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עמוד בית
Tue, 25.06.24

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October 2003
M. Boaz, S. Smetana, Z. Matas, A. Bor, I. Pinchuk, M. Fainaru, M.S. Green and D. Lichtenberg

Background: In lipid oxidation kinetics studies, prevalent cardiovascular disease has been associated with shortened lag phase, the length of time preceding the onset of oxidation.

Objectives: To examine, in vitro, copper-induced lipid oxidation kinetics in unfractionated serum from hemodialysis patients and to determine differences in kinetic parameters between patients with and without a history of CVD[1].

Methods: Of the 76 patients enrolled in a study of oxidative stress in hemodialysis (44/76 with prevalent CVD, 53/76 males), 9 males with a history of myocardial infarction were selected and matched for age, diabetes and smoking status with 9 males from the non-CVD group. The kinetics of lipid oxidation was studied. Blood chemistry determinations including serum lipids, lipoproteins, hemostatic factors and serum malondialdehyde were obtained. Variables were compared using the t-test for independent samples with history of MI[2] entered as the categorical variable.

Results: Tmax, the oxidation kinetic parameter defined as the time at which the rate of absorbing product accumulation was maximal, was significantly shorter in dialysis patients with a history of MI than in those without (115.2 ± 38.5 vs. 162.7 ± 48.9 minutes, P = 0.04). Further, Tmax and MDA[3] were negatively correlated to one another (r = -0.47, P = 0.04). Odds ratios indicate that each 1 minute increase in Tmax was associated with a 3% decrease in odds that a subject had a history of MI.

Conclusions: These findings indicate the presence of increased oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients with a history of MI.

[1] CVD = cardiovascular disease

[2] MI = myocardial infarction

[3] MDA = malondialdehyde

September 2003
I. Gotsman, C. Lotan and M. Mosseri

Background: Acute myocardial infarction is rare in people under the age of 30.

Objective: To determine the clinical features and outcome in young patients presenting with AMI.

Methods: All patients aged 30 years and younger hospitalized with AMI during a period of 8 years (1993–2000) were evaluated for clinical features and outcome.

Results: Of the 3,758 patients with AMI, 15 were 30 years old or younger (0.4%). The mean age was 28 (range 21–30 years) and all were male. Eight had normal coronary arteries on angiogram; seven had obstructive coronary artery disease. Patients with OCA[1] had more classical risk factors for coronary disease. A complete diagnostic work-up was abnormal in four patients with NCA[2]: thrombophilia in two patients, spasm due to alcohol withdrawal and hyperthyroidism in one patient each. All patients presented with typical new-onset chest pain. None had a previous history of angina. All patients with OCA received reperfusion therapy as compared to one patient with NCA. Peak creatine phosphokinase in NCA and OCA was 504 ± 547 and 1,328 ± 440 respectively (P < 0.01). All patients with NCA had good left ventricular function on follow-up echocardiography, compared to only three in the OCA group (P = 0.02). There was one death due to cardiogenic shock in a patient with OCA. Follow-up of 4 ± 2 years demonstrated recurrent acute coronary syndromes in four of seven patients with OCA versus none in the NCA patients (P = 0.02).

Conclusions: AMI is rare in very young patients, and more than half have NCA. A thrombophilic tendency or spasm should be considered. Young patients with NCA have an excellent prognosis.

[1] OCA = obstructive coronary artery disease

[2] NCA = normal coronary arteries

April 2003
S. Behar, A. Battler, A. Porath, J. Leor, E. Grossman, Y. Hasin, M. Mittelman, Z. Feigenberg, C. Rahima-Maoz, M. Green, A. Caspi, B. Rabinowitz and M. Garty

Background: Little information is available on the clinical practice and implementation of guidelines in treating acute myocardial infarction patients in Israel.

Objective: To assess patient characteristics, hospital course, management, and 30 day clinical outcome of all AMI[1] patients hospitalized in Israel during a 2 month period in 2000.

Method: We conducted a prospective 2 month survey of consecutive AMI patients admitted to 82 of 96 internal medicine departments and all 26 cardiac departments operating in Israel in 2000. Data were collected uniformly by means of a hospital and 30 day follow-up form.

Results: During the survey 1,683 consecutive patients with a discharge diagnosis of AMI were included. Their mean age was 66 years; 73% were male. The electrocardiographic pattern on admission revealed ST elevation, non-ST elevation and an undetermined ECG[2] in 63%, 34% and 4% of patients respectively. Aspirin and heparin were given to 95% of patients. Beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were given to 76% and 65% of patients respectively. Among hospital survivors, 45% received lipid-lowering drugs. Thrombolytic therapy was administered in 28% of patients, coronary angiography was used in 45%, and 7% of patients underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The 7 and 30 day mortality rates were 7% and 11% respectively.

Conclusions: This nationwide survey shows that one-third of the AMI patients in Israel are elderly (≥ 75 years). The survey suggests that clinical guidelines for the management of patients with AMI are partially implemented in the community. Data from large surveys representing the "real world" practice are of utmost importance for the evaluation of clinical guidelines, research and educational purposes.

[1] AMI = acute myocardial infarction

[2] ECG = electrocardiogram

G. Amit, S. Goldman, L. Ore, M. Low and J.D. Kark

Background: Although the preferred management of a patient presenting with an acute myocardial infarction is in a coronary care unit, data based on discharge diagnoses in Israel indicate that many of these patients are treated outside such units.

Objectives: To compare the demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment and mortality of AMI[1] patients treated inside and outside a CCU[2].

Methods: We compiled a registry of all patients admitted to three general hospitals in Haifa, Israel during January, March, May, July, September and November 1996.

Results: The non-CCU admission rate was 22%. CCU patients were younger (61.6 vs. 65.5 years), less likely to report a past AMI (18% vs. 34%), and arrived earlier at the emergency room. Non-CCU patients were more likely to present with severe heart failure (30 vs. 11%). Non-CCU patients received less aspirin (81 vs. 95%) and beta-blockers (62 vs. 80%). Upon discharge, these patients were less frequently prescribed beta-blockers and cardiac rehabilitation programs. CCU-treated patients had lower unadjusted mortality rates at both 30 days (odds ratio=0.35) and in the long term (hazards ratio=0.57). These ratios were attenuated after controlling for gender, age, type of AMI, and degree of heart failure (OR[3]=0.91 and HR[4]=0.78, respectively).

Conclusions: A relatively high proportion of AMI patients were treated outside a CCU, with older and sicker patients being denied admission to a CCU. The process of evidence-based care by cardiologists was preferable to that of internists both during the hospital stay and at discharge. In Israel a significant proportion of all AMI admissions are initially treated outside a CCU. Emphasis on increasing awareness in internal medicine departments to evidence-based care of AMI is indicated.

[1] AMI = acute myocardial infarction

[2] CCU = coronary care unit

[3] OR = odds ratio

[4] HR = hazards ratio

February 2003
N. Horowitz, M. Kapeliovich, R. Beyar and H. Hammerman

Background: Coronary stenting was recently introduced as a primary intervention for acute myocardial infarction. Several randomized controlled studies have shown that stenting may be superior to balloon angioplasty for the treatment of AMI[1]. However, routine stenting may also cause deterioration of coronary flow.

Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics and the outcome of patients who were treated with stenting for AMI in our center in the recent era of stenting.

Methods: Fifty-five patients with AMI were treated by stent implantation between January 1998 and December 1999. Adverse clinical events were recorded, including death, recurrent infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting, cerebrovascular accident, and target vessel revascularization. In-hospital, 1 month, 6 month and 1 year follow-up was performed in all patients. Repeated coronary angiography was performed according to clinical indications.

Results: Baseline angiographic results showed Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 0 flow in 39 patients (70.9%), TIMI I flow in no patient and TIMI II/III flow in 16 patients (29.1%). TIMI grade 3 flow was achieved in 90.9% of patients at the end of the procedure. In-hospital mortality rate was 5.4% (2.1% in patients without cardiogenic shock). There was no evidence of re-infarction or TVR[2]. The rates of bleeding complication (all of them minor), CVA[3], and CABG[4] were 9.1%, 3.6% and 1.8% respectively. The 6 month mortality rate remained the same. Rates of re-infarction, restenosis, TVR and CABG were 3.6%, 14.5%, 14.5% and 5.4% respectively. The 1 year mortality rate was 7.3%. Restenosis rate was 18% and CABG 7.3%. One year event-free survival was 70.9%.

Conclusions: This study suggests that stenting is a safe and effective mode of therapy in the setting of AMI associated with a high rate of revascularization and a low short and long-term outcome.

[1] AMI = acute myocardial infarction

[2] TVR = target vessel revascularization

[3] cerebrovascular accident

[4] CABG = coronary artery bypass grafting

November 2002
Arnon Blum, MD, Julia Sheiman, MD and Yonathan Hasin, MD
June 2002
Nurit Rosenberg, PhD, Ariella Zivelin, PhD, Angela Chetrit, PhD, Rima Dardik, PhD, Nurit Kornbrot, MSc, Dov Freimark, MD and Aida Inbal, MD

Background: Platelet adhesion and aggregation are mediated by specific platelet membrane glycoproteins GPIa/IIa, GPIba, and GPIIb/IIIa, and are essential steps in thrombus formation and development of acute myocardial infarction.

Objective: To evaluate the risks exerted by each of the following polymorphisms: HPA-1a/b in GPIIIa; 807C/T in GPIa; and HPA-2a/b, VNTR and Kozak C/T in GPIba in young males with AMI[1]..

Methods: We conducted a case-control study of 100 young males with first AMI before the age of 53 and 119 healthy controls of similar age. All subjects were tested for the above polymorphisms.

Results: The allele frequencies of each of the platelet polymorphism were not significantly different between the young men with AMI and the controls. Smoking alone was associated with a 9.97-fold risk, and the presence of at least one metabolic risk factor resulted in a 2.57-fold risk of AMI.

Conclusion: These results indicate that platelet glycoproteins polymorphisms are not an independent risk factor for AMI.

[1] AMI = acute myocardial infarction

March 2002
Alp Aydinalp, MD, Alice Wishniak, MD, Lily van den Akker-Berman, MD, Tsafrir Or and Nathan Roguin, MD

Background: Myocardial infarction-associated pericarditis is a common cause of chest pain following MI[1], its frequency depending on how it is defined.

Objectives: To investigate the incidence of acute pericarditis and pericardial effusion in the acute phase of ST-elevation MI treated with thrombolytic therapy.

Methods: The study group comprised 159 consecutive patients fulfilling the criteria for acute MI who were admitted to our department during 18 months. Infarct-associated pericarditis was defined as the finding of a pericardial friction rub, a typical pleuropericardial pain, or both. All patients underwent physical examination of the cardiovascular system four times daily for 7 days, as well as daily electrocardiogram and echo Doppler examinations.

Results: Fourteen patients (8.8%) developed a friction rub and 11 patients (6.9%) had a mild pericardial effusion. Six patients (4.0%) had both a friction rub and pericardial effusion. Two patients had a friction rub for more than 7 days. Pleuropericardial chest pain was present in 31 patients (19.5%) but only 7 of them had a friction rub.  The in-hospital mortality rate was 1.3% and no mortality was observed in the acute pericarditis group.

Conclusion: The incidence of signs associated with acute pericarditis was lower in MI patients treated with thrombolysis, compared with historical controls, when a friction rub and/or pericardial effusion was present. There was no significant reduction in the incidence of pleuropericardial chest pain.

[1] MI = myocardial infarction

February 2002
Diab Mutlak, MD, Luis Gruberg, MD, Shimon Reisner, MD and Walter Markiewicz, MD, FACC

Background: Percutaneous transluminal septal ablation was recently introduced as an alternative to surgical treatment of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. In this procedure, alcohol is injected into a proximal septal artery to create a localized myocardial infarction.

Objectives: To characterize the immediate and mediumterm results following PTSMA.

Methods: Of 13 patients referred for PTSMA, 8 were found suitable for the procedure. Hemodynamic parameters were evaluated prior to and following the procedure, and clinical and echo-Doppler parameters at 2 weeks and 9 months later.

Results: The procedure was technically successful in all patients. Resting left ventricular outflow gradient at rest (by Doppler) fell from 82 + 37 to 15 + 8 mmHg (P<0.001) 9 months later. Late post-procedural gradient after the Valsalva maneuver was 2 + 24 mmHg. The degree of mitral regurgitation fell from 2.0 + 0 to 1.5 + 0.5 (P<0.05). New York Heart Association class for dyspnea improved from 2.8 + 0.5 to 1.8 + (P<0.01) and Canadian Cardiovascular Society class for angina from 2.0 + 1.3 to 1.3 + 1.2 (P=0.08). Complete right bundle branch block developed in six patients, temporary complete atrioventricular block in three, and persistent block requiring permanent pacing in one. No flow in the distal left anterior descending coronary artery (presumably due to spilling of alcohol) was seen in one (with development of a small antero-apical infraction) and ventricular fibrillation 2 hours post-procedure in one. None of the patients died.

Conclusion: PTSMA provided a substantial reduction in left ventricular outflow gradient associated with an improvement in symptomatology. Serious complications are not uncommon. Long-term follow-up is unknown.

January 2002
Rasmi Magadle MD, Paltiel Weiner MD, Marinella Rabner MD, Miri Mizrahi-Reuveni MD and Avi Davidovich MD

Background: The association between coronary and/or other arterial aneurysms and polycystic kidney disease is well known. While myocardial infarction is a possible complication of atheroscletotic coronary aneurysms, it is reasonable to assume that CA[1] in patients with PKD[2] may make them prone them for a similar complication.

Objective: To evaluate the possible occurrence of CA and MI[3] in first relatives of a patient with PKD, CA and MI.

Patients: We studied 12 family members: 2 parents, 8 sisters and 2 brothers of a young woman who was incidentally diagnosed as having a MI, while her mother was known to have PKD. We used electrocardiogram, thallium-image test, and transthoracic echocardiography to determine MI, ultrasonography of the kidney to determine PKD, and coronary angiography and ventriculography to determine CA and MI, respectively. 

Results: PKD was detected in seven family members, while CA and MI were found in five and three of them, respectively.

Conclusions: In a family with PKD we detected a high prevalence of CA, with MI as a complication of the latter.


[1] CA = coronary aneurysms

[2] PKD = polcystic kidney disease

[3] MI = myocardial infarction

November 2001
Haim Ashkenazi, MD, Bernard Rudensky, PhD, Esther Paz, MA, David Raveh, MD, Jonathan A. Balkin, MBBCh, Dan Tzivoni, MD and Amos M. Yinnon, MD

Background: Recent studies have suggested a possible association between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and coronary heart disease.

Objectives: To determine titers of antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae in patients with acute  myocardial infraction compared with titers in several control groups.

Methods: This prospective case-control study investigated 209 individuals. We assessed the serum IgG antibody titers to Chlamydia pneumoniae in 57 consecutive patients admitted with AMI to our intensive coronary care unit during a 4 month period. A serum sample was drawn upon admission after 6 weeks. Results were compared with those of four control groups: a) patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia (n=18), b) patients with community-acquired urinary tract infection (n=42), c) patients with angiographically normal coronary artery disease (n=44), and d) patients with stable coronary artery disease (n=48). Serum immunoglobin G antibody titers to C. pneumoniae were determined using standard micro-immunofluorescene technology.

Results: Of 57 patients with AMI, 32 (56%) had a high lgG titer to C. pneumoniae (>=1:256) on the initial test, which remained unchanged (62%) after 6 weeks. The percentage of patients with high titers was significantly lower in the control groups: 5 of 18 patients (28%) in the pneumonia group (P<0.01), 11 of 42 (26%) in the urinary tract infection group (P<0.01), 11 of 44 (25%) with normal coronary arteries (P<0.01), and 17 of 48 (35%) with stable chronic ischemic heart disease (P<0.05).

Conclusion: The detection of high titers of lgG antibodies to C. pneumoniae in many patients with AMI, compared to control groups, suggest that chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection plays a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and acute ischemic events.

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