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עמוד בית
Sat, 22.06.24

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September 2023
Ivan Gur MD MPH MHA, Ronen Zalts MD, Monia Azzam MD, Khetam Hussein MD, Ami Neuberger MD, Eyal Fuchs MD

Background: At the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, many patients presented with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, requiring ventilatory support. One treatment method was the addition of a reservoir mask to a high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) (dual oxygenation).

Objectives: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of combining reservoir mask on top of a high-flow nasal cannula.

Methods: A retrospective cohort of adult patients who were admitted due to COVID-19 during the first year of the pandemic to Rambam Health Care Campus. The primary endpoint was 30-day mortality. Secondary endpoints were incidence of invasive positive pressure ventilation initiation and admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Patients who received positive pressure ventilation for reasons other than hypoxemic respiratory failure or who were transferred to another facility while still on HFNC were excluded.

Results: The final analysis included 333 patients; 166 were treated with dual oxygenation and 167 with HFNC only (controls). No significant differences in baseline characteristics were noted between the groups. The dual oxygenation group was slightly older (69.2 ± 14.8 years vs. 65.6 ± 15.5 years, P = 0.034). The 30-day mortality (24.1% vs. 36.5%, P = 0.013), rates of invasive positive pressure ventilation (47% vs. 59.3%, P = 0.024), and ICU admissions (41.6% vs. 52.7%, P = 0.042) were all significantly lower in the dual oxygenation group.

Conclusions: The addition of reservoir masks to HFNC may improve the oxygenation and overall prognosis in patients with severe hypoxemia due to COVID-19.

May 2022
Moshe Ashkenazi MD MBA, Eyal Zimlichman MD, Noa Zamstein PhD, Galia Rahav MD, Reut Kassif Lerner MD, Yael Haviv MD, and Itai M. Pessach MD PhD MPH

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in repeated surges of patients, sometimes challenging triage protocols and appropriate control of patient flow. Available models, such as the National Early Warning Score (NEWS), have shown significant limitations. Still, they are used by some centers to triage COVID-19 patients due to the lack of better tools.

Objectives: To establish a practical and automated triage tool based on readily available clinical data to rapidly determine a distinction between patients who are prone to respiratory failure.

Methods: The electronic medical records of COVID-19 patients admitted to the Sheba Medical Center March–April 2020 were analyzed. Population data extraction and exploration were conducted using a MDClone (Israel) big data platform. Patients were divided into three groups: non-intubated, intubated within 24 hours, and intubated after 24 hours. The NEWS and our model where applied to all three groups and a best fit prediction model for the prediction of respiratory failure was established.

Results: The cohort included 385 patients, 42 of whom were eventually intubated, 15 within 24 hours or less. The NEWS score was significantly lower for the non-intubated patients compared to the two other groups. Our improved model, which included NEWS elements combined with other clinical data elements, showed significantly better performance. The model's receiver operating characteristic curve had area under curve (AUC) of 0.92 with of sensitivity 0.81, specificity 0.89, and negative predictive value (NPV) 98.4% compared to AUC of 0.63 with NEWS. As patients deteriorate and require further support with supplemental O2, the need for re-triage emerges. Our model was able to identify those patients on supplementary O2 prone to respiratory failure with an AUC of 0.86 sensitivity 0.95, and specificity 0.7 NPV 98.9%, whereas NEWS had an AUC of 0.76. For both groups positive predictive value was approximately 35%.

Conclusions: Our model, based on readily available and simple clinical parameters, showed an excellent ability to predict negative outcome among patients with COVID-19 and therefore might be used as an initial screening tool for patient triage in emergency departments and other COVID-19 specific areas of the hospital.

January 2021
Erez Sarel MD, David R. Hoppenstein MD MB BCh, Mirit Lahav MD, Nisim Ifrach MD, Fida Fanadka MD, and Brian D. Fredman MB BCh
October 2020
Dana Elhadad MD PhD, Yotam Bronstein MD, Moshe Yana, Harel Baris MD, Uriel Levinger MD, Maurice Shapiro MD, and Nechama Sharon MD

Background: There is limited clinical information on coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients in Israel.

Objectives: To describe the characteristics, outcomes, and potential associations of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Israel.

Methods: We conducted a single-center, retrospective study of 58 consecutive laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to Laniado Hospital, Israel, between 14 March 2020 and 14 May 2020. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data on admission were collected and analyzed, and the association to subsequent respiratory failure was assessed.

Results: Mean age of patients was 70.7 ± 16.9 years (53% males, 47% females.); 74% had at least one co-morbidity. Most patients were of Jewish Ashkenazi descent. During hospitalization 15 patients (mean age 78.18 ± 10.35 years); 80% male, 73% Sephardi descent developed respiratory failure rates of 60% occurring on average 10.6 days following intubation. Laboratory tests at admission displayed a significant increase in C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatine kinase (CK) and a decrease in absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) in patients who eventually developed respiratory failure (163.97 mg/L, 340.87 IU/L, 0.886 K/μl vs. 50.01 mg/L and 123.56 IU/L, 1.28 K/μl, respectively). Multivariate logistic analysis revealed an integrated parameter of CRP, CK, and ALC highly correlated with respiratory failure. Receiver operating characteristic curve revealed the area under the curve of CRP, CK, and ALC and the integrated parameter to be 0.910, 0.784, and 0.754, respectively. CRP was the strongest predictor to correlate with respiratory failure.

Conclusions: CRP, CK, and ALC levels on admission could possibly be used to detect high-risk patients prone to develop respiratory failure.

June 2020
Sharon Enghelberg MD, Itamar Y. Love MD and Micha Rapoport MD
May 2009
L.S. Avnon, A. Smolikov and Y. Almog

Background: The most common and most serious complication of varicella (chickenpox) in adults is pneumonia, which can lead to severe respiratory failure. Varicella pneumonia is associated with considerable morbidity and even death.

Objectives: To summarize our experience with varicella pneumonia in terms of clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics as well as risk factors, management and outcome.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort survey in our facility from 1995 to 2008.

Results: Our cohort comprised 21 patients with varicella pneumonia, of whom 19 (90%) were men; their mean age was 35 ± 10.5 years. Nineteen patients (90%) were Bedouins and 18 (86%) were smokers. Eleven (52%) were admitted to the Medical Intensive Care Unit; 3 of them required mechanical ventilation and the remaining 10 (48%) were admitted to the general medical ward. Median length of stay was 6 ± 7.7 days. Hypoxemia and elevated lactate dehydrogenase on admission were associated with respiratory failure. Radiological manifestations were variable and nine patients exhibited characteristic findings. All but one patient were treated with acyclovir. All patients fully recovered.

Conclusions: In southern Israel varicella pneumonia is primarily a disease of young male Bedouins who are smokers. Severity ranges from mild disease to severe, resulting at times in respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Prognosis is favorable with complete recovery.

January 2003
D. Kohelet

Background: High frequency oscillatory ventilation has proved valuable in recruiting and sustaining lung volume; the combined treatment may augment nitric oxide delivery to target vessels. NO[1] therapy lowers pulmonary resistance and improves oxygenation.

Objective: To retrospectively review data on changes in oxygenation – indicated by arterial/alveolar PO2 ratio, oxygenation index, and outcome – in a cohort of 10 infants with hypoxemic respiratory failure in whom nitric oxide inhalation was instituted in a compassionate-use protocol after deteriorated oxygenation.

Methods: NO inhalation was administered at a range of 0.12–122 days of life using the SensorMedics system in 10 infants who developed hypoxemic respiratory failure associated with a variety of lung diseases while on HFOV[2].

Results: The infants' birthweight was 1,717 ± 1,167 g and their gestational age 31.1 ± 6.5 weeks. Mean exposure to NO inhalation was 14.2 days and ranged from 3–59 days. Oxygenation index decreased from 39.3 ± 13.2 to 12.7 ± 6.9 (P < 0.0002) after NO therapy. Despite an initial prompt response to NO inhalation, two patients died of progressive intractable respiratory failure and one term infant died of extrapulmonary complications (hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy grade III and multiorgan failure).

Conclusion: Our results indicate that the combined treatment of HFOV and NO inhalation is superior to HFOV alone for improving oxygenation in a selected cohort of infants ventilated for a variety of lung diseases.






[1] NO = nitric oxide



[2] HFOV = high frequency oscillatory ventilation


November 1999
Gideon Paret MD, Tamar Ziv MD, Arie Augarten MD, Asher Barzilai MD, Ron Ben-Abraham MD, Amir Vardi MD, Yossi Manisterski MD and Zohar Barzilay MD, FCCM

Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a well-recognized condition resulting in high permeability pulmonary edema associated with a high morbidity.

Objectives: To examine a 10 year experience of predisposing factors, describe the clinical course, and assess predictors of mortality in children with this syndrome.

Methods: The medical records of all admissions to the pediatric intensive care unit over a 10 year period were evaluated to identify children with ARDS1. Patients were considered to have ARDS if they met all of the following criteria: acute onset of diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltrates of non-cardiac origin and severe hypoxemia defined by <200 partial pressure of oxygen during ³6 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure for a minimum of 24 hours. The medical records were reviewed for demographic, clinical, and physiologic information including PaO22 /forced expiratory O2, alveolar–arterial O2 difference, and ventilation index.

Results: We identified 39 children with the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Mean age was 7.4 years (range 50 days to 16 years) and the male:female ratio was 24:15. Predisposing insults included sepsis, pneumonias, malignancy, major trauma, shock, aspiration, near drowning, burns, and envenomation. The mortality rate was 61.5%. Predictors of death included the PaO2/FIO2, ventilation index and A-aDO23 on the second day after diagnosis. Non-survivors had significantly lower PaO2/FIO2 (116±12 vs. 175±8.3, P<0.001), and higher A-aDO2 (368±28.9 vs. 228.0±15.5, P<0.001) and ventilation index (43.3±2.9 vs. 53.1±18.0, P<0.001) than survivors.

Conclusions: Local mortality outcome for ARDS is comparable to those in tertiary referral institutions in the United States and Western Europe. The PaO2/FIO2, A-aDO2 and ventilation index are valuable for predicting outcome in ARDS by the second day of conventional therapy. The development of a local risk profile may allow early application of innovative therapies in this population. 

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1ARDS = acute respiratory distress syndrome

2 PaO2 = partial pressure of oxygen

3A-aDO2 = alveolar–arterial O2 difference

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