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עמוד בית
Tue, 23.04.24

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August 2022
Nir Tsur MD, Omri Frig BSc, Orna Steinberg-Shemer MD, Hannah Tamary MD, Noga Kurman MD, Aviram Mizrachi MD, and Aron Popovtzer MD

Background: Recent studies show a high risk of developing malignancy in patients with Fanconi anemia. The most common solid tumor in this condition is head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and there is often uncertainty and about disease behavior as well as chemotherapy and radiation response.

Objectives: To describe and characterize HNSCC among Fanconi anemia patients on the Israeli Fanconi Registry

Methods: Our study population included patients in Israel's inherited bone marrow failure registry who were diagnosed with Fanconi anemia between1980 and 2016. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected from patient charts.

Results: From the collected data, HNSCC was confirmed in 6/111 (5.4%) Fanconi anemia patients; 1 (17%) had classic HNSCC risk factors of tobacco abuse and 4 (56%) had undergone primary surgery. The 3 (50%) receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy had mild side effects, while half developed metachronous primary malignancy, and all developed > 2 primary malignancies. The overall median survival of the patients in our study was 14 (0.5–57) months.

Conclusions: Fanconi anemia patients have a very high risk of developing HNSCC. Proactive screening for malignancies is needed for the head and neck regions. We also found that chemoradiotherapy can be used safely in high-stage cancers.

April 2020
Sarit Appel MD, Orit Kaidar-Person MD, Yaacov Richard Lawrence MD MBBS MA MRCP, Maoz Ben-Ayun PhD, Tamar Katzman MPH BASc, Jair Bar MD PhD, Anat Mansano BA and Zvi Symon MD
July 2018
Viacheslav Soyfer MD, Benjamin W. Corn MD, Yaron Meir BS, Diana Matceyevsky MD, Nir Honig BS and Natan Shtraus MSc

Background: Family physicians and internal medicine specialists play an essential role in treating cancer patients. Modern technological advances in radiotherapy are not widely appreciated by primary care physicians. Bone metastases are a frequent complication of cancer. Palliative radiation therapy, as a component of modern advances in radiation treatments, should not subject normal bodily structures to excessive doses of irradiation. The sacrum is a common destination site for bone metastases, yet its concave shape along with its proximity to the rectum, intestines, and femoral heads creates treatment-planning challenges.

Objectives: To investigated whether the volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique is preferable to more conventional radiation strategies.

Methods: The study comprised 22 patients with sacral metastases who were consecutively treated between 2013 and 2014. Two plans were generated for the comparison: three-dimensional (3D) and VMAT.

Results: The planning target volume (PTV) coverage of the sacrum was identical in VMAT and 3D planning. The median values for the rectal dose for 3D and VMAT were 11.34 ± 5.14 Gy and 7.7 ± 2.76 Gy, respectively. Distal sacral involvement (S4 and S5) was observed in only 2 of 22 cases, while the upper pole of the rectum ended at the level above S3 in just 3 cases.

Conclusions: Radiation therapy continues to be an integral component of the palliative armamentarium against painful metastases. Radiation oncologist, in conjunction with referral physicians, can tailor treatment plans to reflect the needs of a given patient.

October 2017
Sarit Appel MD, Jeffry Goldstein MD, Marina Perelman MD, Tatiana Rabin MD, Damien Urban MBBS MD, Amir Onn MD, Tiberiu R. Shulimzon MD, Ilana Weiss MA, Sivan Lieberman MD, Edith M. Marom MD, Nir Golan MD, David Simansky MD, Alon Ben-Nun MD PhD, Yaacov Richard Lawrence MBBS MRCP, Jair Bar MD PhD and Zvi Symon MD PhD

Background: Neoadjuvant chemo-radiation therapy (CRT) dosages in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were traditionally limited to 45 Gray (Gy).

Objectives: To retrospectively analyze outcomes of patients treated with 60 Gy CRT followed by surgery.

Methods: A retrospective chart review identified patients selected for CRT to 60 Gy followed by surgery between August 2012 and April 2016. Selection for surgery was based on the extent of disease, cardiopulmonary function, and response to treatment. Pathological response after neoadjuvant CRT was scored using the modified tumor regression grading. Local control (LC), disease free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were estimated by the Kaplan–Meier method.

Results: Our cohort included 52 patients: 75% (39/52) were stage IIIA. A radiation dose of 60 Gy (range 50–62Gy) was delivered in 82.7%. Surgeries performed included: lobectomy, chest-wall resection, and pneumonectomy in 67.3%, 13.4%, and 19.2%, respectively. At median follow-up of 22.4 months, the 3 year OS was 74% (95% confidence interval [CI] 52–87%), LC was 84% (95%CI 65–93), and DFS 35% (95%CI 14–59). Grade 4–5 postoperative complications were observed in 17.3% of cases and included chest wall necrosis (5.7%), bronco-pleural fistula (7.7%), and death (3.8%). A major pathologic regression with < 10% residual tumor occurred in 68.7% of patients (36/52) and showed a trend to improved OS (P = 0.1). Pneumonectomy cases had statistically worse OS (P = 0.01).

Conclusions: Major pathologic regression was observed 68.7% with 60 Gy neoadjuvant CRT with a trend to improved survival. Pneumonectomy correlated with worse survival.

January 2017
Benjamin Spieler BA, Jeffrey Goldstein MD, Yaacov R. Lawrence MD, Akram Saad MD, Raanan Berger MD PhD, Jacob Ramon MD, Zohar Dotan MD, Menachem Laufer MD, Ilana Weiss MA, Lev Tzvang MS, Philip Poortmans MD PhD and Zvi Symon MD

Background: Radiotherapy to the prostate bed is used to eradicate residual microscopic disease following radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Recommendations are based on historical series. 

Objectives: To determine outcomes and toxicity of contemporary salvage radiation therapy (SRT) to the prostate bed. 

Methods: We reviewed a prospective ethics committee-approved database of 229 patients referred for SRT. Median pre-radiation prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was 0.5 ng/ml and median follow-up was 50.4 months (range 13.7–128). Treatment was planned and delivered using modern three-dimensional radiation techniques. Mean bioequivalent dose was 71 Gy (range 64–83 Gy). Progression was defined as two consecutive increases in PSA level > 0.2 ng/ml, metastases on follow-up imaging, commencement of anti-androgen treatment for any reason, or death from prostate cancer. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and multivariate analysis was performed using STATA. 

Results: Five year progression-free survival was 68% (95%CI 59.8–74.8%), and stratified by PSA was 87%, 70% and 47% for PSA < 0.3, 0.3–0.7, and > 0.7 ng/ml (P < 0.001). Metastasis-free survival was 92.5%, prostate cancer-specific survival 96.4%, and overall survival 94.9%. Low pre-radiation PSA value was the most important predictor of progression-free survival (HR 2.76, P < 0.001). Daily image guidance was associated with reduced risk of gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity (P < 0.005). 

Conclusions: Contemporary SRT is associated with favorable outcomes. Early initiation of SRT at PSA < 0.3 ng/ml improves progression-free survival. Daily image guidance with online correction is associated with a decreased incidence of late toxicity.

 

Sarit Appel MD, Yaacov R. Lawrence MRCP, Jeffery Goldstein MD, Raphael M. Pfeffer MD, Ilana Weiss MA, Tatiana Rabin MD, Shira Felder MD, Maoz Ben-Ayun PhD, Lev Tzvang MSc, Dror Alezra PhD, David Simansky MD, Alon Ben-Nun MD PhD, Jair Bar MD PhD and Zvi Symon MD

Background: Stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) is the application of a very high radiation dose to a small treatment volume. It is the new standard of care in medically inoperable early-stage lung cancer. 

Objectives: To report the outcomes of SABR in stage I lung cancer at Sheba Medical Center since its introduction in 2009.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with stage I lung cancer treated during the period 2009–2015. Survival status was retrieved from the electronic medical records and confirmed with the national registry. Local failure was defined as increased FDG uptake on PETCT scan within a 2 cm radius of the treated region. Toxicity was estimated from medical records and graded according to common toxicity criteria for adverse events (CTCAE) version 4.03. Overall survival and local control were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: During the study period 114 patients were treated for 122 stage I lung cancer lesions. Median follow-up time was 27 months (range 8.2–69.5 months), median age was 76 years. Eighty-two percent of the tumors were stage IA (size ≤ 3 cm). Median survival was 46 months; estimated 3 year overall survival was 59% (95%CI 47–69%) and local control was 88% (95%CI 78–94%). Toxicity included chest wall pain in 8.4% of patients, rib fracture in 0.9%, grade 1–2 pneumonitis in 12%, grade 3 in 12% and grade 5 (death) in 0.9%.

Conclusions: SABR has been successfully implemented at Sheba Medical Center for the treatment of stage I lung cancer in inoperable patients. It is associated with excellent local control, minor toxicity and an acceptable overall survival.

 

January 2016
Tamara Kushnir MA, Ofer N. Gofrit MD, Ruth Elkayam MA, Shani Shimon-Paluch MD, Yaacov R. Lawrence MBBS MRCP, Ilana Weiss MA and Zvi Symon MD

Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) added to radiation therapy (RT) in intermediate to high risk prostate cancer negatively impacts quality of life. 

Objectives: To compare health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in patients receiving combined RT with and without ADT 

Methods: The study population comprised patients treated with definitive RT for prostate cancer who completed the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite-26 form between 3 and 24 months after completing RT. Covariance and a stepwise backward logistic regression model was used. 

Results: Data were available for 143 patients who received RT+ADT and 70 who received RT alone. The sexual function and hormonal vitality scores of patients receiving RT+ADT were significantly lower than those receiving RT alone (P < 0.0001). Patients with only compulsory school education had significantly lower sexual function scores than patients with university level education (P ≤ 0.005). Patients with depression had significantly lower hormonal vitality scores than those without depression (P ≤ 0.0001). 

Conclusions: The addition of ADT to RT is responsible for decrements in quality of life in the sexual and hormonal vitality domains, which is further compounded by lack of education and depression. This underlines the need to improve education, identify and treat depression, and develop strategies to improve the quality of life of patients receiving combination therapy. 

 

September 2012
D. Hershko, R. Abdah-Bortnyak, A. Nevelsky, E. Gez, ,G. Fried, and A. Kuten

Background: Local recurrences after breast-conserving surgery occur mostly at the site of the primary carcinoma. The main objective of postoperative radiotherapy is sterilization of residual cancer cells. Whole-breast radiotherapy is the standard of care, but its utility has recently been challenged in favor of radiotherapy limited to the area at highest risk of recurrence. Intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOeRT) is an innovative technique for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) that is applied to selected patients affected by early breast cancer.

Objectives:  To describe our experience with IOeRT at the Rambam Health Care Campus in Haifa since we began utilizing this modality in 2006.

Methods: From April 2006 to September 2010, 31 patients affected by unifocal invasive duct breast carcinoma ≤ 2 cm diameter received wide local resection followed by intraoperative radiotherapy with electrons. Patients were evaluated for early and late complications, and other events, 1 month after surgery and every 3 months thereafter for the duration of the first 2 years.

Results: After a mean follow-up of 36 months, seven patients developed mild breast fibrosis and three suffered from mild postoperative infection. Rib fractures were observed in four patients before routine lead shielding was initiated. Additional whole-breast irradiation was given to four patients. None of the patients developed local recurrences or other ipsilateral cancers. Similarly, no contralateral cancers or distant metastases were observed.

Conclusions: Intraoperative electron radiotherapy may be an alternative to external beam radiation therapy in an appropriate selected group of early-stage breast cancer patients. However, long-term results of clinical trials are required to better evaluate the indications and utility of this technique in the management of breast cancer.
 

June 2007
D. Matceyevsky, N. Yaal Hahoshen, A. Vexler, N. Asna, A. Khafif, R. Ben-Yosef

Background: Mucositis and dermatitis are frequently encountered in patients treated with radiochemotherapy. Dead Sea products that contain minerals and different substances have proved effective in treating various skin diseases.

Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of Dead Sea products in reducing acute radiochemotherapy‑induced side effects in patients with head and neck cancer.

Methods: In this phase 2 study we compared the outcomes in 24 treated patients and 30 conventionally treated patients matched for age, tumor site, and type of treatment. The Dead Sea products comprised a mouthwash solution (Lenom®) and a skin cream (Solaris®) used three times daily for 1 week before, during, and up to 2 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. Mucositis and dermatitis were evaluated using common toxicity criteria.

Results: Thirteen treated patients (54%) had grade 1-2 and none had 3-4 mucositis, while 17 controls (57%) had grade 1-2 and 4 (13%) had grade 3-4 mucositis. Thirteen treated patients (54%) had grade 1-2 dermatitis; there was no instance of grade 3-4 dermatitis, while 11 patients in the control group (37%) had grade 1-2 and 5 (17%) had grade 3-4 dermatitis. More patients in the control arm needed a break than the patients in the treatment arm (P = 0.034[T1]).

Conclusions: The two Dead Sea products tested decreased skin and mucosal toxicity in head and neck cancer patients receiving radiochemotherapy.
 

July 2005
E. Evron, L. Barzily, E. Rakowsky, N. Ben-Baruch, J. Sulkes, S. Rizel and E. Fenig
Background: Post-mastectomy loco-regional radiation to the chest wall and draining lymphatics, combined with adjuvant chemotherapy and hormonal therapy, significantly improve survival in patients with node-positive breast cancer. However, the actual benefit of post-mastectomy radiotherapy and the desired extent of treatment are still debatable.

Objectives: To examine the effect of postoperative loco-regional radiotherapy on local and regional recurrence and survival in breast cancer patients with four or more involved lymph nodes or extracapsular tumor extension.

Methods: This controlled clinical trial included 258 breast cancer patients with four or more involved nodes or ECE[1]. Eighty-nine patients in the control group had modified radical mastectomy and received adjuvant chemotherapy with melphalan and 5FU, but no radiation therapy. The 169 patients in the study group (87 with MRM[2] and 82 with lumpectomy and axillary dissection) received various adjuvant chemotherapy regimes and radiation therapy to the chest wall/breast, supraclavicular region and full axilla.

Results: With an average follow-up of more than 5 years, loco-regional radiation significantly reduced local and regional disease recurrence. The median disease-free survival was significantly longer in radiated patients (59.2 months and 63.3 months in the MRM and L+AXLND[3] groups, respectively, vs. 28.4 months in the control group; P < 0.01). There was no difference in the rate of systemic recurrence and overall survival. The median overall survival was 71.2 and 67.5 months in the study groups (MRM and L+AXLND, respectively) and 70.5 months in the control group (P = 0.856).

Conclusions: Radiotherapy to the breast/chest wall and to the draining lymphatics, in addition to surgery and adjuvant therapy, significantly reduced the risk of local and regional recurrence in high risk breast cancer patients with four or more involved lymph nodes or ECE.


 


[1] ECE = extracapsular tumor extension

[2] MRM = modified radical mastectomy

[3] L+AXLND = lumpectomy and axillary dissection


July 2004
R. Ben-Yosef, N. Vigler, M. Inbar and A. Vexler

Background: Hyperthermia combined with radiation therapy was shown to be more effective in local recurrent breast cancer than radiotherapy alone, but it use is limited due to technical difficulties, stringent reimbursement policies and because it is time consuming.

Objectives: To report our experience with a simple and convenient XRT+HT[1] delivery system.

Methods: XRT was delivered through either electron or photon beams (total dose 30–40 Gy in previously irradiated fields or 50–70 Gy in non-irradiated fields). Hyperthermia was delivered by a dedicated HT device operating at 915 MHz. The heating session lasted 45 minutes. The maximal tumor surface temperature was set at 45°C and modified according to patient comfort. No intratumoral (invasive) thermometry was used. At least two HT sessions were scheduled to each HT field during the entire XRT treatment period. Tumor response was evaluated every 3 months after completion of treatment. The overall survival was measured from XRT+HT initiation until the last follow‑up.

Results: Fifteen women underwent 114 HT treatments delivered through 28 HT fields. Twenty-four HT fields (15 patients) were previously irradiated. There was complete infield response in 10 fields (6 patients), partial response in 8 fields (4 patients), no response or progressive disease in 4 fields (3 patients), and no parameters in 6 fields (5 patients). Eighteen (64%) fields had complete or partial response. Seven patients had outfield recurrence despite wide XRT+HT fields. Ulceration was the only major side effect (three patients, three fields).

Conclusions: The combined HT+XRT delivery system, with no invasive thermometry, is a simple and effective method for treating local recurrent breast cancer.






[1] XRT-HT = radiation therapy-hyperthermia


June 2004
J. Kundel, R. Pfeffer, M. Lauffer, J. Ramon, R. Catane and Z. Symone

Background: The role of prostatic fossa radiation as salvage therapy in the setting of a rising prostate-specific antigen following radical prostatectomy is not well defined.

Objectives: To study the efficacy and safety of pelvic and prostatic fossa radiation therapy following radical prostatectomy for adenocarcinoma.

Methods: A retrospective review of 1,050 patient charts treated at the Sheba Medical Center for prostate cancer between 1990 and 2002 identified 48 patients who received post-prostatectomy pelvic and prostatic fossa radiotherapy for biochemical failure. Two patients were classified as T-1, T2A-9, T2B-19, T3A-7 and T3B-11. Gleason score was 2–4 in 9 patients, 5–6 in 22 patients, 7 in 10 patients and 8–10 in 7 patients. Positive surgical margins were noted in 28 patients (58%) of whom 18 had single and 10 had multiple positive margins. Radiation was delivered with 6 mV photons using a four-field box to the pelvis followed by two lateral arcs to the prostatic fossa.

Results: At a median follow-up of 34.3 months (25th, 75th) (14.7, 51,3) since radiation therapy, 32 patients (66%) are free of disease or biochemical failure. Exploratory analysis revealed that a pre-radiation PSA[1] less than 2 ng/ml was associated with a failure rate of 24% compared with 66% in patients with a pre-radiation PSA greater than 2 ng/ml (chi-square P < 0.006).

Conclusions: For patients with biochemical failure following radical prostatectomy early salvage radiation therapy is an effective and safe treatment option.






[1] PSA = prostate-specific antigen


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