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עמוד בית
Sat, 03.12.22

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October 2017
Neri Katz MD, Letizia Schreiber MD, Anat Oron MD, Sarel Halachmi MD and David Kohelet MD

Background: Preterm birth is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among neonates in the United States. Early recognition of sepsis in this population is a challenging task since overt clinical signs can be difficult to determine. C-reactive protein (CRP), one of the most frequently non-specific used laboratory test, can indirectly aid the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.

Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between histological findings in the placenta of preterm newborns born after prolonged rupture of membranes, CRP levels, and blood cultures.

Methods: Medical records were reviewed of all preterm newborns born after prolonged premature rupture of membranes at a medical center in Israel between 2011 and 2014.

Results: Of 128 newborns with prolonged rupture of membranes, 64 had evidence of histological chorioamnionitis (HCA). Gestational age, birth weight, and Apgar scores were significantly lower, while CRP levels (on admission and 10–12 hours post-delivery) were significantly higher in preterm newborns born to mothers with histological evidence of chorioamnionitis, but values were within normal ranges. Duration of the rupture of membranes and white blood cell counts did not differ between groups.

Conclusions: CRP levels taken on admission and 10–12 hours after delivery were higher when HCA was present, but since there was a substantial overlap between those with and without HCA and the values for most were within normal range, the differences were not enough to serve as a tool to diagnose placental histological chorioamnionitis in preterm infants born after prolonged premature rupture of membranes and exposed to intrapartum antibiotics.

March 2017
Marina Pekar-Zlotin MD, Yaakov Melcer MD, Orna Levinsohn-Tavor MD, Josef Tovbin MD, Zvi Vaknin MD and Ron Maymon MD
October 2014
Caterina De Carolis MD, Carlo Perricone MD and Roberto Perricone MD
August 2014
Moshe D. Fejgin MD, Tal Y. Shvit MD, Yael Gershtansky MSc and Tal Biron-Shental MD

Background: Removal of retained placental tissue postpartum and retained products of conception (RPOC) abortion is done by uterine curettage or hysteroscopy. Trauma to the endometrium from surgical procedures, primarily curettage, can cause intrauterine adhesions (Asherman's syndrome) and subsequent infertility. The incidence of malpractice claims relating to intrauterine adhesions is rising, justifying reevaluation of the optimal way of handling these complications. 

Objectives: To review malpractice claims regarding intrauterine adhesions, and to explore the clinical approach that might reduce those claims or improve their medical and legal outcomes.

Methods: We examined 42 Asherman's syndrome claims handled by MCI, the largest professional liability insurer in Israel. The clinical chart of each case was reviewed and analyzed by the event preceding the adhesion formations, timing and mode of diagnosis, and outcome. We also assessed whether the adverse outcome was caused by substandard care and it it could have been avoided by different clinical practice. The legal outcome was also evaluated.

Results: Forty-seven percent of the cases occurred following vaginal delivery, 19% followed cesarean section, 28% were RPOC following a first-trimester pregnancy termination, and 2% followed a second-trimester pregnancy termination.

Conclusions: It is apparent that due to a lack of an accepted management protocol for cases of RPOC, it is difficult to legally defend those cases when the complication of Asherman syndrome develops. 

February 2014
Itai Gat, Mordechai Dulitzki, Eyal Schiff, Eyal Sivan and Michal J. Simchen
Background: Homozygous carriers of factor V Leiden (FVL) have an up to 80-fold increased risk of venous thrombosis, but the risk of obstetric complications in FVL homozygosity is unclear.

Objectives:
To compare obstetric and thromboembolic complications among factor V Leiden (FVL) homozygous and heterozygous carriers treated with prophylactic dose anticoagulation during pregnancy.

Methods:
In this retrospective case-control study we performed a chart review for the years 2004–2010 of homozygous and heterozygous FVL carriers who were treated with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) at a dose of 0.6 mg/kg/day during pregnancy. Adverse outcomes included thromboembolic and obstetric complications. A composite adverse obstetric outcome was defined as the presence of at least one of the following: late intrauterine fetal demise, severe intrauterine growth restriction (< 5th percentile), preeclampsia, placental abruption. Pregnancy outcomes of homozygous and heterozygous FVL carriers were compared.

Results:
We compared the pregnancies of 13 homozygous FVL women with those of 82 heterozygous FVL carriers. Thromboembolic events occurred only in heterozygous FVL controls. Gestational age and birth weight were similar. The composite adverse obstetric outcome rate was higher for homozygous compared with heterozygous FVL carriers (23.1% vs. 11%, respectively), although not statistically significant. A trend for prematurity among homozygous FVL patients was evident, with 2/13 women (15.3%) in the homozygous FVL group giving birth before 34 weeks gestation, compared with only 2/82 (2.3%) in the heterozygous group.

Conclusions:
Pregnancy outcome was similar for homozygous and heterozygous FVL carriers on LMWH thromboprophylaxis. The overall likelihood of thromboembolic complications was low. Thromboprophylaxis may decrease the risk for placental and thromboembolic complications in homozygous FVL patients to a similar level as in heterozygotes.
December 2003
G. Holcberg, M. Tsadkin-Tamir, O. Sapir, M. Huleihel, M. Mazor and Z. Ben Zvi

The human placenta is the interface between the mother and fetus in the uterus. Until recently it was generally believed that the uterus provides a protective environment for the fetus. It is now accepted that any chemical substance, including any therapeutic agent, administered to a mother is able to permeate across the placental barrier. Unfortunately, the placental transfer of substances and their distribution in the placenta is not well established. Understanding the structure of placental transporters and their function may serve as the ideal tool for drug development and the cure of mother and fetus during pregnancy.
 

November 2000
David Peleg MD, Aviva Peleg MSc and Eliezer Shalev MD

Background: Human chorionic gonadotropin, the pregnancy hormone, is synthesized by trophoblast cells which make up the placenta.

Objective: To determine whether antibody to hCG can be used to specifically detect living trophoblast in vitro by binding to the external membrane.

Methods: Trophoblast was isolated from fresh placentas of women undergoing termination of pregnancy in the first trimester and incubated with monoclonal antibody to hCG. Anti-mouse immunoglobulin G with a fluorescent marker was then added.

Results: Syncytiotrophoblast stained positive on the external surface of the cell, while controls of leukocytes, endometrial cells and hepatocytes were negative.

Conclusion: The hCG monoclonal antibody may be used to specifically detect hCG on the surface of living trophoblast in vitro.
 

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