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עמוד בית
Thu, 18.04.24

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December 2022
Noy Nachmias-Peiser MD, Shelly Soffer MD, Nir Horesh MD, Galit Zlotnick MD, Marianne Michal Amitai Prof, Eyal Klang MD

Background: Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a medical condition with high levels of morbidity and mortality. However, most patients suspected of AMI will eventually have a different diagnosis. Nevertheless, these patients have a high risk for co-morbidities.

Objectives: To analyze patients with suspected AMI with an alternative final diagnosis, and to evaluate a machine learning algorithm for prognosis prediction in this population.

Methods: In a retrospective search, we retrieved patient charts of those who underwent computed tomography angiography (CTA) for suspected AMI between January 2012 and December 2015. Non-AMI patients were defined as patients with negative CTA and a final clinical diagnosis other than AMI. Correlation of past medical history, laboratory values, and mortality rates were evaluated. We evaluated gradient boosting (XGBoost) model for mortality prediction.

Results: The non-AMI group comprised 325 patients. The two most common groups of diseases included gastrointestinal (33%) and biliary-pancreatic diseases (27%). Mortality rate was 24.6% for the entire cohort. Medical history of chronic kidney disease (CKD) had higher risk for mortality (odds ratio 2.2). Laboratory studies revealed that lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) had the highest diagnostic ability for predicting mortality in the entire cohort (AUC 0.70). The gradient boosting model showed an area under the curve of 0.82 for predicting mortality.

Conclusions: Patients with suspected AMI with an alternative final diagnosis showed a 25% mortality rate. A past medical history of CKD and elevated LDH were associated with increased mortality. Non-linear machine learning algorithms can augment single variable inputs for predicting mortality.

October 2022
May 2022
Yehuda Hershkovitz MD, Oded Zmora MD, Hilli Nativ MD, Itamar Ashkenazi MD, Jonathan Hammerschlag MD, and Igor Jeroukhimov MD

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a significant impact on healthcare systems worldwide. The fear of seeking medical attention to avoid the possibility of being infected may have altered the course of some diseases.

Objectives: To describe our experience with the management of patients with acute cholecystitis during the pandemic at our medical center.

Methods: We compared patients treated for acute cholecystitis between 1 March and 31 August 2020 (Group I) to patients admitted with the same diagnosis during the same months in 2019 (Group II). We evaluated demographics, presenting symptoms, laboratory and imaging findings at presentation, the disease's clinical course, management, and outcome.

Results: Group I consisted of 101 patients and group II included 94 patients. No differences were noted for age (66 years, IQR 48–78 vs. 66 years, IQR 47–76; P = 0.50) and sex (57.4% vs. 51.1% females; P = 0.39) between the two groups. The delay between symptom onset and hospital admission was longer for Group I patients (3 days, IQR 2–7 vs. 2 days, IQR 1–3; P = 0.002). Moderate to severe disease was more commonly encountered in Group I (59.4% vs. 37.2%, P = 0.003). Group I patients more often failed conservative management (36% vs. 6%, P = 0.001) and had a higher conversion rate to open surgery (15.4% vs. 0%, P = 0.025).

Conclusions: Patients presenting with acute cholecystitis during the COVID-19 pandemic more often presented late to the emergency department and more showed adverse outcomes

April 2022
Nir Levi MD, Linda Shavit MD, Adam Farkas MD, Joad Atrash MD, Yigal Helvitz MD, Yaacov Esayag MD, and Talya Wolak MD
September 2020
Chaya Shwaartz MD, Ron Pery MD, Mordechay Cordoba MD, Mordechai Gutman MD and Danny Rosin MD

Background: The safe completion of cholecystectomy is dependent on proper identification and secure closure of the cystic duct. Effecting this closure poses a great challenge when inflammatory changes obscure the anatomy. Subtotal cholecystectomy allows for near complete removal of the gallbladder and complete evacuation of the stones while avoiding dissection in the hazardous area.

Objectives: To describe experience with laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy.

Methods: Subtotal cholecystectomy was performed when the critical view of safety could not be achieved. Surgical technique was similar in all cases and included opening the Hartmann’s pouch, removing stones obstructing the gallbladder outlet, and identifying the opening of the cystic duct, as well as circumferential transection of the gallbladder neck, closure of the gallbladder stump, and excision of the gallbladder fundus. Data retrieved from patient charts included demographics, pre-operative history, operative and postoperative course, and late complications. No bile duct injuries were observed in this series.

Results: A total of 53 patients underwent laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy (2010–2018). Ten patients were operated during the acute course of the disease and 43 electively. Acute cholecystitis was the leading cause for gallbladder removal. Cholecystostomy tube was placed in 18 patients during acute hospitalization. The gallbladder remnant was closed and a drain was placed in most patients. Of the 53 patients, 42 had an uneventful postoperative course.

Conclusions: Laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy is an effective surgical technique to avoid bile duct injury when the cystic duct cannot safely be identified. Subtotal cholecystectomy has acceptable morbidity and obviates the need for conversion in these difficult cases.

November 2017
Iris Eshed MD and Merav Lidar MD

Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive imaging modality for the detection of sacroiliitis. Diagnosing sacroiliitis on MRI is not always straightforward and can be challenging in some cases.

Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of alternative diagnoses suggested by MRI and characterize the MR appearance of the most common ones.

Methods: Consecutive MRI examinations of the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) performed between 2005 and 2012 were retrospectively evaluated for the presence of structural and active sacroiliitis findings according to the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society guidelines. Alternative diagnoses, including degenerative changes, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), Osteitis condensans ilii (OCI), septic sacroiliitis/discitis, stress reaction as well as anatomic variants, were registered

Results: We evaluated 281 MRI examinations, 116 males, 165 females, average age 44 ± 15 years. Sacroiliitis was found in 71 examinations (25%) and alternative diagnoses were suggested in 87 (31%) (OCI 8.9%, anatomic variants 5.3%, septic sacroiliitis 5.3%, degenerative findings 4.3%, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis [DISH] 1.5%, stress reaction 0.7%, tumor 0.3%). A normal examination was found in the remaining 123 examinations. Patients with alternative diagnoses were older than those with sacroiliitis (62 vs. 47 years of age, respectively, P > 0.05). Alternative pathologies in the SIJ were significantly more common in females (66) than males (21), P < 0.05.

Conclusions: A substantial proportion of patients with suspected sacroiliitis had normal SIJ while the rest were more commonly diagnosed with other pathologies. A referral by an experienced rheumatologist may improve the sensitivity and specificity of this important examination.

October 2017
Ron Sela MD, Mark Gellerman MD, Shaul Atar MD, and Eli Kalfon MD
March 2017
Hana Vaknin-Assa MD, Abid Assali MD, Eli I. Lev MD, Gabriel Greenberg MD, Katia Orvin MD, Orna Valzer MD, Gideon Paul MD, Amos Levi MD and Ran Kornowski MD
November 2015
Zaher Bahouth MD, Rani Zreik MD, Assaf Graif MD, Ofer Nativ MD, Sarel Halachmi MD and Giora Pillar MD

Background: Erectile dysfunction (ED), a common problem in males of all ages, can be of organic, psychogenic or combined etiology. Organic ED is mainly caused by vascular and neurological disorders. One of the available tests for differentiating organic from inorganic ED is measuring penile tumescence and rigidity during the REM phase of sleep. However, this test lacks the ability to differentiate between a vascular and non-vascular cause of organic ED. 

Objectives: To compare the results of the EndoPAT test and the nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) test in patients with erectile dysfunction.

Methods: Twenty patients with ED were recruited for the study. Each participant was evaluated by the SHIM score, RigiScan during polysomnography, and two EndoPAT tests (at the beginning and end of the study).

Results: Seventeen patients had SHIM score ≤ 21; 4 of them had organic ED with a mean EndoPAT score of 1.49, significantly lower than the 1.93 mean EndoPAT score of the 11 patients in the psychogenic ED group (P = 0.047). Two participants had a neurological impairment (spinal trauma and herniated disk). The average SHIM score in the vascular organic group was 6.25 points as compared to 11.69 for the psychogenic group (P = 0.027). The positive predictive value was 43% and the negative predictive value 90%.

Conclusions: EndoPAT could be helpful in excluding organic ED.

 

September 2014
George Mogilner MD, Ofer Nativ MD and Sarel Halachmi MD
May 2014
Ilan Ben-Zvi MD and Avi Livneh MD
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a genetic autoinflammatory disease characterized by spontaneous short attacks of fever, elevated acute-phase reactants, and serositis. Approximately 5%–10% of FMF patients do not respond to colchicine treatment and another 5% are intolerant to colchicine because of side effects. Recently, following the discovery of the inflammasome and recognition of the importance of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) as the major cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of FMF, IL-1β blockade has been suggested and tried sporadically to treat FMF, with good results. To date, case reports and small case series involving colchicine-resistant FMF patients and showing high efficacy of IL-1β blockade have been reported. At the Israel Center for FMF at the Sheba Medical Center the first double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of anakinra in FMF patients who are resistant or intolerant to colchicines is underway. In this report we discuss the mechanism of colchicine resistance in FMF patients, the data in the literature on IL1β blockade in these patients, and the anakinra trial inclusion criteria and study protocol.

March 2011
S. Halachmi, B. Moskovitz, R. Farfara and O. Nativ

Background: One of the major concerns in performing nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the risk of tumor recurrence.

Objectives: To assess the rate, predictors and mechanisms of oncological failure in patients after NSS[1] for renal cancer.

Methods: Between 1993 and 2008 NSS was performed in 229 patients via flank incision. Only patients without metastases at diagnosis and minimal 12 months follow-up were included in the outcome analysis.

Results: During a mean follow-up of 45 ± 34 months (range 6–168 months) tumor recurrence was observed in 13 patients (5.6%). Mean follow-up time for detection of oncological failure was 51 months (range 6–132 months).  All patients with oncological failure were males, with a mean age of 61 years (median 58, range 51–74 years). The average size of the enucleated lesion was 5 cm (range 4–7 cm). Intraoperative frozen sections as well as postoperative final pathological examination of the surgical margins were negative in all recurrent cases. Mechanisms of recurrence were distant metastases (n=4), surgical scar implantation (n=2), perirenal fat recurrence (n=2), local renal recurrence at the surgical site (n=1), and new renal lesions (n=4). Predictors of oncological failure included warm ischemia time (P = 0.058), tumor size (P = 0.001), tumor location (central versus peripheral) (P = 0.015), and multifocality (P = 0.001).

Conclusions: Distant dissemination, seeding during surgery, residual disease and new growth are the mechanisms responsible for cancer relapse. Large central lesions, long warm ischemia time and multifocality were significant predictors of oncological failure.






[1] NSS = nephron-sparing surgery



 
June 2010
A. Yosepovich, C. Avivi, J. Bar, S. Polak-Charcon, C. Mardoukh and I. Barshack

Background: HER2 is an important prognostic and predictive marker in invasive breast cancer. It is currently assessed by immunohistochemistry for protein over-expression and by fluorescence in situ hybridization for gene amplification. The immunohistochemistry-equivocal cases (2+) are currently retested by FISH[1] to determine eligibility for trastuzumab treatment. Retesting by FISH significantly raises the cost of patient management and sometimes delays treatment. The 4B5 is a new, FDA-approved, rabbit monoclonal antibody for HER2 testing.

Objectives: To examine the reliability of 4B5 IHC[2] HER2 testing in cases found to be HER2 status equivocal by CB11 IHC.

Methods: Twenty-eight invasive breast cancer cases, with an equivocal HER2 status by CB11 IHC, were retested by the 4B5 antibody as well as by FISH analysis. The scoring was performed using the same guidelines as HercepTest and was correlated with the FISH ratio. Results: Of the original 28 CB11 clone designated equivocal cases, 14 (50%) showed negative HER2 staining using the 4B5 clone (HercepTest score 0 and 1+). Five cases (18%) proved to be positive (HercepTest score 3+) and 9 cases (32%) remained equivocal (HercepTest score 2+). The corresponding FISH ratio results showed that all 4B5 negative cases were negative by FISH testing, with a negative predictive value of 100% 4 of 5 of the 4B5-positive cases were positive by FISH testing, with a positive predictive value of 80%. One 4B5-positive case was borderline-high (2.2 ratio) by FISH. The correlation between 4B5 IHC and FISH was statistically significant (P = 0.0013) by chi-square test.

Conclusions: Sequential testing by 4B5 IHC could greatly reduce the need for FISH testing in cases considered HER2 equivocal by CB11 IHC.

 

 
[1] FISH = fluorescence in situ hybridization

[2] IHC = immunohistochemistry

August 2009
J. Freire de Carvalho, A.C. de Medeiros Ribeiro, J.C. Bertacini de Moraes, C. Gonçalves, C. Goldenstein-Schainberg and E. Bonfá
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