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עמוד בית
Sun, 26.05.24

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April 2010
I. Besser, Z.H. Perry, O. Mesner, E. Zmora and A. Toker

Background: Hyperbilirubinemia of the newborn is common. Rarely is an underlying disease other than physiologic hyperbilirubinemia considered the cause of high bilirubin levels. Some of the laboratory tests recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics are expensive and do not always lead to diagnosis.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of standard laboratory tests performed on newborn infants requiring phototherapy for hyperbilirubinaemia.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review that included neonates born during a 6 month period with birth weight > 2500 g treated with phototherapy for hyperbilirubinemia (n=282) according to published guidelines. The main outcome measures were primary and maximal bilirubin values (mg/dl), time to jaundice (in days), the number of bilirubin tests undertaken and whether the patient showed abnormal functioning, and the number of days in follow-up.

Results: Thirty-three neonates (11.7%) were positive in at least one laboratory test (defined as "Abnormal" in our study), 45.5% of whom met the criteria for phototherapy during the first 48 hours of life. Among the newborns who were negative for all laboratory tests (defined as "Normal"), only 6.8% met phototherapy criteria within their first 48 hours of life (P < 0.001). In the Normal group there was a consistent decrease in total serum bilirubin values shortly after phototherapy was begun, while the Abnormal group presented an increase in serum bilirubin values during the first 12 hours of phototherapy. None of the infants had conjugated (direct) hyperbilirubinemia during the study period.

Conclusions: Most neonates presenting with a laboratory identifiable etiology for hyperbilirubinemia (i.e., hemolysis) can be distinguished from those who test negative, mainly based on the timing of presentation and response to phototherapy. A more meticulous selection of patients and reduction in the magnitude of routine laboratory testing can safely reduce discomfort to infants with hyperbilirubinemia as well as costs.

March 2010
D. Kraus, J. Yacobovich, V. Hoffer, O. Scheuerman, H. Tamary and B-Z. Garty
October 2009
T. Strauss, G. Kenet, I. Schushan-Eisen, R. Mazkereth and J. Kuint
March 2009
A. Maayan-Metzger, A. Barzilai, N. Keller and J. Kuint

Background: Early-onset neonatal sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among newborn infants.

Objectives: To determine the incidence, type of pathogens and resistance to antibiotics among newborns with early-onset neonatal sepsis, and to identify the risk factors predisposing infants to resistant pathogens in order to reevaluate antibiotic regimens appropriate for resistant bacteria in these high risk neonates.

Methods: We retrospectively studied maternal and neonatal variables of 73 term and near-term infants and 30 preterm infants, born over a period of 10.5 years and exhibiting early-onset neonatal sepsis (positive blood cultures in the first 72 hours of life).

Results: Predominant pathogens in term and near-term infants were gram-positive compared with gram-negative organisms (mostly Escherichia coli) in preterm infants. Mothers of infants with antibiotic-resistant organisms were more likely to have prolonged rupture of membranes and prolonged hospitalization before delivery and to be treated with antibiotics. No trends towards more resistant strains of pathogens were recorded over the 10.5 years of the study period.

Conclusions: Early-onset neonatal sepsis in term infants differs in bacterial species from that in preterm infants, with predominantly gram-positive organisms in term and near-term infants and gram-negative organisms in preterms. Rates of bacterial resistance to the combination of ampicillin and gentamicin, though higher among infants born to mothers with prolonged hospitalization who had been treated with antibiotics, still remained very low in our department. Thus, it seems that our classic antibiotic regimen is still appropriate for both term and preterm newborns.
 

December 2008
A. Vivante, R. Bilik, I. S. Eisen, J. Kuint

Background: Over the last two decades, the epidemiology, treatment strategy and mortality rate for congenital diaphragmatic hernia have changed.

Objectives: To retrospectively analyze our experience with CDH[1] of the last 22 years.

Methods: We reviewed the charts of all infants suffering from CDH between 1985 and 2007. Prenatal and maternal as well as perinatal and neonatal data were collected, including outcome parameters. The 71 infants that we identified were divided them into two historical groups: from 1985 to 1995 (group 1, 123 patients) and from 1996 to 2007 (group 2, 45 patients).

Results: We found an increase in the incidence of prenatal diagnosis and a subsequent significant decrease in gestational age at diagnosis in group 2 (25 weeks gestation, compared with 30 weeks gestation in group 1, P = 0.018). In addition, we noted a trend toward a reduced number of infants with right-sided hernia and associated cardiac anomalies. The timing to post-delivery surgery was significantly longer in group 2 (20 hours in group 1 vs. 53 hours in group 2, P < 0.001). A significant reduction in postoperative mortality was demonstrated in group 2 compared with group 1 (13.5% vs. 38.7% respectively, P = 0.04),

Conclusion: Our data suggest a higher survival rate for operated infants in group 1 during the last decade, probably due to changes in preoperative methods of treatment as well as later surgery timing compared to group 1. We speculate that today’s cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia are probably milder than in the past due to earlier and more detailed prenatal diagnosis and subsequent termination of pregnancies for the more severe forms of the disorder. 






[1] CDH = congenital diaphragmatic hernia


July 2008
A. Malkiel, P. Mor, H. Aloni, E. Gdansky and S. Grisaru-Granovsky

Background: Intrapartum risk is based mainly on obstetric history, which is lacking in primiparous women.

Objectives: To ascertain whether the traditional known risk of primiparity is an independent variable for both maternal and neonatal outcome.

Methods: All women admitted to labor during March-April 2002 were canvassed for eligibility for participation in the study based on an obstetric risk scoring system developed and validated for our population. During the study period, 1473 women presented for delivery. Of these, 298 women (20%) were eligible according to the exclusion criteria as "low risk" parturients: 135 (45%) were primiparous and 163 (55%) were multiparous (2–5 births).

Results: After correction for significant confounding factors, primiparity was revealed as an independent significant risk factor for instrumental delivery (odds ratio 15.5, 95%confidence interval 1.88–125) and for early postpartum hemorrhage (OR[1] 5.6, 95%CI[2] 1.9–16.6).

Conclusions:
This study highlights early postpartum hemorrhage as a significant risk for primiparous women, independent of mode of delivery, and also confirms previous reports of maternal complications requiring transfer from birth centers/home deliveries to tertiary centers.






[1] OR = odds ratio

[2] CI = confidence interval


June 2008
I. Arad, R. Braunstein and B. Bar-Oz

Background: A substantial number of premature deliveries occur in hospitals lacking neonatal intensive care facilities. We previously demonstrated a comparable outcome of very low birth weight infants delivered in a level II nursery to that of inborn infants delivered in our tertiary care center, but a similar comparison of extremely low birth weight infants has not been done.

Objectives: To compare the neonatal outcome (mortality, severe intraventricular hemorrhage/periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and intact survival) of inborn and outborn ELBW[1] infants, accounting for sociodemographic, obstetric and perinatal variables.

Methods: We compared 97 ELBW infants (birth weight ≤ 1000 g.) delivered between the years 2000 and 2004 in a hospital providing neonatal intensive care to 53 ELBW babies delivered in a referring hospital. A univariate model was first applied to examine the associations of the individual independent variables with the outcome variable, followed by a logistic stepwise regression analysis for each of the outcome variables. The odds ratios for each predictor were reported as well as their P values and 95% confidence intervals.

Results: In the stepwise logistic regression analysis, accounting for a possible confounding effect of the independent variables, ‘hospital of birth’ remained a statistically significant predictor in the final step only for mortality, with odds ratio (inborns relative to outborns) of 3.32 (95%CI[2] 1.19–9.28, P = 0.022). No statistically significant associations with the other outcome variables were found (severe IVH[3]/PVL[4] odds ratio = 1.99, 95%CI = 0.77–5.14, P = 0.155; BPD[5] odds ratio = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.19–1.91, P = 0.384; intact survival OR[6] = 0.56, 95%CI = 0.23–1.35, P = 0.195).






[1] ELBW = extremely low birth weight

[2] CI = confidence interval

[3] IVH = intraventricular hemorrhage

[4] PVL = periventricular leukomalacia

[5] BPD = bronchopulmonary dysplasia

[6] OR = odds ratio


R.Gasparello-Almeida and S. Knupp Feitosa-Oliveira

Neonatal lupus erythematosus is an uncommon transplacentally Acquired Autoimmune Disorder. The most common clinical manifestations are skin rash, congenital atrioventricular block, thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, anemia, and hepatosplenomegaly. Usually, the skin rash resembles subacute cutaneous lupus, but different forms of rash have been reported in Neonatal lupus erythematosus and some are rare forms. NLE should be suspected in babies with atypical skin lesions, even if present at birth.  

October 2006
V.H. Eisenberg, D. Raveh, Y. Meislish, B. Rudensky, Y. Ezra, A. Samueloff, A.I. Eidelman and M.S. Schimmel
 Background: Previous assessments of maternal group B Streptococcus carrier rates in women delivering at Shaare Zedek Medical Center ranged between 3.5 and 11% with neonatal sepsis rates of 0.2–0.9/1000 live births. Because of low colonization and disease rates, routine prenatal cultures of GBS[1] were not recommended, and intrapartum prophylaxis was mainly based on maternal risk factors.

Objectives: To determine whether this policy is still applicable. 

Methods: We performed prospective sampling and follow-up of women admitted for labor and delivery between February 2002 and July 2002. Vaginal and rectal cultures were obtained before the first pelvic examination. GBS isolation was performed using selective broth medium, and identified by latex agglutination and serotyping. Demographic data were collected by means of a standardized questionnaire. Data on the newborns were collected throughout 2002.

Results: Of the 629 sampled women, 86 had a positive culture and a carrier rate of 13.7%. A borderline significantly higher carriage rate was observed among mothers of North American origin (21% vs. 13.1%, P = 0.048), and a higher attack rate in their infants (3.8/1000 compared with 0.5/1000 live births in our general maternal population, P = 0.002). Eight newborns had early-onset neonatal GBS sepsis (a rate of 0.8/1000 live births), but none of them benefited from intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis.

Conclusions: An increased neonatal disease rate was observed in a population with a higher colonization rate than previously seen. In lieu of the higher carrier rates, we now recommend routine prenatal screening for GBS in our perinatal population.


 





[1] GBS = group B Streptococcus


July 2006
I. Arad, M. Baras, B. Bar-Oz and R. Gofin
 Background: Maternal transport, rather than neonatal transport, to tertiary care centers is generally advocated. Since a substantial number of premature deliveries still occur in hospitals with level I and level II nurseries, it is imperative to find means to improve their outcome.

Objectives: To compare the neonatal outcome (survival, intraventricular hemorrhage and bronchopulmonary dysplasia) of inborn and outborn very low birth weight infants, accounting for sociodemographic, obstetric and perinatal variables, with reference to earlier published data.

Methods: We compared 129 premature infants with birth weights of 750–1250 g delivered between 1996 and 2000 in a hospital providing neonatal intensive care to 99 premature babies delivered in a referring hospital. In the statistical analysis, variables with a statistical significant association with the outcome variables and dissimilar distribution in the two hospitals were identified and entered together with the hospital of birth as explanatory variables in a logistic regression.

Results: Accounting for the covariates, the odds ratios (outborns relative to inborns) were 0.31 (95% confidence interval = 0.11–0.86, P = 0.03) for mortality, 1.37 (95%CI[1] = 0.64–2.96, P = 0.42) for severe intraventricular hemorrhage, and 0.86 (95%CI = 0.38–1.97, P = 0.78) for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The odds ratio for survival without severe intraventricular hemorrhage was 1.10 (95%CI = 0.55–2.20, P = 0.78). Comparing the current results with earlier (1990–94) published data from the same institution showed that mortality decreased in both the outborn and inborn infants (OR[2] = 0.23, 95%CI = 0.09–0.58, P = 0.002 and 0.46; 95%CI = 0.20–1.04, P = 0.06, respectively), but no significant change in the incidence of severe intraventricular hemorrhage or brochopulmonary dysplasia was observed. Increased survival was observed also in these infants receiving surfactant, more so among the outborn. The latter finding could be attributed to the early, pre-transport surfactant administration, implemented only during the current study.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that very low birth weight outborn infants may share an outcome comparable with that of inborn babies, if adequate perinatal care including surfactant administration is provided prior to transportation to a tertiary center.


 





[1] CI = confidence interval

[2] OR = odds ratio


March 2005
A.L. Alkalay, H.B. Sarnat, L. Flores-Sarnat and C.F. Simmons
Profound neonatal hypoglycemia is one of the leading causes of brain injury. Hypoglycemic encephalopathy is caused by lack of glucose availability to brain cells. Although sharing a similar pathogenesis with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, hypoglycemic brain insult has distinctive metabolic, brain imaging, electroencephalographic, and histopathologic findings.

May 2004
D. Bakri, R. Gershoni-Baruch and N. Shehadeh
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