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עמוד בית
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March 2021
Lisa Kaly MD, Igor Bilder MD, Michael Rozenbaum MD, Nina Boulman MD, Doron Rimar MD, Abid Awisat MD, Itzhak Rosner MD, Haya Hussein MD, Amal Silawy MD, Tamar Gaspar MD, and Gleb Slobodin MD
February 2020
Avi Ohayon MD, Saleh Esa MD and Alexander Rubowitz MD

Background: There are several ways to remove silicone oil (SO) from the vitreous cavity.

Objective: To describe a simple, safe and inexpensive method of 2-port SO removal.

Method: Medical charts of 33 patients who underwent SO removal combined with cataract extraction were retrospectively reviewed, from a cohort of 119 patients who had silicone oil removal. The primary outcome was the rate of re-detachment, secondary outcomes included visual acuity (VA) and intraoperative and postoperative complications.

Results: Mean follow-up time was 27.6 months (0.25–147 ± 33.1), and mean tamponade duration prior to SO removal was 16.77 months (4–51.5 ± 14.6). The re-detachment rate was 3% (one patient). Postoperatively, seven patients (20%) had epiretinal membrane (ERM), eight patients had posterior capsule opacification (24%), and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) was diagnosed in two patients (6%). Compared to the mean VA (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [LogMAR]) at the preoperative examination, the mean VA (LogMAR) improved significantly at the last visit when including all ranges of VA (n=32, LogMAR 1.52 vs. 1.05 P = 0.0002 [Student's t-test] and P = 0.001 [Wilcoxon test]).

Conclusions: The technique described is fast and simple, keeping the posterior capsule intact in pseudophakic patients, which is advantageous in the event of future re-detachment necessitating SO reinjection. Rates of re-detachment and postoperative ERM and PVR were low. Furthermore, our method does not require the use of a surgical microscope with posterior segment viewing systems, or opening a full disposable vitrectomy set, thus drastically reducing the procedure's cost.

October 2019
Michal Sagiv MD and Gleb Slobodin MD
September 2019
Tal Gazitt MD MSc, Adi Kibari MD, Najwan Nasrallah MD, Muhanad Abu Elhija MD and Devy Zisman MD
January 2018
November 2017
Iris Eshed MD and Merav Lidar MD

Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive imaging modality for the detection of sacroiliitis. Diagnosing sacroiliitis on MRI is not always straightforward and can be challenging in some cases.

Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of alternative diagnoses suggested by MRI and characterize the MR appearance of the most common ones.

Methods: Consecutive MRI examinations of the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) performed between 2005 and 2012 were retrospectively evaluated for the presence of structural and active sacroiliitis findings according to the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society guidelines. Alternative diagnoses, including degenerative changes, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), Osteitis condensans ilii (OCI), septic sacroiliitis/discitis, stress reaction as well as anatomic variants, were registered

Results: We evaluated 281 MRI examinations, 116 males, 165 females, average age 44 ± 15 years. Sacroiliitis was found in 71 examinations (25%) and alternative diagnoses were suggested in 87 (31%) (OCI 8.9%, anatomic variants 5.3%, septic sacroiliitis 5.3%, degenerative findings 4.3%, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis [DISH] 1.5%, stress reaction 0.7%, tumor 0.3%). A normal examination was found in the remaining 123 examinations. Patients with alternative diagnoses were older than those with sacroiliitis (62 vs. 47 years of age, respectively, P > 0.05). Alternative pathologies in the SIJ were significantly more common in females (66) than males (21), P < 0.05.

Conclusions: A substantial proportion of patients with suspected sacroiliitis had normal SIJ while the rest were more commonly diagnosed with other pathologies. A referral by an experienced rheumatologist may improve the sensitivity and specificity of this important examination.

Xenofon Baraliakos MD PhD

Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) covers the stage of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) and classic ankylosing spondylitis. The pathognomonic findings of axSpA are mainly inflammatory and osteoproliferative changes in the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) and the spine. Various imaging techniques are being used in daily practice for assessment of disease-specific changes, such as periarticular bone marrow edema, erosions, sclerosis, fat metaplasia and ankylosis in the SIJ or spondylitis, spondylodiscitis, facet joint involvement, or syndesmophytes in the spine of patients with axSpA. Conventional radiographs are still considered the gold standard for assessment of structural changes, while the method of for detection of inflammatory changes is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

A result for an MRI in the SIJ is considered positive for axSpA when more than one lesion is present on one MRI slice, If there is one lesion only, this should be present on at least two consecutive slices. For the spine, inflammatory lesions should preferably be located in the corner of the vertebral bodies, while occurrence of spondylitis in three or more vertebral corners is considered highly suggestive of axSpA.

This review gives a detailed overview about the benefits and limitations of all available imaging techniques in patients with axSpA, explains the usage of imaging techniques in the context of diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the disease, and reports on the potential future trends in the area of imaging of the axial skeleton in patients who are suspicious for this diagnosis.

February 2017
Beniamino Palmieri MD, Carmen Laurino MSc and Maria Vadalà MSc

Background: Cannabidiol (CBD)-based treatments for several diseases, including Tourette’s

syndrome, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, movement disorders and glaucoma, are proving to be beneficial and the  scientific clinical background of the drug is continuously evolving. 

Objectives: To investigate the short-term effect of CBD-enriched hemp oil for relieving symptoms and improving the life quality (QOL) in young girls with adverse drug effects (ADRs) following human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. 

Methods: In this anecdotal, retrospective, “compassionate-use”, observational, open-label study, 12 females (age 12–24 years) with severe somatoform and dysautonomic syndrome following HPV vaccination were given sublingual CBD-rich hemp oil drops, 25 mg/kg per day supplemented by 2–5 mg/ml CBD once a week until a maximum dose of 150 mg/ml CBD per day was reached over a 3 month period. Patients’ quality of life was evaluated using the medical outcome short-form health survey questionnaire (SF-36).

Results: Two patients dropped out due to iatrogenic adverse events and another two patients stopped the treatment early due to lack of any improvement. SF-36 showed significant benefits in the physical component score (P < 0.02), vitality (P < 0.03) and social role functioning (P < 0.02) after the treatment. The administration of hemp oil also significantly reduced body pain according to the SF-36 assessment. No significant differences from the start of treatment to several months post-treatment were detected in role limitations due to emotional reactions (P = 0.02).

Conclusions: This study demonstrated the safety and tolerability of CBD-rich hemp oil and the primary efficacy endpoint. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to characterize the safety profile and efficacy of this compound.

 

November 2009
July 2008
E. Mei-dan, A. Walfisch, I. Raz, A. Levy and M. Hallak

Background: Women frequently suffer perineal trauma while giving birth. Interventions to increase the possibility for an intact perineum are needed.

Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal perineal massage in increasing the likelihood of delivering with an intact perineum.

Methods: This single blinded prospective controlled trial included 234 nulliparous women with a singleton fetus. Women allocated to the study group were instructed to practice a 10 minute perineal massage daily from the 34th week of gestation until delivery. Primary outcome measures included the episiotomy rate; first, second, third and fourth-degree perineal tear rates; and intact perineum. Secondary outcomes were related to specific tear locations and the amount of suture material required for repair.

Results: Episiotomy rates, overall spontaneous tears and intact perineum rates were similar in the study and control groups. Women in the massage group had slightly lower rates of first-degree tears (73.3% νs. 78.9%, P = 0.39) and slightly higher rates of second-degree tears (26.7% νs. 19.3%, P = 0.39), although both of these outcomes did not reach statistical significance. The rates of anterior perineal tears were significantly higher in the massage group (9.5% vs. 3%, P = 0.05), whereas internal lateral tears rates were slightly lower but without statistical significance (11.5% νs.13.1%, P = 0.44).

Conclusions: The practice of antenatal perineal massage showed neither a protective nor a detrimental significant effect on the occurrence of perineal trauma.
 

January 2006
E. Meltzer, L. Guranda, L. Vassilenko, M. Krupsky, S. Steinlauf and Y. Sidi.

Background: Lipoid pneumonia is a pneumonitis resulting from the aspiration of lipids, and is commonly associated with the use of mineral oil as a laxative. LP[1] is relatively unfamiliar to clinicians and is probably underdiagnosed.

Objectives: To increase physicians' awareness of LP, its diagnosis and prevention.

Methods: We present two illustrative cases of LP and review the literature.

Results: Two cases of LP were diagnosed within half a year in an internal medicine ward. Both cases were elderly patients, and LP was associated with the use of mineral oil as a laxative agent. Computerized tomography revealed bilateral low attenuation infiltrates, associated with a "crazy paving" pattern in one case. Sudan Black staining was diagnostic in both cases – in one on a transbronchial biopsy specimen, and in the other on sputum cytologic examination. Both patients suffered from neurologic diseases and were at risk of aspiration. In both cases clinical symptoms and signs continued for several months prior to diagnosis but resolved after the mineral oil was discontinued.

Conclusions: LP often occurs in elderly patients who are at risk of aspiration. The condition may be underdiagnosed. Since in most cases mineral oil cathartics are the causative agent, an effort at primary prevention is indicated. It is suggested that the licensing of mineral oil for internal use be changed.

August 2004
A. Lorber, A. Khoury, Y. Schwartz, Y. Braver, A. Klein-Kremer and L. Gelernter-Yaniv
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