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עמוד בית
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November 2021
Milena Tocut MD, Tima Davidson MD, Rebecca Leibu, Howard Amital MD MHA, Yehuda Shoenfeld MD FRCP MaACR, and Ora Shovman MD
March 2021
Monica Goldberg-Murow MD, Zvi Steiner MD, Yaniv Lakovsky MD, Elena Dlugy MD, Arthur Baazov MD, Enrique Freud MD, and Inbal Samuk MD

Background: Pancreatic trauma is uncommon in pediatric patients and presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. While non-operative management (NOM) of minor pancreatic injuries is well accepted, the management of major pancreatic injuries remains controversial.

Objectives: To evaluate management strategies for major blunt pancreatic injury in children.

Methods: Data were retrospectively collected for all children treated for grade III or higher pancreatic injury due to blunt abdominal trauma from 1992 to 2015 at two medical centers. Data included demographics, mechanism of injury, laboratory and imaging studies, management strategy, clinical course, operative findings, and outcome.

Results: The cohort included seven boys and four girls aged 4–15 years old (median 9). Six patients had associated abdominal (mainly liver, n=3) injuries. The main mechanism of injury was bicycle (handlebar) trauma (n=6). Five patients had grade III injury and six had grade IV. The highest mean amylase level was recorded at 48 hours after injury (1418 U/L). Management strategies included conservative (n=5) and operative treatment (n=6): distal (n=3) and central (n=1) pancreatectomy, drainage only (n=2) based on the computed tomography findings and patient hemodynamic stability. Pseudocyst developed in all NOM patients (n=5) and two OM cases, and one patient developed a pancreatic fistula. There were no differences in average length of hospital stay.

Conclusions: NOM of high-grade blunt pancreatic injury in children may pose a higher risk of pseudocyst formation than OM, with a similar hospitalization time. However, pseudocyst is a relatively benign complication with a high rate of spontaneous resolution with no need for surgical intervention.

February 2020
Gal Aviel MD, Victoria Doviner MD, Rivka Pollak-Dresner MD, Avraham Rivkind MD and Shmuel Chen MD PhD
August 2011
J. Weidenfeld, B. Bar Zakai, R. Faermann, I. Barshack and S. Aviel-Ronen
May 2011
G. Lahat, N. Lubezky, M. Ben Haim, I. Nachmany, A. Blachar, I. Santo, R. Nakache and J.M. Klausner
December 2009
P. Rozen, I. Liphshitz, G. Rosner, M. Barchana, J. Lachter, S. Pel, T. Shohat, E. Santo, and the Israeli Pancreatic Cancer Consortium

Pancreatic cancer is not a common malignancy in Israel, but it is the third most common cause of cancer mortality, attributable to a lack of screening tests, inaccessibility of the pancreas, and late cancer stage at diagnosis. We reviewed the epidemiology, known risk factors and screening methods available in Israel and describe the Israeli national consortium that was established to identify persons at risk and decide on screening methods to detect and treat their early-stage pancreatic cancer. In collaboration with the Israel National Cancer Registry, we evaluated the incidence and trends of the disease in the Jewish and non-Jewish populations. The consortium reviewed known lifestyle risk habits and genetic causes, screening methodologies used and available in Israel. Overall, there are about 600 new patients per year, with the highest incidence occurring in Jewish men of European birth (age-standardized rate 8.11/105 for 2003–06). The 5 year survival is about 5%. The consortium concluded that screening will be based on endoscopic ultrasonography. Pancreatic cancer patients and families at risk will be enrolled, demographic and lifestyle data collected and a cancer pedigree generated. Risk factors will be identified and genetic tests performed as required. This concerted national program to identify persons at risk, recommend which environmental risk factors to avoid and treat, and perform endoscopic ultrasound and genetic screening where appropriate, might reduce their incidence of invasive pancreatic cancer and/or improve its prognosis


April 2008
S. Atias, S. Mizrahi, R. Shaco-Levy and A.Yussim

Background: In contrast to the relative scarcity of donor kidneys and hearts, the potential supply of deceased donor pancreata is exceeding the demand. However, this potential organ surplus is not being fully realized because in current transplantation practice the duration of pancreas storage before transplantation is limited and many organs with established or anticipated cold ischemia time exceeding 8–10 hours are discarded owing to the extreme vulnerability of pancreatic tissue to anaerobic damage caused by preservation.

Objectives: To reduce cold ischemic injury in order to increase the utilization of donor pancreases in Israel for whole-organ and cell transplantation.

Methods: We evaluated a novel two-layer preservation oxygenated cold storage method that uses perfluorocarbon to continuously supply oxygen to the pancreas during preservation in conventional University of Wisconsin solution.

Results: Pancreatic tissue morphology, viability and adenosine-triphosphate content were serially examined during preservation of the pig pancreas for 24 hours either by a two-layer or by conventional simple cold storage. Already after 12 hours of storage, the superiority of the two-layer method over the University of Wisconsin method was apparent. Starting at this time point and continuing throughout the 24 hours of preservation, the tissue architecture, mitochondrial integrity, cellular viability and ATP[1] tissue concentration were improved in samples preserved in oxygenated UW[2]/PFC[3] as compared to controls stored in conventional UW solution alone.

Conclusions: The UW/PFC two-layer preservation method allowed tissue ATP synthesis and amelioration of cold ischemic tissue damage during extended 24 hour pancreas preservation. This method could be implemented in clinical practice to maximize utilization of pancreata for whole-organ and islet transplantation as well as for pancreas sharing with remote centers.

[1] ATP = adenosine-triphosphate

[2] UW = University of Wisconsin

[3] PFC = perfluorocarbon

June 2006
I. Meivar-Levy and S. Ferber
Recent advances in pancreatic islet transplantation emphasize the potential of this approach for the long-term control of blood glucose levels as treatment of diabetes. To overcome the organ shortage for cell replacement therapy, efforts are being invested in generating new and abundant sources of insulin-producing cells from embryonic or adult stem cells. We review recent evidence documenting the surprising capacity of the mature liver to serve as a potential source of tissue for generating functional endocrine pancreas. The process of liver-to-pancreas developmental redirection is induced by ectopic expression of pancreatic transcription and differentiation factors. This approach may allow the diabetic patient to be the donor of his or her own therapeutic tissue, thus alleviating both the need for allotransplantations and the subsequent immune suppression.


November 2004
N. Hiller, O. Goitein and Y.J. Ashkenazi
June 2004
May 2004
M.D. Walker

Since both major forms of diabetes involve inadequate function of pancreatic beta cells, intensive research is ongoing to better understand how beta cells perform their complex role of secreting the hormone insulin in response to physiologic needs. Identification and characterization of pancreatic transcription factors has revealed that they play a crucial role not only in maintenance of mature beta-cell function but also at multiple stages in pancreatic development. Furthermore, recent reports have revealed their potential to convert non-beta cells into insulin-producing cells, which in some cases can function to ameliorate diabetes in experimental animals. The ability to translate these successes to the clinic will require a detailed mechanistic understanding of the molecular basis of action of these proteins. Specific gene regulation in beta cells involves the action of multiple transcription factors recruited to the promoter and functioning synergistically to activate transcription, in part through recruitment of co-activator proteins and components of the basal transcriptional machinery. In addition, the process involves modification of chromatin structure, the details of which are beginning to be elucidated. Our ability to modulate gene expression patterns may lead to developing ways to provide an unlimited supply of functional beta cells for transplantation, permitting a dramatic improvement in therapeutic options for diabetes.

May 2002
David Hazzan, MD, Gil Peer, MD and Eitan Shiloni, MD
May 2001
Guillermo Robles-Diaz, MD and Andres Duarte-Rojo, MD

Sex steroid hormones (estrogens, progestagens and androgens) have been associated with healthy and neoplastic pancreatic biology, although the precise significance of the findings has not been well established. Receptors for the three different types of SSH are expressed in normal and tumoral pancreatic tissue with varying profiles related to cell origin (exocrine or endocrine), to type of neoplasm. and probably even to tumoral behavior. The activity of specific enzymes involved in the synthesis and transformation of SSH are increased in some neoplastic pancreatic tissues, which may influence the circulating concentrations of these hormones, such as the low serum testosterone: dihydrotestosterone ratio described in male patients with pancreatic carcinoma. Different patterns of age and gender-related incidence and growth of neoplasms have been identified. Experimental studies have shown that pancreatic carcinogenesis is promoted or inhibited by SSH. At present, the data supporting hormonal manipula­tion for the treatment of these tumors are non-conclusive. Normal and tumoral pancreatic tissues may be regarded as a target for SSH and an additional site of biosynthesis. The influence of these hormones on physiological activities is not well known but should be further explored. The study of SSH in pancreatic neoplasms will provide clues about its origin, development, tumoral behavior, prognosis and more specific hormonal therapy. We review here the evidence favoring the role of SSH and their possible clinical implications in pancreatic function.

July 2000
Richard Nakache MD, Avi Weinbroum MD, Hadar Merhav MD, Eli Kaplan MD, Yehuda Kariv MD, Wessam Khoury MD, Mordechai Gutman MD and Joseph M. lausner MD

Background: In simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation, with both organs coming from the same donor, the addition of a pancreas to the kidney transplant does not jeopardize the kidney allograft outcome despite higher postoperative SPK morbidity. Pancreas allograft outcome has recently improved due to better organ selection and more accurate surgical techniques.

Objective: To demonstrate the positive impact of SPK on kidney allograft outcome versus kidney transplantation alone in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients with end-stage renal failure.

Methods: We performed 39 consecutive SPKs in 14 female and 25 male IDDM patients with renal failure after an average waiting time of 9 months. Multi-organ donor age was 30 years (range 12-53). The kidneys were transplanted in the left retroperitoneal iliac fossa following completion of the pancreas transplantation; kidney cold ischemia time was 16±4 hours. Induction anti-rejection therapy was achieved with polyclonal antithymocytic globulin and methylprednisolone, and maintenance immunosuppression by triple drug therapy (prednisone, cyclosporine or tacrolimus, and azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil). Infection and rejection were closely monitored.

Results: All kidney allografts produced immediate urinary output following SPK. Two renal grafts had mild function impairment due to acute tubular damage but recovered after a short delay. Three patients died from myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular event and abdominal sepsis on days 1, 32 and 45 respectively (1 year patient survival 92%). An additional kidney allograft was lost due to a renal artery pseudo-aneurysm requiring nephrectomy on day 26. Nineteen patients (49%) had an early rejection of the kidney that was resistant to pulse-steroid therapy in 6. No kidney graft was lost due to rejection. Patients with acute kidney-pancreas rejection episodes suffered from severe infection, which was the main cause of morbidity with a 55% re-admission rate. Complications of the pancreas allograft included graft pancreatitis and sepsis, leading to a poor kidney outcome with sub-optimal kidney function at 1 year. Kidney graft survival at one year was 89% or 95% after censoring the data for patients who died with functioning grafts.

Conclusions: Eligible IDDM patients with advanced diabetic nephropathy should choose SPK over kidney transplantation alone from either a cadaver or a living source.



SPK= simutaneous pancreas-kidney transplatation

IDDM= insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

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