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עמוד בית
Fri, 31.05.24

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November 2023
Amit Frenkel MD MHA, Ran Abuhasira MD PhD, Lior Fisher Med.Sc, Yoav Bichovsky MD, Alexander Zlotnik MD PhD, Victor Novack MD PhD, Moti Klein MD MPH

Background: Younger patient age and relatively good prognosis have been described as factors that may increase caregiver motivation in treating patients with septic shock in the intensive care unit (ICU).

Objectives: To examine whether clinical teams tended to achieve unnecessarily higher map arterial pressure (MAP) values in younger patients.

Methods: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of patients presenting with septic shock who were treated with noradrenaline and hospitalized in a general ICU between 2006 and 2018. The patients were classified into four age groups: 18-45 (n=129), 46-60 (n=96), 61-75 (n=157), and older than 75 years (n=173). Adjusted linear mixed models and locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOWESS) curves were used to assess associations and potential non-linear relationships, respectively, of age group with MAP and noradrenaline dosage.

Results: The cohort included 555 patients. An inverse relation was observed between average MAP value and age. Among patients aged 18–45 years, the average MAP was 4.7 mmHg higher (95% confidence interval 3.4–5.9) than among patients aged > 75 years (P-value <0.001) after adjustment for sex, death in the intensive care unit, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores.

Conclusions: Among patients with septic shock, the titration of noradrenaline by staff led to a higher average MAP for younger patients. Although the MAP target is equal for all age groups, staff may administer noradrenaline treatment according to a higher target of MAP due to attitudes toward patients of different ages, despite any evidence that such practice is beneficial.

Gassan Moady MD, Moanis Serhan MD, Shaul Atar MD, Alexander Shturman MD

Background: The continuity equation (CE) used for evaluating aortic stenosis (AS) is based on values obtained from transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) with the assumption that the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) has a circular shape. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) may be used for accurate measurement of the LVOT cross-sectional area (CSA). Previous studies have focused on fusion from TEE for LVOT-CSA measurement and TTE for velocity time integrals (VTI) calculations.

Objectives: To assess aortic valve area (AVA) using parameters obtained exclusively from TEE as an alternative approach.

Methods: Thirty patients with equivocal AS based on TTE were evaluated using TEE for further assessment.

Results: The mean pressure gradient across the aortic valve (AV) was 38 ± 5.9 and 37.9 ± 7.6 mmHg in TTE and TEE, respectively, P = 0.42. LVOT-CSA was larger in TEE (3.6 ± 0.3 vs. 3.4 ± 0.3 cm2, P = 0.049). VTI over the AVA was similar (98.54 ± 22.8 and 99.52 ± 24.52 cm in TTE and TEE, respectively, P = 0.608), while VTI across the LVOT was higher when measured by TTE (24.06 ± 5.8 vs. 22.03 ± 4.3 cm, P < 0.009). Using the CE, AVA was 0.82 ± 0.3 vs. 0.83 ± 0.17 cm2 in TEE vs. TTE, respectively, P = 0.608. Definitive grading was achieved in all patients (26 patients defined with severe AS and 4 with moderate).

Conclusions: In equivocal cases of AS, full assessment using TEE may be a reliable modality for decision making.

December 2022
Ayelet Shles MD, Giulia Pula MD, Omer Raviv MD, Dania Takagi MD, Hadas Yechiam MD, Ehud Rosenbloom MD

Background: Blood pressure (BP) is routinely measured while triaging children presenting to the pediatric emergency department (PED).

Objectives: To determine whether a medical clown shortens the time to acquire a BP measurement among children undergoing triage in the PED.

Methods: The study comprised 133 children. Patients were assigned to one of two groups: with a medical clown or without a medical clown.

Results: The presence of a medical clown led to a significantly shorter time to acquire a blood pressure measurement (60 ± 23 seconds vs. 81 ± 43.5 seconds, P < 0.001. Clowns had a significant effect on shortening total triage length among children of Jewish ethnicity compared to Arab ethnicity (113 ± 353.6 seconds vs. 154 ± 418 seconds, P = 0.012).

Conclusions: Using medical clowns while measuring BP during triage when used in a culturally appropriate manner shortens time.

October 2020
Emil Abd El-Qader MD, Lilach Israeli-Shani MD, Gali Epstein Shochet PhD, Zamir Dovrish MD, Daniel A. King MD, David Dahan MD, Ori Wand and David Shitrit MD

Background: Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience frequent exacerbations and need to be hospitalized, resulting in an economic and social burden. Although data exist regarding reasons of frequent hospitalizations, there is no data available about the impact on the length of stay (LOS).

Objectives: To characterize the causes of prolonged hospitalizations in COPD patients.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of patients who were diagnosed and treated in the pulmonary department for severe COPD exacerbations. All patient demographic data and medical history were collected. Data regarding the disease severity were also collected (including Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] criteria, pulmonologist follow-up, prior hospitalizations, and LOS).

Results: The study comprised 200 patients, average age 69.5 ± 10.8 years, 61% males. Of these patients, 89 (45%) were hospitalized for up to 4 days, 111 (55%) for 5 days or more, and 34 (17%) for more than 7 days. Single patients had longer LOS compared with married patients (48% vs. 34%, P = 0.044). Multivariate analysis showed that the number of prior hospital admissions in the last year was a predictor of LOS (P = 0.038, odds ratio [OR] = 0.807, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 0.659–0.988), as well as the use of non-invasive respiratory support by bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) during the hospitalization (P = 0.024, OR = 4.662, 95%CI = 1.229–17.681).

Conclusions: Fewer previous hospitalizations due to COPD exacerbations and the need for non-invasive respiratory support by BiPAP were found as predictors of longer LOS.

January 2019
December 2018
Yael Shapira-Galitz MD, Galia Karp MD, Oded Cohen MD, Doron Halperin MD MHA, Yonatan Lahav MD and Nimrod Adi MD

Background: Nasal device-related pressure ulcers are scarcely addressed in the literature.

Objective: To assess the prevalence and severity of cutaneous and mucosal nasogastric tube (NGT)-associated pressure ulcers (PU) in critically ill patients and to define predictors for their formation.

Methods: A single center observational study of intensive care unit patients with a NGT for more than 48 hours was conducted. Nasal skin was evaluated for PU. Ulcers were graded according to their depth. Consenting patients underwent a nasoendoscopic examination to evaluate intranasal mucosal injury.

Results: The study comprised 50 patients, 17 of whom underwent nasoendoscopic examination. Mean time of NGT presence in the nose was 11.3 ± 6.17 days. All patients had some degree of extranasal PU, 46% were low grade and 54% were high grade. Predictors for high grade extranasal PU compared to low grade PU were higher peak Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores (11.52 vs. 8.87, P = 0.009), higher peak C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (265.3 mg/L vs. 207.58, P = 0.008), and bacteremia (33.3% vs. 8.7%, P = 0.037). The columella was the anatomical site most commonly involved and the most severely affected. The number of intranasal findings and their severity were significantly higher in the nasal cavity containing the NGT compared to its contralateral counterpart (P = 0.039 for both).

Conclusions: NGTs cause injury to nasal skin and mucosa in critically ill patients. Patients with bacteremia, high CRP, and high SOFA scores are at risk for severe ulcers, warranting special monitoring and preventive measures.

August 2018
Gilad Allon MD, Nir Seider MD, Itzchak Beiran MD and Eytan Z. Blumenthal MD
July 2018
Yaron Haviv DMD PhD, Lilach Kamer MD, Roee Sheinfeld MD, Galit Almoznino DMD MSc MHA and Gideon Bachar MD

Background: A dental appliance for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is recommended for patients who cannot adjust to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatments.

Objectives: To describe patients with extremely severe OSA who were successfully treated with a dental appliance and to compare their characteristics with the relevant literature to identify clinical features associated with a good outcome.

Methods: The clinical, management, and outcome data of three patients with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of > 80 who showed clinical improvement following treatment with a dental appliance were collected retrospectively from sleep laboratory reports in Israel over a period of 3 years. 

Results: The patients included one man and two women, aged 33, 56, and 61 years, respectively. The diagnosis of OSA was based on clinical examination and polysomnography. AHI values at presentation were 83, 81, and 84, respectively. Treatment with a dental appliance (Herbst® or MDSA®) was proposed due to patient noncompliance with CPAP. Follow-up polysomnography with the dental appliance revealed a reduction in the AHI to 1.7, 10.7, and 11, respectively. All patients had supine OSA and a retrognathic mandible, both of which have been found to be associated with a good prognosis for treatment with a dental appliance.

Conclusions: Dental appliances may be considered an appropriate second-choice option to treat severe OSA in patients who are noncompliant with CPAP. This study helps physicians identify patients with extremely severe OSA who are suitable for dental appliance treatment. Well-designed large-scale studies are needed to reach definitive conclusions. 

August 2014
Ronit Nesher MD, on behalf of the Israel Glaucoma Screening Group*

* Israel Glaucoma Screening Group 2009-2010 (in alphabetical order):

Applebaum E, Arodi A, Avidar A, Barkana Y, Beiran I, Bracha Z, Burgansky Z, Cotlear D, Dafna O, Drori L, ElNaddaf H, Epstein E, Garzozi H, Gawi H, Geffen N, Glovinsky Y, Hadayer A, Jubran R, Kalev-Landoy M, Kaniezer B, Kratz A, Kurtz S, Matanes M, Mazover A, Mazzawi N, Naveh L, Nesher R, Neuman H, Pedut T, Pikel Y, Rachmiel R, Rath E, Robinson A, Segev E, Shemesh G, Shoham N, Silverston B, Tam G, Tessler Z, Tiosano B, Vidan A, Vishinevski I, Zalish M, Zarfati D, Zorani Y.

Background: Early detection of glaucoma enables early initiation of treatment. Screening populations at risk is likely to help achieve this goal.

Objectives: To increase public awareness regarding early detection of glaucoma, and estimate the prevalence of increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic disk cupping in the screened population.

Methods: A public awareness campaign was carried out in Israel during the 2009 and 2010 World Glaucoma Week, culminating each year in a one-day, free-of-charge screening of individuals in 13 outreach public locations. Screening was performed by 45 ophthalmologists and included a brief medical history, slit-lamp exam with measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP), and evaluation of cup/disk ratio.

Results: A total of 2560 individuals were screened; the mean age was 59 ± 13 years. IOP ≥ 21 mmHg was found in 4.8%, and 12.3% had cupping ≥ 0.5. IOP ≥ 21 mmHg together with cupping ≥ 0.5 were present in 1.4% and this rate increased with age: 3.7% of cases in the age group ≥ 70 years compared to 1% and 0.6% in the age groups 50–69 and < 50 years, respectively (P < 0.001). Likewise, the prevalence of cupping ≥ 0.7 and of IOP ≥ 24 mmHg increased significantly with age. The prevalence of IOP ≥ 21 mmHg increased in cases with a family history of glaucoma in first-degree relatives (10.5% compared to 3.9%, P < 0.001). The prevalence of IOP ≥ 21 mmHg was also increased in diabetic patients (8.3% vs. 4.3% in non-diabetics, P = 0.002). Further ophthalmologic evaluation was recommended to 13% of the screened individuals.

Conclusions: Outreach screening for glaucoma is a valuable tool for detecting glaucoma, pre-perimetric glaucoma, or ocular hypertension in a meaningful number of previously undiagnosed cases. Yet, cost-effectiveness issues should also be considered. The yield of such screening increases with age and seems to be most advantageous in cases with diabetes or a family history of glaucoma. 

March 2014
Kineret Mazor-Aronovitch, Danny Lotan, Dalit Modan-Moses, Akiva Fradkin and Orit Pinhas-Ham
Background: The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents has increased dramatically in the last few decades. Primary hypertension, a known secondary complication among obese adults, has been considered rare in children.

Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of hypertension and its relation to body mass index (BMI) in obese children aged 9–17 years in Israel.

Methods: Weight, height, BMI, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) (twice) were measured in children attending general and pediatric endocrine clinics. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 95th percentile and overweight as BMI ≥ 85th percentile. Pre-hypertension and hypertension were defined as systolic and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90th percentile for age, gender and height and BP ≥ 95th percentile respectively. In children with pre-hypertension or hypertension, repeated measurements were performed.

Results: We evaluated 264 children of whom 152 had BMI ≥ 85th percentile (study group). Their mean age was 12.5 years. The prevalence of elevated BP (both pre-hypertension and hypertension) in the study group was 44.1% and 31% at the first and second measurements respectively, compared to 11.6% and 1.9% in the normal-weight group. Hypertension was documented in 17.2% of the study group at the second measurement.

Conclusions: Elevated BP was diagnosed in 31% of overweight and obese children and adolescents. Increased awareness and early diagnosis and treatment are essential.

September 2013
 The issue of professional responsibility for the treatment and care of the patient with pressure ulcers (PU) is crucial as it impacts on mortality, financial costs and the patient’s quality of life. Pressure ulcers in the elderly present a complicated health problem with multifactorial etiologies. Since the pressure ulcer is the final common pathway of multiple underlying factors and medical conditions, the approach when dealing with the elderly is not only local wound management but systemic – i.e., it relates to the patient's overall condition, comorbidities, nutritional status, and disabilities. With the increase in longevity and disability, the prevalence of PU is higher and has concomitant severity and complications. For treatment to be effective it must be comprehensive and multidisciplinary. The traditional, and pivotal, role of the nurse in coordinating treatment has expanded and now includes collaborating more actively with the physician and the multidisciplinary team on the development and course of the wound. Physicians are required to be knowledgeable, actively involved, and alert to reversible multifactorial etiologies, in order to determine the goal and level of aggressive treatment during the course of PU.

July 2013
O. Segal, J.R. Ferencz, P. Cohen, .A.Y. Nemet and R. Nesher

Background: The number of patients treated with intravitreal injections has increased significantly over the past few years, mainly following the introduction of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody intraocular medications. Bevacizumab is mostly used in this group of medications.

Objectives: To describe persistent elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) following intravitreal injection of bevacizumab.

Methods: We reviewed consecutive cases of persistent IOP elevation after intravitreal bevacizumab injection for exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A total of 424 patients (528 eyes) met the inclusion criteria and received 1796 intravitreal injections of bevacizumab. Persistent IOP elevation was found in 19 eyes (3.6%, 19/528) of 18 patients (4.2%, 18/424) with IOP elevated 30–70 mmHg, 3–30 days after injection.

Results: Mean IOP was 42.6 mmHg (range 30–70); IOP elevations occurred after an average of 7.8 injections of bevacizumab (range 3–13). Injected eyes (19/528) had a significantly higher incidence of elevated IOP than uninjected eyes (fellow eyes), 1/328, P < 0.001.

 Conclusions: Like other anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) substances reported in a few recent studies, intravitreal injection of bevacizumab for neovascular AMD may be associated with persistent IOP elevation. Providers should be aware that significant IOP elevation might occur after repeated treatments. 

April 2013
S. Golan, S. Maslovitz, M.J. Kupferminc and A. Kesler
 Background: The effects of consecutive pregnancies on the course of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) are unclear in view of the scarce published data.

Objectives: To evaluate the course and management of visual and pregnancy outcomes of consecutive pregnancies with IIH.

Methods: The medical records of women with IIH in consecutive pregnancies were reviewed for neuro-ophthalmological findings, management, and visual and pregnancy outcomes.

Results: The study group comprised eight women with at least two consecutive pregnancies (mean age 27.3 ± 5.3 years). The mean duration of IIH prior to the first pregnancy was 3.4 ± 3.16 years. One woman with IIH pre-pregnancy symptoms and three women with clinical features of IIH during the second trimester of pregnancy (gestational week 21.7 ± 4.04) were treated with acetazolamide (250 mg every 8 hours). Symptoms resolved, resulting in uncomplicated first deliveries for all four. The first deliveries of four other women were by cesarean section due to obstetric indications. Only one woman developed symptoms and signs of IIH during her second pregnancy and was thus treated with acetazolamide. Two women who completed three pregnancies had no IIH symptoms during their pregnancies. The course and outcome of those pregnancies were normal.

Conclusions: IIH apparently does not worsen or even become symptomatic in consecutive pregnancies. The appropriate management of IIH in pregnant women is similar to management for non-pregnant women; neither the course nor the obstetric outcome of first and consecutive pregnancies is influenced by the presence of IIH.

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