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March 2021
Moran Slavin MD, Shmuel Avital MD, Yael Einbinder MD, Barak Benjamin MD, and Roye Inbar MD

Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a treatment option for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and cardiorenal syndrome (CRS).

Objectives: To evaluate the outcome of this patient population.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of patients who underwent an open or laparoscopic insertion of a PD catheter at our institution between 2009 and 2017. Data included demographics, peri-operative parameters, and long-term outcome. Patient and technique survival curves are presented, including subgroup analysis by method of catheter insertion and techniques for infection prevention.

Results: The study population included 95 men and 42 women, aged 65.7 ± 12.4 years. Mean follow-up was 34.6 ± 27.3 months. Open insertion was performed in 113 cases, while 24 underwent laparoscopic insertion. There was no difference in technique survival between these groups (P = 0.943). Removal of the catheter was required in 66% of patients. Median technique survival was 12.1 months. Two-year technique survival was 37% and 5-year technique survival was 12%. The leading cause for catheter removal was infection (69%). Application of measures for prevention of infections were significantly associated with prolonged technique survival (P = 0.001). Technique survival after 2 years was 38% with the application of a single measure and 57% with the application of two measures (P = 0.001). CRS patients (n=24) had a significantly lower overall survival rate (2-year survival 20% vs. 74%, P = 0.001).

Conclusions: The method of catheter insertion has no effect on technique survival. Prevention of infections is the most significant factor for improving the technique survival rates.

March 2017
Nicholas Keddel MD, Michal Amitai MD, Larisa Guranda MD, Yael Dreznik MD and Eyal Klang MD
February 2016
Avi Moscovici MD, Michael Kogan MD, Iris Kliers MD, Olga Kukuy MD and Gad Segal MD
March 2011
I. Krause, N. Herman, R. Cleper, A. Fraser and M. Davidovits

Background: Acute renal failure (ARF) is a common complication in critically ill children. It is known as an important predictor of morbidity and mortality in this population. Data on the factors affecting the choice of renal replacement therapy (RRT) modality and its impact on mortality of children with ARF[1] are limited.

Objectives: We retrospectively studied 115 children with ARF necessitating RRT[2] during the period 1995–2005 to evaluate the effect of several prognostic factors as well as RRT type on their immediate outcome.

Methods: The data collected from charts included demographics, primary disease, accompanying medical conditions, use of vasopressor support, indications for dialysis, RRT modality, and complications of dialysis. Categorical variables were analyzed using chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests. Variables associated with mortality (P < 0.1) at the univariable level were studied by a multivariable logistic regression model.

Results: The most common cause of ARF was congenital heart disease (n=75). RRT modalities included peritoneal dialysis (PD) (n=81), hemodialfiltration (HDF) (n=31) and intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) (n=18). Median RRT duration was 4 days (range 1–63 days). Overall mortality was 52.2%. IHD[3] was associated with the best survival rate (P < 0.01 vs. PD[4] and HDF[5]), while children treated with HDF had the worse outcome. Hemodynamic instability and systemic infections were associated with greater mortality, but the rate of these complications did not differ between the study groups.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that IHD[6] when applied to the right patient in an appropriate setting may be a safe and efficient RRT modality in children with ARF. Randomized prospective trials are needed to further evaluate the impact of different RRT modalities on outcome in children with ARF.






[1]               ARF = acute renal failure



[2]               RRT = renal replacement therapy



[3]               IHD = intermittent hemodialysis



[4]               PD = peritoneal dialysis



[5]               HDF = hemodialfiltration



[6]               IHD = renal replacement therapy



 
June 2010
R. Cleper, M. Davidovits, Y. Kovalski, D. Samsonov, J. Amir and I. Krause

Background: Peritonitis is a major complication of chronic peritoneal dialysis therapy. It is recommended that each center monitor infection rates in order to define the local microbiological profile and implement an appropriate empiric antibiotic regimen.

Objectives: To analyze the microbiological profile of peritonitis in our pediatric dialysis unit and identify local predisposing factors.

Methods: In this retrospective study we reviewed the files of children treated with chronic PD[1] during the 10 year period 1997–2007.

Results: Eighty peritonitis episodes were recorded in 29 children (20 male, 9 female) aged 0.1–18.5 years (median 11.75) treated with peritoneal dialysis for 6–69 months (median 19) for a total of 578 patient-months. The annual peritonitis rate was 1.66/patient. The main pathogens were coagulase-negative Staphyloccocus (32.5%) and Pseudomonas spp. (16%), which were also cultured in most cases (64–69%) from the exit site during the 3 months preceding peritonitis. No peritonitis occurred in 31% of the patients (median age 12.5 years). All patients less than 5 years old had at least one peritonitis episode. Contaminating conditions (gastrostomy, enuresis, diaper use), found in 44% of the study group, and first infection within 6 months from starting PD were significantly associated with an increased peritonitis rate (P = 0.01, P = 0.009, respectively). Recurrent peritonitis led to a switch to hemodialysis in 18% of patients. There were no deaths.

Conclusions: The risk factors for peritonitis in our study were: first infection within less than 6 months from starting treatment, Pseudomonas exit-site colonization, and contaminating conditions (gastrostomies, diaper use, enuresis). These susceptible subgroups as well as very young age (< 5 years) at starting PD should be especially targeted during training of caregivers and follow-up to prevent later complications.
 

[1] PD = peritoneal dialysis

March 2006
D. Bar-Zohar, B. Sagie, N. Lubezky, M. Blum, J. Klausner and S. Abu-Abeid

Background: Peritoneal dialysis is a widely accepted route for renal replacement. With the advent of endoscopy, many surgical techniques for the prevention of catheter failure have been proposed.

Objectives: To evaluate the outcomes of patients undergoing laparoscopic Tenckhoff catheter implantation, using the pelvic fixation technique.

Methods: Data analysis was retrospective. All procedures were performed under general anesthesia. A double-cuffed catheter was inserted using two 5 mm trocars and one 10 mm trocar, fixing its internal tip to the dome of the bladder and its inner cuff to the fascia. Catheter failure was defined as persistent peritonitis/exit-site/tunnel infection, severe dialysate leak, migration or outflow obstruction.

Results: LTCI[1] was performed in 34 patients. Mean patient age was 65 ± 17 years. In 12 of the 34 patients the indication for LTCI was end-stage renal failure combined with NYHA class IV congestive heart failure. Operative time was 35 ± 15 minutes. A previous laparotomy was performed in 9 patients. Hospital stay was 1.5 ± 0.6 days. The first continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis was performed after 20 ± 12 days. Median follow-up time was 13 months. There were several complications, including 5 (14%) exit-site/tunnel infections, 27 episodes (0.05 per patient-month) of bacterial peritonitis, 3 (9%) incisional hernias, 1 case of fatal intraabdominal bleeding, 2 (5.8%) catheter migrations (functionally significant), and 10 (30%) cases of catheter plugging, 8 of which were treated successfully by instillation of urokinase and 2 surgically. A complication-mandated surgery was performed in 8 patients (23.5%). The 1 year failure-free rate of the catheter was 80.8%. One fatal intraabdominal bleeding was recorded.
Conclusions: LTCI is safe, obviating the need for laparotomy in high risk patients. Catheter fixation to the bladder may prevent common mechanical failures







[1] LTCI = laparoscopic Tenckhoff catheter implantation


January 2006
G. Rashid, Z.Korzets and J. Bernheim

Background: Advanced glycation end products, formed by the non-enzymatic glycation of proteins with reducing sugars, are thought to play a pathogenetic role in the vascular complications of diabetes, uremia and atherosclerosis. β2-microglobulin is a major constituent of amyloid fibrils in dialysis-related amyloidosis. AGE[1]-modified β2m[2] has been found in amyloid deposits of long-term hemodialysis patients. AGE-modified β2m has also been shown to enhance chemotaxis and increase tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta secretion by circulating and tissue monocytes/macrophages.

Objectives: To investigate the effect of AGE-modified β2m and AGE-human serum albumin on TNF-α[3] and IL-1β[4] secretion by human peritoneal macrophages derived from patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

Methods: Human PMØ[5] were isolated from peritoneal dialysis effluent of stable CAPD[6] patients and were incubated for 24 hours with AGE-modified β2m, β2m, AGE-HSA[7], HSA or lipopolysaccharide. TNF-α or IL-1β secretion was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in cell-free culture supernatants.

Results: Both AGE-modified β2m and AGE-HSA significantly increased TNF-α and IL-1β secretion by human PMØ in a dose-dependent manner (50–200 μg/ml). In contrast, β2m or HSA had no such stimulatory effect on TNF-α secretion but had a small significant increase in IL-1β secretion.

Conclusions: AGE-modified β2m promotes in vitro TNF-α and IL-1β secretion by human PMØ of CAPD patients. Activation of these macrophages by AGE-modified β2m may be a contributory factor to the morphologic changes and altered permeability of the peritoneal membrane in long-term CAPD. 






[1] AGE = advanced glycation end products

[2] β2m = β2-microglobulin

[3] TNF-α = tumor necrosis factor-alpha

[4] IL-1β = interleukin-1 beta

[5] PMØ = peritoneal macrophages

[6] CAPD = continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

[7] HSA = human serum albumin


March 2001
Talia Weinstein, MD, Ran Tur-Kaspa, MD, Avry Chagnac, MD, Asher Korzets, MD, Yacov Ori, MD, Dina Zevin, MD, Michal Herman, MD and Uzi Gafter, MD PhD

Background: Hepatitis C virus is the major cause of acute and chronic hepatitis in patients with end-stage renal disease receiving replacement therapy.

Objectives: To define the prevalence of HCV RNA in a population of patients on dialysis in Israel, to determine the relative risk of acquiring HCV infection while treated by hemodialysis or chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, and to define the HCV genotypes in this population.

Methods: During 1995 we studied 162 dialysis patients. Information was obtained regarding the mode of dialysis, years of treatment, number of blood transfusions, and results of serological testing for HCV, hepatitis B virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. Anti-HCV antibodies were tested by a third-generation microparticle enzyme immunoassay. HCV RNA was determined by polymerase chain reaction. HCV genotyping was performed by a hybridization assay.

Results: HCV RNA was detected in 18% of the HD group and 7% of the CAPD group. The number of HCV RNA-positive patients was significantly higher in the HD than the CAPD group (P < 0.05). HCV RNA-positive HD patients were treated longer than the HCV RNA-negative patients (P < 0.02).

Conclusions: Third-generation immunoassay proved to be highly sensitive (94%) and specific (91%) in identifying HCV RNA positivity. Several HCV subtypes were detected, lb being the most frequent. Identification and isolation of infected HCV patients may minimize its spread in dialysis units and prevent cross-infection.

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