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עמוד בית
Sat, 25.05.24

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February 2021
Nir Hod MD MHA, Daniel Levin MD, Sophie Lantsberg MD, Gideon Sahar MD, Karen Nalbandyan MD, Aharon Yehonatan Cohen MD, and Aryeh Shalev MD
September 2008
G. Izbicki, G. Fink, A. Algom, R. Hirsch, L. Blieden, E. Klainman, E. Picard, S. Goldberg and M. R. Kramer

Background: Since surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot was introduced, follow-up studies have shown that the majority of patients lead actives lives and have no subjective exercise limitation.

Objectives: To examine lung function, cardiopulmonary functional capacity and echo-Doppler assessment of pulmonary pressure in adult patients 20 years after repair of TOF.

Methods: Unselected consecutive patients performed full lung function testing, progressive cardiopulmonary exercise, and echo-Doppler assessments of pulmonary pressure.

Results: Fifty consecutive patients (33 men, 17 women) aged 29 ± 11 years who underwent surgical repair of TOF at age 10.1 ± 10.9 years were enrolled in this study. Patients after TOF showed no restriction (forced expiratory vital capacity 80%, total lung capacity 91%) and had normal oxygen saturation (97%) and 6 minute walking distance (600 meters). Echocardiography showed normal pulmonary pressure and left ventricular ejection function (62%). Cardiopulmonary exercise testing showed mild limitation of exercise capacity with oxygen uptake at maximal effort of 75–78% predicted.

Conclusions: After corrections of TOF the study patients had normal lung function and pulmonary arterial pressure but mild limitation in their exercise capacity.
 

December 2002
Naomi A. Avramovitch MD, Moshe Y. Flugelman MD, David A. Halon MB ChB and Basil S. Lewis MD FRCP
February 2000
Einat Birk MD, Alon Stamler MD, Jacob Katz MD, Michael Berant, Ovadia Dagan MD, Abraham Matitiau, Eldad Erez MD, Leonard C. Blieden and Bernardo A. Vidne

Background: Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is a rare congenital malformation that presents a diagnostic challenge to the pediatrician and pediatric cardiologist. Although surgical repair is always indicated, the optimal technique has yet to be determined.      

Objectives: To review our experience with the diagnosis of children with ALCAPA and to assess short to midterm surgical results.

Methods: Between 1992 and 1998, 13 infants and children (2 months to 15 years) were treated for ALCAPA at our medical center. Eight were diagnosed during the first year of life; all were symptomatic and had severe dysfunction of the left ventricle. The five patients diagnosed at an older age had normal myocardial function. Diagnosis was established by echocardiography alone in seven patients; six required catheterization (one infant and all older patients). Surgery was performed in 12 patients to establish dual coronary artery system: 7 underwent the Takeuchi procedure and 5 had re-implantation of the anomalous left coronary artery.

Results: One infant died shortly after diagnosis before surgical repair was attempted, and one died postoperatively. Four patients required additional surgery: three for late complications of the Takeuchi procedure and one valve replacement for mitral insufficiency. Recent evaluation revealed good global left ventricle function in all patients except for one, who is still within the recovery phase and shows gradual improvement. However, most patients who presented with severe myocardial dysfunction upon diagnosis still display abnormal features such as echo-dense papillary muscles or evidence of small akinetic segments. In this group, early repair was associated with faster myocardial recovery.

Conclusions: The diagnosis of ALCAPA remains a clinical challenge to the pediatrician and cardiologist. Diagnosis can be established echocardiographically, and early diagnosis and treatment may lead to faster myocardial recovery. The preferred surgical method appears to be re-implantation of the ALCA. The chance for good recovery of global ventricular function is high even in the sickest patients, nonetheless abnormal myocardial features can be identified even years after surgery.

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ALCAPA= anomolous origin of the left coronary artery from pulmonary artery.

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