy in diagnosing isolated small intestinal Crohn’s disease in two adolescents.

Methods: Wireless capsule endoscopy was performed in two adolescents with severe protein-losing enteropathy and negative standard diagnostic workup.

Results: Wireless capsule endoscopy successfully diagnosed Crohn’s disease with uncharacteristic presentations and negative radiographic and endoscopic findings in both patients.

Conclusions: The non-invasiveness and ease in performance of capsule endoscopy on an ambulatory basis make this diagnostic modality especially advantageous for children.

February 2000
Arie Levine MD, Yoram Bujanover MD, Shimon Reif MD, Svetlana Gass, Nurit Vardinon, Ram Reifen MD and Dan Lehmann PhD

Background: Anti-endomysial antibodies are sensitive and specific markers for celiac disease. This antibody has recently been identified as an antibody to tissue transglutaminase, an enzyme that cross-links and stabilizes extracellular matrix proteins.

Objectives: To evaluate the clinical usefulness of an enzyme-linked immunoassay for anti-transglutaminase antibodies, and to compare the results with those of AEA, the current gold standard serological test for celiac disease.

Methods: Serum samples were collected from 33 patients with biopsy-proven celiac disease and AEA tests were performed. Control samples for anti-transglutaminase were obtained from 155 patients. An ELISA test for immunoglobulin A anti-transglutaminase utilizing guinea pig liver transglutaminase was developed and performed on all sera.  Cutoff values for the test were performed using logistic regression and receiver operating curves analysis.

Results: An optical density cutoff value of 0.34 was established for the assay. The mean value was 0.18±0.19 optical density for controls, and 1.65±1.14 for patients with celiac disease (P<0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of the assay were both 90%, while AEA had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 94%, respectively.

Conclusions: A tissue transglutaminase-based ELISA test is both sensitive and specific for  detection of celiac disease.

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AEA = anti-endomysial antibody

Ronit Neudorf-Grauss MD, Yoram Bujanover MD, Gabriel Dinari MD, Efrat Broide MD,Yehezkiel Neveh MD, Ilan Zahavi MD and Shimon Reif MD

Objective: To describe the clinical and epidemiological features of hepatitis B virus infection in Israeli children, and to evaluate their response and compliance to therapy.

Methods: We retrospectively studied 51 patients (34 males, 17 females), aged 2–18 years, from several medical centers in Israel.

Results: Of the 51 patients, 38 with elevated transaminase, positive hepatitis B e antigen and/or HBV DNA, and histologic evidence of liver inflammation were treated. Interferon was administered by subcutaneous injections three times a week for 3-12 months (dosage range 3–6 MU/m2). Only 16% were native Israelis, while 78% of the children were of USSR origin. A family history of HBV infection was recorded in 25 of the 51 patients (9 mothers, 16 fathers or siblings). Five children had a history of blood transfusion. The histological findings were normal in 3 patients, 24 had chronic persistent hepatitis, 14 had chronic active hepatitis and 2 had chronic lobular hepatitis. Five children also had anti-hepatitis D virus antibodies. Twelve of the 38 treated patients (31.5%) responded to IFN completely, with normalization of the transaminase levels and disappearance of HBeAg and HBV DNA. In no patient was there a loss of hepatitis B surface antigen. The main side effects of IFN were fever in 20 children, weakness in 10, headaches in 9, and anorexia in 6; nausea, abdominal pain, and leukopenia were present in 3 cases each. The response rate was not affected by age, country of origin, alanine/aspartate aminotransferase levels, or histological findings. However, a history of blood transfusion was a predictor of good response, 60% vs 27% (P<0.05).

Conclusions: We found IFN to be a safe and adequate mode of treatment in children with chronic HBV infection, regardless of their liver histology and transaminase levels. Therefore, in view of the transient side effects associated with this drug, we recommend considering its use in all children with chronic hepatitis B. 

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HBV = hepatitis B virus

IFN = interferon

HBeAg = hepatitis B e antigen

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