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עמוד בית
Wed, 12.06.24

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October 2007
V. Rathaus and M. Werner

Background: Acute focal nephritis is an inflammatory process of the renal parenchyma affecting principally the cortex of the kidney. It is considered a midpoint in the spectrum of upper urinary tract infections, ranging from uncomplicated pyelonephritis to intrarenal abscesses, and until recently the hyperechoic sonographic appearance of this lesion was considered uncommon.  

Objectives: To determine the relative prevalence of hyperechoic and hypoechoic sonographic appearance of focal renal lesions in patients with the clinical diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis and to correlate the findings with those of the color Doppler examinations.

Methods: We reviewed the sonograms of 367 patients hospitalized with the clinical diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis. The sonograms were reviewed for acute renal inflammatory changes. When a focal lesion was detected, we noted the echogenicity, side, form, location and color Doppler characteristics.

Results: Abnormal sonographic findings related to the infection were found in 78 cases. In 52 patients a focal lesion was diagnosed. Forty-seven focal lesions appeared hyperechoic related to the adjacent parenchyma. These lesions were more frequently located at the upper pole and were wedge-shaped in most of the cases. The areas appeared hypo/avascular on the color Doppler examination.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that the most common appearance of acute focal nephritis is an area of increased echogenicity in the parenchyma of the affected kidney.

January 2007
S. Benchertrit, S. Yarkoni, M. Rathaus, M. Pines, G. Rashid, J. Bernheim, J. Bernheim

Background: Halofuginone is a novel antifibrotic agent that can reserve the fibrotic process by specific inhibition of collagen type I synthesis.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of Halo on the development of glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis in the 5/ 6 nephrectomy rat model.

Methods: Male Wistar rats were assigned to undergo 5/6 NX or sham operation, and then divided into three groups: 5/6 NX rats (NX-Halo and NX-Control) and sham. Systolic blood pressure proteinuria and body weight were determined every 2 weeks. At sacrifice (10 weeks) creatinine clearance was evaluated and remnant kidneys removed for histologic examination, Sirius red staining and in situ hybridization.

Results: Systolic blood pressure increased progressively in both 5/6 NX groups. Halo slowed the increase in proteinuria in 5/6 NX rats. As expected, creatinine clearance was lower in 5/6 NX groups when compared to sham rats. Creatinine clearance was significantly higher in the NX-Halo group at the end of the study period. Histologic examination by light microscopy showed significantly less severe interstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis in Halo-treated rats. The increase in collagen α1 (I) gene expression and collagen staining after nephrectomy was almost completely abolished by Halo.

Conclusions: Halofuginone reduced proteinuria as well as the severity of interstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis in 5/6 NX rats. The renal beneficial effect of Halo was also demonstrated by the blunted decrease in creatinine clearance observed in the treated animals.  

July 2003
A. Korzets, Y. Ori, M. Rathaus, N. Plotnik, S. Baytner, U. Gafter and E. Isakov

Background: Lower limb critical ischemia is a major problem in dialysed patients.

Objective: To evaluate the results of revascularization procedures, amputations and prosthetic rehabilitation in dialysed amputees.

Methods: Major amputation was carried out in 48 patients (4.5% of the dialysis population), and 24 patients entered the rehabilitation program. Widespread arterial calcification was common and led to falsely elevated ankle-brachial pressure indices in 9 of 14 limbs. Eight patients underwent revascularization. Subsequent major amputation was carried out 4 ± 4.5 months after the revascularization (above knee in 5 patients and below knee in 3). Of the 16 patients who underwent primary amputation, only 2 were above-knee amputees. Seven patients with toe or metatarsal amputation went on to a major amputation 1.8 ± 1.2 months after the distal amputation.

Results: No differences were found between diabetic and non-diabetic patients regarding the number of revascularization operations performed, the level of major amputation, or overall survival. Prosthetic rehabilitation was considered successful in 12 patients, partially successful in 8, and failed in 4 patients. Patient survival time was shortest in those patients with failed rehabilitation. A younger age confirmed favorable rehabilitation results, while long-standing diabetics and bilateral amputees were poor rehabilitation candidates. Patients who underwent primary amputation had more successful rehabilitation. A comparison between 24 dialysed amputees and 138 non-uremic amputees revealed similar rehabilitation results, although hospitalization time was longer in the dialysed patients.

Conclusions: Early definitive therapy is essential when dealing with critical ischemia. After diagnostic angiography, proximal revascularization should be performed where feasible. Primary amputation is indicated in patients with extensive foot infection or gangrene. Prosthetic rehabilitation is warranted in most dialysed amputees.

April 2000
Ella Zeltzer MD, Jacques Bernheim MD, Ze’ev Korzets MB BSc,, Doron Zeeli PhD, Mauro Rathaus MD, Yoseph A. Mekori MD and Rami Hershkoviz MD

Background: Cell-mediated immunity is impaired in uremia. Cell-matrix interactions of immune cells such as CD4+T lymphocytes with extracellular matrix are an important requirement for an intact immune response. The adherence of CD4+T cells of healthy subjects (normal T cells) to ECM components is inhibited in the presence of uremic serum. Such decreased adhesive capacity is also found in T cells of dialysis patients. Various chemokines and cytokines affect the attachment of CD4+T cells to ECM.

Objective: To evaluate chemokine (MIP-1β and RANTES) and tumor necrosis factor α-induced adhesion of CD4+T cells to ECM in a uremic milieu.

Methods: We examined adhesion of normal CD4+T cells (resting and activated) to intact ECM in response to soluble or bound chemokines (MIP-1β and RANTES) and to TNF-α following incubation in uremic versus normal serum. Thereafter, we evaluated the adhesion of resting CD4+T cells from dialysis patients in a similar fashion and compared it to that obtained from a healthy control group.

Results: Addition of uremic serum diminished soluble and anchored chemokine-induced attachment of normal resting and activated CD4+T cells to ECM compared to a normal milieu (a peak response of 10–11% vs. 24–29% for soluble chemokines, P<0.001; 12–13% vs. 37–39% for bound chemokines on resting cells, P<0.01; and 18–20% vs. 45–47% for bound chemokines on activated cells, P<0.02). The same pattern of response was noted following stimulation with immobilized TNF-α (7 vs. 12% for resting cells, P<0.05; 17 vs. 51% for activated cells, P<0.01).  Adherence of dialysis patients’ cells to ECM following stimulation with both bound chemokines was reduced compared to control T cells (15–17% vs. 25–32%, P<0.0000). In contrast, adherence following stimulation by TNF-α was of equal magnitude.

Conclusions: Abnormal adhesive capacity of T lymphocytes to ECM in uremia may, in part, be related to a diminished response to MIP-1β, RANTES and TNF-α. However, whereas reduced adhesion to chemokines was present in both normal CD4+T cells in a uremic environment and in dialysis patients’ T cells, TNF-α-induced adhesion was found to be inhibited only in normal cells in a uremic milieu.


ECM = extracellular matrix

TNF-α = tumor necrosis factor-a

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