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עמוד בית
Wed, 22.05.24

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December 2013
Osamah Hussein, Jamal Zidan, Michael Plich, Hana Gefen, Roberto Klein, Karina Shestatski, Kamal Abu-Jabal and Reuven Zimlichman

Background: Coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) is a functional and structural disease that is diagnosed by coronary angiogram.    



Objectives: To evaluate the possible association between CSFP and small artery elasticity in an effort to understand the pathogenesis of CSFP.

Methods: The study population comprised 12 patients with normal coronary arteries and CSFP and 12 with normal coronary arteries without CSFP. We measured conjugated diene formation at 234 nm during low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, as well as platelet aggregation. We estimated, non-invasively, arterial elasticity parameters. Mann-Whitney non-parametric test was used to compare differences between the groups. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation.

Results: Waist circumference was 99.2 ± 8.8 cm and 114.9 ± 10.5 cm in the normal flow and CSFP groups, respectively (P = 0.003). Four patients in the CSFP group and 1 in the normal flow group had type 2 diabetes. Area under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test was 22% higher in the CSFP than in the normal group (P = 0.04). There was no difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, LDL and platelet aggregation parameters between the groups. Lag time required until initiation of LDL oxidation in the presence of CuSO4 was 17% longer (P = 0.02) and homocysteine fasting plasma concentration was 81% lower (P = 0.05) in the normal flow group. Large artery elasticity was the same in both groups. Small artery elasticity was 5 ± 1.5 ml/mmHgx100 in normal flow subjects and 6.1 ± 1.9 ml/mmHgx100 in the CSFP patients (P = 0.02).

Conclusions: Patients with CSFP had more metabolic derangements. Arterial stiffness was not increased in CSFP.

April 2007
M. Garty, A. Shotan, S. Gottlieb, M. Mittelman, A. Porath, B.S. Lewis, E. Grossman, S. Behar, J. Leor, M. S. Green, R. Zimlichman and A. Caspi

Background: Despite improved management of heart failure patients, their prognosis remains poor.

Objectives: To characterize hospitalized HF[1] patients and to identify factors that may affect their short and long-term outcome in a national prospective survey.

Methods: We recorded stages B-D according to the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association definition of HF patients hospitalized in internal medicine and cardiology departments in all 25 public hospitals in Israel.

Results: During March-April 2003, 4102 consecutive patients were recorded. Their mean age was 73 ± 12 years and 57% were males; 75.3% were hypertensive, 50% diabetic and 59% dyslipidemic; 82% had coronary artery disease, 33% atrial fibrillation, 41% renal failure (creatinine ³ 1.5 mg/dl), and 49% anemia (hemoglobin £ 12 g/dl). Mortality rates were 4.7% in-hospital, 7.6% at 30 days, 18.7% at 6 months and 28.1% at 12 months. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that increased 1 year mortality rate was associated with New York Heart Association III–IV (odds ratio 2.07, 95% confidence interval 1.78–2.41), age (for 10 year increment) (OR[2] 1.41, 95% CI[3] 1.31–1.52), renal failure (1.79, 1.53–2.09), anemia (1.50, 1.29–1.75), stroke (1.50, 1.21–1.85), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.25, 1.04–1.50) and atrial fibrillation (1.20, 1.02–1.40).

Conclusions: This nationwide heart failure survey indicates a high risk of long-term mortality and the urgent need for the development of more effective management strategies for patients with heart failure discharged from hospitals.

 







[1] HF = heart failure



[2] OR = odds ratio



[3] CI = confidence interval


B. S. Lewis, A. Shotan, S. Gottlieb, S. Behar, D. A. Halon, V. Boyko, J. Leor, E. Grossman, R. Zimlichman, A. Porath, M. Mittelman, A. Caspi and M. Garty

Background: Heart failure with preserved systolic left ventricular function is a major cause of cardiac disability.

Objectives: To examine the prevalence, characteristics and late clinical outcome of patients hospitalized with HF-PSF[1] on a nationwide basis in Israel.

Methods: The Israel nationwide HF survey examined prospectively 4102 consecutive HF patients admitted to 93 internal medicine and 24 cardiology departments in all 25 public hospitals in the country. Echocardiographic LV function measurements were available in 2845 patients (69%). The present report relates to the 1364 patients who had HF-PSF (LV ejection fraction ≥ 40%).

Results: Mortality of HF-PSF patients was high (in-hospital 3.5%, 6 months 14.2%, 12 months 22.0%), but lower than in patients with reduced systolic function (all P < 0.01). Mortality was higher in patients with HF as the primary hospitalization diagnosis (16.0% vs. 12.5% at 6 months, P = 0.07 and 26.2% vs. 18.0% at 12 months, P = 0.0002). Patients with HF-PSF who died were older (78 ± 10 vs. 71 ± 12 years, P < 0.001), more often female (P = 0.05) and had atrial fibrillation more frequently (44% vs. 33%, P < 0.01). There was also a relationship between mortality and pharmacotherapy: after adjustment for age and co-morbid conditions, mortality was lower in patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (P = 0.0003) and angiotensin receptor blockers (P = 0.002) and higher in those receiving digoxin (P = 0.003) and diuretic therapy (P = 0.009).

Conclusions: This nationwide survey highlights the very high late mortality rates in patients hospitalized for HF without a decrease in systolic function. The findings mandate a focus on better evidence-based treatment strategies to improve outcome in HF-PSF patients.

 







[1] HF-PSF = heart failure with preserved systolic left ventricular function


December 2006
A. Jotkowitz, A. Porath, A. Shotan, M. Mittelman, E. Grossman, R. Zimlichman, B.S. Lewis, A. Caspi, S. Gottlieb and M. Garty, for the Steering Committee of the Israeli Heart Failure National Survey 2003

Background: Despite significant advances in the therapy of heart failure, many patients still do not receive optimal treatment.

Objectives: To document the standard of care that patients hospitalized with HF[1] in Israel received during a 2 month period.

Methods: The Heart Failure Survey in Israel 2003 was a prospective 2 month survey of patients admitted to all 25 public hospitals in Israel with a diagnosis of HF.

Results: The mean age of the 4102 patients was 73 years and 43% were female. The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin receptor blockers and beta blockers both declined from NYHA class I to IV (68.8% to 50.6% for ACE[2]-inhibitor/ARB[3] and 64.1% to 52.9% for beta blockers, P < 0.001 for comparisons). The percentage of patients by NYHA class taking an ACE-inhibitor or ARB and a beta blocker at hospital discharge also declined from NYHA class I to IV (47.5% to 28.8%, P < 0.002 for comparisons). The strongest predictor of being discharged with an ACE-inhibitor or ARB was the use of these medications at hospital admission. Negative predictors for their usage were age, creatinine, disease severity class, and functional status.

Conclusions: Despite the dissemination of guidelines many patients did not receive optimal care for HF. Reasons for this discrepancy need to be identified and modified.






[1] HF = heart failure



[2] ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme



[3] ARB = angiotensin receptor blocker


February 2006
E. Leshinsky-Silver, S. Cheng, M.A. Grow, S. Schwartz, L. Scharf, D. Lev, M. Boaz, D. Brunner and R. Zimlichman

Background: Cardiovascular disease is now well established as a multifactorial disease. In a given individual, the level of cardiovascular risk is due to the interaction between genetic and environmental components. The BIP cohort comprised 3000 patients with cardiovascular disease who were tested for the benefits of bezafibrate treatment. This cohort has the data for the lipid profile of each individual, fibrinogen, Insulin, as well as clinical, demographic and lifestyle parameters

Objectives: To genotype up to 64 variable sites in 36 genes in the BIP cohort. The genes tested in this assay are involved in pathways implicated in the development and progression of atherosclerotic plaques, lipid and homocystein metabolism, blood pressure regulation, thrombosis, rennin-angiotensin system, platelet aggregation, and leukocyte adhesion.

Methods:  DNA was extracted from 1000 Israeli patients from the BIP cohort. A multilocus assay, developed by the Roche Molecular System, was used for genotyping. Allele frequencies for some of the markers were compared to the published frequencies in a healthy population (the French Stanislas cohort, n=1480).

Results: Among the 26 comparable alleles checked in the two cohorts, 16 allele frequencies were significantly different from the healthy French population: ApoE (E3, E2, E4), ApoB (71ile), ApoC (3482T, 455C, 1100T, 3175G, 3206G), CETP (405val), ACE (Del), AGT (235thr), ELAM (128arg); p<0001 and LPL (93G, 291Ser, 447ter); p < 005.

Conclusions: Although a comparable healthy Israeli population study is needed for more precise interpretation of these results, frequency differences in these polymorphic alleles, associated with lipid metabolism, renin-angiotensin system and leukocyte adhesion mechanism, between CVD patients and healthy individuals nevertheless implicate these candidate genes as predisposing for CVD.lic safety.
 

July 2004
Sharabi, R. Zimlichman, R. Mansouri, J. Chun and D.S. Goldstein

Background: Splanchnic nerve stimulation evokes adrenomedullary catecholamine secretion via acetylcholine release and occupation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors on chromaffin cells.

Objectives: To assess whether among cultured adrenomedullary cells there exists a population that tonically secretes acetylcholine. If so, then blockade of enzymatic breakdown of acetylcholine by addition of a cholinesterase inhibitor to the medium would increase occupation of nicotinic receptors by endogenous acetylcholine and thereby induce catecholamine release.

Methods: Primary cultures of bovine adrenomedullary cells in 24-well plates (1 million cells per well) were incubated after 48–72 hours with fresh incubation medium (control), medium with added secretagogues (nicotine, angiotensin II, or K+) or the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, edrophonium (10-7 to 10-3 M), for 1–20 minutes. Fractional release rates of epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine were compared to a control. We also examined whether co-incubation with edrophonium enhanced the effects of the secretagogues. All experiments were performed in quadruplicate and repeated three times.

Results: Nicotine, angiotensin II, and K+ each elicited time-related release of epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine by up to fourfold compared to the control. At all tested concentrations, edrophonium had no such effect. Co-incubation with edrophonium also failed to augment the secretory responses to nicotine, angiotensin II, or K+.

Conclusion: Bovine adrenomedullary cells in primary culture do not include a population of tonically active cholinergic cells.

October 2002
Marina Shargorodsky, MD and Reuven Zimlichman, MD
September 2002
Dov Gavish, MD, Eyal Leibovitz, MD, Itzhak Elly, MD, Marina Shargorodsky, MD and Reuven Zimlichman, MD

Background: The implementation of treatment guidelines is lacking worldwide.

Objectives: To examine whether follow-up in a specialized lipid clinic improves the achievement rate of the treatment guidelines, as formulated by the National Cholesterol Education Program and the Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

Methods: The study group included patients who were referred to the lipid clinic because of hyperlipidemia. At each of five visits over a 12 month period, lipid levels, liver and creatine kinase levels, body mass index, and adherence to diet and medications were measured, and achievement of the NCEP[1] target level was assessed.

Results: A total of 1,133 patients (mean age 61.3 years, 60% males) were studied. Additional risk factors for atherosclerosis included hypertension (41%), type II diabetes mellitus (21%), smoking (17%), and a positive family history of coronary artery disease (32%). All patients had evidence of atherosclerotic vascular disease (coronary, cerebrovascular or peripheral vascular diseases). The low density lipoprotein target of <100 mg was present in only 22% of patients before enrollment, with improvement of up to 57% after the follow-up period. During follow-up, blood pressure control was improved (from 38% at the time of referral to 88% after 12 months, P < 0.001), as was glycemic control in diabetic patients (HgA1C improved from 8.2% to 7.1% after 12 months, P < 0.001). Improved risk factor control was due to increased compliance to medication treatment (from 66% at enrollment to more than 90% after 12 months), as well as careful attention to risk factor management that translated into a change in the treatment profile during the follow-up. There was an increase in the use of the following medications: aspirin from 68% to 96%, statins from 42% to 88%, beta blockers from 20% to 40%, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors from 28% to 42%; while calcium channel blocker use decreased from 40% to 30% in patients during follow-up.

Conclusion: Follow-up of patients in a specialized clinic enhances the achievement of LDL[2]-cholesterol treatment goals as well as other risk factor treatment goals, due to increased patient compliance and increased use of medications.

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[1] NCEP = National Cholesterol Education Program

[2] LDL = low density lipoprotein


January 2002
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