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עמוד בית
Sat, 02.03.24

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August 2023
Shimrit Yaniv-Salem MD, Lianne Dym MD, Lior Nesher MD, Doron Zahger MD, Aryeh Shalev MD, Hezzy Shmueli MD

Background: Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare but potentially devastating complication of pregnancy. Although the pathophysiology of PPCM is not fully understood, there are known risk factors for developing PPCM, which are maternal and gestation related. In the first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we witnessed an elevated incidence of PPCM among COVID-19 survivors.

Objectives: To present a single-center case series of three patients diagnosed with peripartum cardiomyopathy after recovered from COVID-19 during the index pregnancy.

Methods: In this single center case study, all patients diagnosed with PPCM at our institute during the examined time frame were included. Electronic medical records were studied.

Results: Three patients previously diagnosed with asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic COVID-19 disease during pregnancy presented with PPCM before or shortly after delivery. Patients underwent testing to rule out residual COVID-19 myocarditis, were treated pharmacologically and with wearable defibrillators as needed, and were examined in follow-up 1–9 months after delivery.

Conclusions: Residual endothelial damage due to COVID-19 disease, even if originally mild in presentation, could predispose pregnant patients to PPCM and should be considered as a risk factor when assessing patients with new onset symptoms of heart failure. Further research is needed to confirm this hypothesis and fully determine the underlying pathophysiology. These preliminary findings warrant a high index of suspicion for PPCM in COVID-19 recoverers.

March 2023
Itamar Feldman MD, Ramzi Kurd MD, Gideon Nesher MD, Mohamed Zaghal MD, Gabriel S. Breuer MD

Optic neuritis is an inflammation of the optic nerve and has several causes. The hallmarks of clinical manifestation are pain on movement of the eyes and decreased vision. Typical optic neuritis is an idiopathic demyelinating condition that is often associated with multiple sclerosis, affects young women, is unilateral, and has a good prognosis.

January 2022
Ron Skorochod B MED Sc, Daniel Fink MD, Victoria Doviner MD, and Gideon Nesher MD
February 2021
Ron Skorochod BMED Sc, Yaakov Applbaum MD, Gideon Nesher MD, and Ariella Tvito MD
December 2018
Eviatar Nesher MD, Marius Braun MD, Sigal Eizner MD, Assaf Issachar MD, Michal Cohen MD, Amir Shlomai MD PhD, Michael Gurevich MD, Ran Tur-Kaspa MD and Eytan Mor MD

Background: The lack of organs for liver transplantation has prompted transplant professionals to study potential solutions, such as the use of livers from donors older than 70 years. This strategy is not widely accepted because potential risks of vascular and biliary complications and recurrence of hepatitis C.

Objectives: To examine the efficacy and safety of liver grafts from older donors for transplantation.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of data on 310 adults who underwent deceased donor liver transplantation between 2005 and 2015 was conducted. We compared graft and recipient survival, as well as major complications, of transplants performed with grafts from donors younger than 70 years (n=265, control group) and those older than 70 years (n=45, older-donor group), followed by multivariate analysis, to identify risk factors.

Results: There was no significant difference between the control and older-donor group at 1, 5, and 10 years of recipient survival (79.5% vs. 73.3%, 68.3% vs. 73.3%, 59.2% vs. 66.7%, respectively) or graft survival (74.0% vs. 71.0%, 62.7% vs. 71.0%, 54.8% vs. 64.5%, respectively). The rate of biliary and vascular complications was similar in both groups. Significant risk factors for graft failure were hepatitis C (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.92, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.16–2.63), older donor age (HR = 1.02, 95%CI 1.007–1.031), and male gender of the recipient (HR = 1.65, 95%CI 1.06–2.55).

Conclusion: Donor age affects liver graft survival. However, grafts from donors older than 70 years may be equally safe if cold ischemia is maintained for less than 8 hours.

September 2017
Aref Elnasasra MD, Hilmi Alnsasra MD, Rozalia Smolyakov MD, Klaris Riesenberg MD and Lior Nesher MD

Background: Little is known about the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTI) in the dispersed Bedouin population. UTIs are routinely treated empirically according to local resistance patterns, which is important when evaluating the risk factors and antibiotic resistance patterns in the Bedouin population.

Objectives: To analyze risk factors, pathogens, and antibiotic resistance patterns of UTIs in the Bedouin population compared to the general population in southern Israel. To compare data from this study to that from a previous study conducted at our center.

Methods: We prospectively followed all patients hospitalized with community acquired UTIs during a 4 month period at Soroka Medical Center. We also compared results from this study to those from a study conducted in 2000.

Results: The study comprised 223 patients: 44 Bedouin (19.7%), 179 (80.3) non-Bedouin; 158 female (70.9%), 65 male (29.1). The Bedouin were younger (51.7 vs. 71.1 years of age, P < 0.001) and had a lower Charlson Comorbidity Index (2.25 vs. 4.87, P < 0.001). Enterobacteriaceae were the most common pathogens identified, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) was the most common with 156 (70%) strains identified, followed by Klebsiella spp. with 29 (13%), Proteus spp. with 18 (8%), pseudomonas with 9 (4%), and other bacteria including enterococci with 11 (5%). The prevalence of E. coli increased significantly from 56% in 2000 to 70% in this study. We also noted an increase in community acquired extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) pathogens from 4.5% in 2000 to 25.5% in the present study. No statistically significant difference was observed between the Bedouin and general populations in the causal pathogens, resistance to antibiotics, length of therapy, and readmission rate within 60 days. 

Conclusions: The Bedouin population hospitalized for UTIs is younger and presents with fewer co-morbidities. Isolated pathogens were similar to those found in the general population as was the presence of drug resistant infections. Overall, a substantial percentage of pathogens were resistant to standard first-line antibiotics, driving the need to change from empiric therapy to aminoglycoside therapy. 

 

August 2016
Gabriel S. Breuer MD, Naama Bogot MD and Gideon Nesher MD
December 2015
Ori Segal MD, Joseph R. Ferencz MD, Michael Mimouni MD, Ronit Nesher MD, Perri Cohen MA and Arie Y. Nemet MD
 

Background: Reports of lamellar macular holes (LMHs) with underlying age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are rare and the specific definition, pathogenesis, and surgical recommendations for this macular condition remain unclear.


Objectives: To present a series of LMHs in eyes with underlying end-stage AMD, and describe optical coherence tomography (OCT) detection of associated morphologic abnormalities.


Methods: We reviewed the files of consecutive patients diagnosed with LMH and underlying end-stage AMD between September 2007 and September 2011. 


Results: Sixteen eyes of 14 patients were included in this study. The average follow-up after the OCT-established diagnosis of LMH was 19.8 months (range 4–48). The average visual acuity (VA) at last follow-up visit was 20/400 (20/60–20/1200). The best-corrected VA was stable in 10 eyes (62.5%) and deteriorated in 6 (37.5%). There was a statistically significant correlation between VA and minimal foveal thickness (r = -0.598, P = 0.014).


Conclusions: In this series of LMHs with underlying AMD the OCT findings were intraretinal fluid, cystic spaces and window defect.


 
September 2015
Gabriel S. Breuer MD, Konstantin Reinus MD, Gideon Nesher MD and Gabriel Munter MD
August 2014
Ronit Nesher MD, on behalf of the Israel Glaucoma Screening Group*

* Israel Glaucoma Screening Group 2009-2010 (in alphabetical order):

Applebaum E, Arodi A, Avidar A, Barkana Y, Beiran I, Bracha Z, Burgansky Z, Cotlear D, Dafna O, Drori L, ElNaddaf H, Epstein E, Garzozi H, Gawi H, Geffen N, Glovinsky Y, Hadayer A, Jubran R, Kalev-Landoy M, Kaniezer B, Kratz A, Kurtz S, Matanes M, Mazover A, Mazzawi N, Naveh L, Nesher R, Neuman H, Pedut T, Pikel Y, Rachmiel R, Rath E, Robinson A, Segev E, Shemesh G, Shoham N, Silverston B, Tam G, Tessler Z, Tiosano B, Vidan A, Vishinevski I, Zalish M, Zarfati D, Zorani Y.

Background: Early detection of glaucoma enables early initiation of treatment. Screening populations at risk is likely to help achieve this goal.

Objectives: To increase public awareness regarding early detection of glaucoma, and estimate the prevalence of increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic disk cupping in the screened population.

Methods: A public awareness campaign was carried out in Israel during the 2009 and 2010 World Glaucoma Week, culminating each year in a one-day, free-of-charge screening of individuals in 13 outreach public locations. Screening was performed by 45 ophthalmologists and included a brief medical history, slit-lamp exam with measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP), and evaluation of cup/disk ratio.

Results: A total of 2560 individuals were screened; the mean age was 59 ± 13 years. IOP ≥ 21 mmHg was found in 4.8%, and 12.3% had cupping ≥ 0.5. IOP ≥ 21 mmHg together with cupping ≥ 0.5 were present in 1.4% and this rate increased with age: 3.7% of cases in the age group ≥ 70 years compared to 1% and 0.6% in the age groups 50–69 and < 50 years, respectively (P < 0.001). Likewise, the prevalence of cupping ≥ 0.7 and of IOP ≥ 24 mmHg increased significantly with age. The prevalence of IOP ≥ 21 mmHg increased in cases with a family history of glaucoma in first-degree relatives (10.5% compared to 3.9%, P < 0.001). The prevalence of IOP ≥ 21 mmHg was also increased in diabetic patients (8.3% vs. 4.3% in non-diabetics, P = 0.002). Further ophthalmologic evaluation was recommended to 13% of the screened individuals.

Conclusions: Outreach screening for glaucoma is a valuable tool for detecting glaucoma, pre-perimetric glaucoma, or ocular hypertension in a meaningful number of previously undiagnosed cases. Yet, cost-effectiveness issues should also be considered. The yield of such screening increases with age and seems to be most advantageous in cases with diabetes or a family history of glaucoma. 

July 2014
Gideon Nesher MD
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is considered to be a T cell-dependent disease. Autoantibodies have not consistently been found in GCA. The exception is antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA), which were found in 30–80% of GCA cases. Recently, efforts have been made to seek autoantibodies in GCA using newer methods of detection: serological identification of antigens by recombinant cDNA expression cloning, and a proteomic approach. In these studies, lamin C (a nuclear envelope antigen) was recognized by antibodies in 32% of GCA sera and none of the controls. Other autoantigenic proteins were also identified: lamin A, vinculin (a cytoskeleton antigen), and annexin 5 (an endothelial protein). In a recent study, 92% of 36 patients with GCA and/or polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) had autoantibodies to a human ferritin peptide (the heavy chain N-terminal); 89% had antibodies to bacterial ferritin peptide of Staphylococcus epidermidis. The significance of these findings needs to be studied further. GCA may be a part of the newly described ASIA syndrome (autoimmune syndrome induced by adjuvants). A recent study from Italy reported 10 cases of GCA/PMR within 3 months of influenza vaccination. These comprised 50% of all cases of GCA/PMR diagnosed during the 6 year period of the study. Another 11 cases of GCA following influenza vaccinations were reported. GCA pathogenesis involves all branches of the immune system, including antigen-presenting cells, T cells and B cells, and autoantibody formation is not uncommon. GCA etiology remains unknown, but may be associated with exposure to bacterial or viral antigens.  
December 2013
Oleg Pikovsky, Maly Oron, Arthur Shiyovich, Zvi H. Perry and Lior Nesher
 Background: Prolonged working hours and sleep deprivation can exert negative effects on professional performance and health.

Objectives: To assess the relationship between sleep deprivation, key metabolic markers, and professional performance in medical residents.

Methods: We compared 35 residents working the in-house night shift with 35 senior year medical students in a cross-sectional cohort study. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaire was administered and blood tests for complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistry panel, lipid profile and C-reactive protein (CRP) were obtained from all participants.

Results: Medical students and medical residents were comparable demographically except for age, weekly working hours, reported weight gain, and physical activity. The ESS questionnaires indicated a significantly higher and abnormal mean score and higher risk of falling asleep during five of eight daily activities among medical residents as compared with medical students. Medical residents had lower high density lipoprotein levels, a trend towards higher triglyceride levels and higher monocyte count than did medical students. CRP levels and other laboratory tests were normal and similar in both groups. Among the medical residents, 5 (15%) were involved in a car accident during residency, and 63% and 49% reported low professional performance and judgment levels after the night shift, respectively.

Conclusions: Medical residency service was associated with increased sleepiness, deleterious lifestyle changes, poorer lipid profile, mild CBC changes, and reduced professional performance and judgment after working the night shift. However, no significant changes were observed in CRP or in blood chemistry panel. Larger prospective cohort studies are warranted to evaluate the dynamics in sleepiness and metabolic factors over time.

October 2013
L. Avisar, A. Shiyovich, L. Aharonson-Daniel and L. Nesher
 Background: Sudden cardiac death is the most common lethal manifestation of heart disease and often is the first and only indicator. Prompt initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) undoubtedly saves lives. Nevertheless, studies report a low competency of medical students in CPR, mainly due to deterioration of skills following training.

Objectives: To evaluate the retention of CPR skills and confidence in delivering CPR by preclinical medical students.

Methods: A questionnaire and the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) were used to assess confidence and CPR skills among preclinical, second and third-year medical students who had passed a first-aid course during their first year but were not retrained since.

Results: The study group comprised 64 students: 35 were 1 year after training and 29 were 2 years after training. The groups were demographically similar. Preparedness, recollection and confidence in delivering CPR were significantly lower in the 2 years after training group compared to those 1 year after training (P < 0.05). The mean OSCE score was 19.8 ± 5.2 (of 27) lower in those 2 years post- training than those 1 year post-training (17.8 ± 6.35 vs. 21.4 ± 3.4 respectively, P = 0.009). Only 70% passed the OSCE, considerably less in students 2 years post-training than in those 1 year post-training (52% vs. 86%, P < 0.01). Lowest retention was found in checking safety, pulse check, airway opening, rescue breathing and ventilation technique skills. A 1 year interval was chosen by 81% of the participants as the optimal interval for retraining (91% vs. 71% in the 2 years post-training group vs. the 1 year post- training group respectively, P = 0.08).

Conclusions: Confidence and CPR skills of preclinical medical students deteriorate significantly within 1 year post-training, reaching an unacceptable level 2 years post-training. We recommend refresher training at least every year.

 

September 2013
A. L. Schwartz, Y. Topilsky, G. Uretzky, N. Nesher, Y. Ben-Gal, S. Biner, G. Keren and A. Kramer

Background: Stentless aortic bioprostheses were designed to provide improved hemodynamic performance and potentially better survival.

Objectives: To report the outcomes of patients after aortic valve replacement with the Freestyle® stentless bioprosthesis in the Tel Aviv Medical Center followed for ≤ 15 years.

Methods and Results: Between 1997 and 2011, 268 patients underwent primary aortic valve replacement with a Freestyle bioprosthesis, 211 (79%) of them in the sub-coronary position. Mean age, Charlson comorbidity index and Euro-score were 71.0 ± 9.2 years, 4.2 ± 1.5 and 10.2 ± 11 respectively, and 156 (58%) were male. Peak and mean trans-aortic gradient decreased significantly (75.0 ± 29.1 vs. 22.8 ± 9.6 mmHg, P < 0.0001; and 43.4 ± 17.2 vs. 12.1 ± 5.4 mmHg, P < 0.0001 respectively) in 3 months of follow-up. Mean overall follow-up was 4.9 ± 3.1 years and was complete in all patients. In-hospital mortality was 4.1% (n=11) but differed significantly between the first 100 patients operated before 2006 and the last 168 patients operated after January 2006 (8 vs. 3 patients, 8.0% vs. 1.8%, P = 0.01). Overall, 5 and 10 year survival rates were 85 ± 2.5% and 57.2 ± 5.7%, respectively. Five year survival was markedly improved in patients operated after January 2006 compared to those operated in the early years of the experience (92.3 ± 2.3% vs. 76.0 ± 4.4%, P = 0.0009). All the 21 octogenarians operated after January 2006 survived surgery, with excellent 5 year survival (85.1 ± 7.9%). Six patients required reoperation during follow-up: structural valve deterioration in five and endocarditis in one.

Conclusions: Aortic valve replacement with the Freestyle bioprosthesis provides good long-term hemodynamic and clinical outcomes, even in octogenarians. Valve calcification is the major (and rare) mode of valve deterioration leading to reoperation in these patients. 

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