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עמוד בית
Mon, 15.07.24

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January 2020
Ophir Ilan MD PhD, Yuval Tal MD PhD, Alon Y. Hershko MD PhD, Oded Shamriz MD, Emilie Bohbot MD, Shay Tayeb PhD, Daphna Regev M.Sc, Amos Panet PhD and Ron Eliashar MD

Background: Nasal polyps are three-dimensional structures arising from the mucosa of the upper airway. Due to their complexity, the reliability of single-layer cell cultures and animal systems as research models is limited.

Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility of an ex vivo organ culture of human polyps, preserving tissue structure and function.

Methods: Nasal polyps were excised during routine endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis and polyposis. Fresh tissue samples were used for pathological evaluation and for the preparation of 250–500 µm sections, which were incubated in culture media. Tissue viability was assessed by visualisation of cilia motility, measurement of glucose uptake, and an infectivity assay. Cytokine secretion was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction before and after the introduction of steroids.

Results: Polyp tissue viability was retained for 2–3 days as demonstrated by cilia motility, glucose uptake and preserved cellular composition. Tissue samples maintained their capacity to respond to infection by herpes simplex virus 1 and adenovirus. Introduction of dexamethasone to cultured tissue samples led to suppression of interferon-g production.

Conclusions: The ex vivo nasal polyp organ culture reproduces the physiological, metabolic, and cellular features of nasal polyps. Furthermore, it shows a preserved capacity for viral infection and response to drugs. This system is a useful tool for the investigation nasal-polyps and for the development of novel therapies.

August 2009
A. Lahat, M. Nadler, C. Simon, M. Lahav, B. Novis and S. Bar-Meir

Background: Double balloon enteroscopy is a new technique that enables deep intubation of the endoscope into the small bowel lumen. Through a channel in the endoscope, invasive procedures such as biopsy, polypectomy and hemostasis can be performed, avoiding the need for surgery.

Objectives: To prospectively analyze our results of the first 124 DBEs[1] performed since February 2007.

Methods: The study group comprised all patients who underwent DBE at the Sheba Medical Center between February 2007 and February 2009. Recorded were the patients' demographic data, comorbidities, indications for the examination, results of previous non-invasive small bowel imaging (computed tomography enterography, capsule endoscopy, etc), investigation time, and results of the procedure including findings, endoscopic interventions, complications and pathological report.

Results: A total of 124 procedures were performed in 109 patients. Of the 124 examinations, 57 (46%) were normal and 67 (54%) showed pathology. The main pathologies detected on DBE were polyps (14%), vascular lesions (17.6%) and inflammation (12%). Endoscopic biopsies and therapeutic interventions were required in 58 examinations (46%). A new diagnosis was established in 15% of patients, diagnosis was confirmed in 29% and excluded or corrected in 12%. One complication was observed: a post-polypectomy syndrome that was treated conservatively.

Conclusions: DBE is a safe procedure and has a high diagnostic and therapeutic yield. Most of the examinations were performed under conscious sedation, and only a minority of patients required deeper sedation. 






[1] DBE = double balloon enteroscopy


October 2008
A. Blachar, G. Levi, M. Graif and J.acob Sosna

Background: Computed tomographic colonography, also known as virtual colonoscopy, is a rapid, non-invasive imaging technique for the detection of colorectal masses and polyps that is becoming increasingly popular.

Objectives: To evaluate the availability, technique, standards of performance and indications for CT colonography in Israel.

Methods: A questionnaire on CT colonography was sent to all radiology departments and private institutions that perform CTC[1] in Israel. We evaluated multiple technical parameters regarding the performance and interpretation of CTC as well as radiologists' training and experience.

Results: Fourteen institutions – 7 hospitals and 7 private clinics – participated in the study. Most of the small radiology departments and nearly all of the more peripheral radiology departments do not perform CTC studies. Since 2000 and until March 2007, a total of 15,165 CTC studies were performed but only 14% (2123 examinations) were performed at public hospitals and 86% (13,042 exams) at private clinics. CTC was performed after an incomplete colonoscopy or for various contraindications to endoscopic colonoscopy in up to a third of cases. In the various institutions patients were self-referred in 20–60% of cases, more commonly in private clinics. All CTC examinations were performed on 16–64 slice CT scanners and only a small minority was performed on 4-slice scanners in 2001. All but one center used low radiation protocols. Nearly all facilities used a 2 day bowel-cleansing protocol. All except one facility did not use stool tagging or computer-aided diagnosis. All facilities inflated the colon with room air manually. All institutions used state-of-the-art workstations, 3D and endoluminal navigation, and coronal multi-planar reconstructions routinely. There are 18 radiologists in the country who perform and interpret CTC studies; half of them trained abroad. Ten of the radiologists (56%) have read more than 500 CTC studies.

Conclusions: In Israel, CTC examinations are performed by well-trained and highly experienced radiologists using the latest CT scanners and workstations and adhering to acceptable CTC guidelines.  






[1] CTC = computed tomographic colonography


December 2007
I. Zbidi, R. Hazazi, Y. Niv and S. Birkenfeld

Background: Colonoscopy is the gold standard procedure for screening for colorectal cancer and surveillance after polypectomy or colorectal cancer surgery, for diagnosis in symptomatic patients and patients with fecal occult blood, and for screening in the high risk population. The adherence of referring physicians to the accepted recommendations can prevent long waiting lists for colonoscopy and save lives, costs and resources.

Objectives: To evaluate the knowledge of primary care physicians and gastroenterologists in Israel about current guidelines for colonoscopy screening and surveillance.

Methods: A 10-item questionnaire on proper follow-up colonoscopy for surveillance after polypectomy and screening for colorectal cancer in various clinical and epidemiological situations was administered to 100 expert gastroenterologists and 100 primary care physicians at a professional meeting. Answers were evaluated for each group of physicians and compared using the chi-square test.

Results: The compliance rate was 45% for the gastroenterologists and 80% for the primary care physicians. The rate of correct answers to the specific items ranged from 18.7% to 93.75% for the gastroenterologists and from 6.2% to 58.5% for the primary care physicians (P < 0.001 for almost every item).

Conclusions: The knowledge of physicians regarding the screening and surveillance of colorectal cancer needs to be improved.

 

 

 

March 2006
T. Silberstein, O. Saphier, B.J. van Voorhis and S.M. Plosker

Endometrial polyps are a frequent finding in infertile patients. Little is known about the true prevalence of polyps in infertile patients. It is unproved whether polyps are causative of infertility, or whether surgical polypectomy by hysteroscopy improves the likelihood of successful conception. This article reviews endometrial polyps in reproductive-age fertile and infertile women.

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