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עמוד בית
Tue, 28.05.24

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June 2023
Achia Nemet MD, Ofira Zloto MD, Or Segev MD, Ido Didi Fabian MD, Iris Moroz MD, Vicktoria Vishnevskia-Dai MD

The prevalence of choroidal nevi associated with choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV) is estimated to range between 0.58% and 8.6% [1]. The pathogenesis of CNV is not completely understood. Researchers have suggested that damage caused to the choroid capillaries above the nevi affects the overlying retinal pigment epithelium and triggers production of angiogenic factors that, in turn, cause the development of CNV [2,3]. Hypoxia and inflammation may be involved in the process. Data have been inconsistent with both theories [4].

May 2023
Hagit Hemi RN, Olga Morelli MD, Mordehay Vaturi MD, Ran Kornowski MD, Alexander Sagie MD, Yaron Shapira MD, Shmuel Schwartzenberg MD

Background: Cancellation of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) tests leads to inefficient use of echocardiography laboratory (echo lab) time and wastes resources.

Objectives: To identify the causes of same-day TEE cancellations in hospitalized patients, to formulate a TEE order screening protocol, and to evaluate its efficacy at implementation.

Methods: We performed a prospective analysis of inpatients referred to a single tertiary hospital echo lab for TEE study by inpatient wards. A comprehensive screening protocol emphasizing active participation of all links directly involved in the chain of inpatient TEE referral was developed and implemented. Comparison of pre- and post-implementation of the new screening protocol on two consecutive periods of 6 months on TEE cancellation rates out of total ordered TEEs stratified by cause categories was performed.

Results: In total, 304 inpatient TEE procedures were ordered during the initial observation period; 54(17.8%) were canceled on the same day. The most common cancellation reasons were equally respiratory distress and patient not in fasted state (20.4% of total cancellations and 3.6% of all scheduled TEEs for each cause). Following implementation of the new screening process, total TEEs ordered (192) and cancelled (16) dropped significantly. A decrease in the rate of each cancellation category was observed, with statistical significance achieved for the overall cancellation rate (8.3% vs. 17.8%, P = 0.003), but not for the individual cancellation categories in split analysis.

Conclusions: A concerted effort to implement a comprehensive screening questionnaire significantly reduced same-day cancellations of scheduled TEEs.

Haim Krespin MD, Lior Saban MD, Eran Israeli MD, Mordechai Shimonov MD, Tomer Greener MD

Pancreaticopleural fistula (PPF) is a rare complication of pancreatitis and usually constitutes a diagnostic challenge. There are many causes for recurrent and chronic pancreatitis, with the main etiology being alcohol and choledocholithiasis [1]. However, the association between pancreatic divisum (PD), a common congenital anomaly of the pancreas that is rarely symptomatic, and complications of pancreatitis is still not firmly established [2]. Furthermore, the optimal management of PPF is still uncertain due to its rarity [3]. We describe a rare case of a 45-year-old woman with recurrent pancreatitis that presented with a PPF on the background of PD, successfully managed with conservative treatment. The purpose of this report is to highlight the rare association between PPF and PD together with the excellent response to conservative therapy.

Moran Gawie-Rotman MD, Alon Shrim MD, Ester Maor-Sagie MD, Noa Haggiag MD, Rinat Gabbay-Benziv MD, Mordechai Hallak MD

Fetal hydrops is a life-threatening condition defined as abnormal accumulation of fluid in two or more fetal compartments: ascites, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, or generalized skin edema [1]. Fetal hydrops may also be associated with polyhydramnios and placental edema [2].

Based on pathophysiology results, fetal hydrops is classified as either immune or non-immune. The frequency of immune fetal hydrops has decreased dramatically since the development of Rh (D) immunization given to mothers at risk. Nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) accounts for almost 90% of cases [1]. The etiology of NIHF is further classified as cardiovascular (17–35%), chromosomal (7–16%), hematologic (4–12%), infectious (5–7%), and unknown (15–25%). Inborn errors of metabolism account for only 1–2% of NIHF cases [1]. NIHF is commonly progressive. Complete resolution of NIHF before birth is rare.

April 2023
George M. Weisz MD FRACS BA MA, Andrew Gal MBBS FRCPA

The health of survivors of the Shoah has been investigated, both at early and late stages in their lives. There have been findings of multiple morbidities, but survivors have enjoyed slightly prolonged longevity when compared to the general population [1]. Less attention has been granted to investigations and descriptions of illnesses that presented inside the ghettos and the Nazi camps. Some of the surviving records from those sites have yet to be interpreted. Documented diagnoses of both insulin dependent and mature onset diabetes mellitus and of malignancy has been conspicuously absent. We present our meta-analysis and interpretations of surviving medical documents covering a large population of prisoners from a range of ghettos and concentration camps and specifically note the absence of recorded incidence of malignancy and a relatively low incidence of diabetes mellitus.

Marc Romain MBBCh, Michael Beil MD, Josh Mormol, Ilana Stav, Tali Liberman, Peter Vernon van Heerden MD, Sigal Sviri MD

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality during critical illness especially in very old patients admitted to intensive care units.

Objectives: To identify prognostic markers for AKI patients.

Methods: This single-center retrospective study was based on a patient registry of a medical intensive care unit. Hospital records of patients aged 80 years or older admitted between 2005 and 2015 were examined. Patients who developed AKI according to Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines within 4 days of admission were included in this study.

Results: The study comprised 96 patients with AKI and 81 age- and sex-matched controls without AKI. Mean acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score was 30 with an ICU mortality of 27% in very old patients with AKI. The odds ratio of hospital mortality for these patients was 5.02 compared to controls (49% vs. 16%). APACHE II score and fluid balance in the first 2 days of ICU admission were the strongest predictors of ICU mortality with an area under the receiver operating characteristic of 0.76. Of the 47 patients with AKI who survived hospital admission, 30 were discharged home.

Conclusions: Mortality was increased in very old ICU patients with AKI. Among survivors, two-thirds returned home.

Chen Hanna Ryder PhD, Yori Gidron PhD, Darian Ryder PhD, Yair Shmidt, Naomi Dovrat MD, Ziv Sarusi MD, Noam Welder-Segalovich MD, Matan Segalovich MD, Daniel Marmor MD, Radi Shahien MD

Background: The two cerebral hemispheres influence the immune response differently. While the left hemisphere enhances cellular immunity, the right hemisphere inhibits it.

Objectives: To determine whether immune and inflammatory markers correlated with stroke severity and hospitalization duration as a function of stroke side.

Methods: The study included 137 patients with unilateral ischemic stroke. The medical records were reviewed for demographic and clinical laboratory data, including C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell (WBC) count, its differential stroke side and stroke severity according to the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), and length of hospital stay (LOS). We examined differences between right side (RS) and left side (LS) stroke on immune and inflammatory markers and compared correlations between these markers and NIHSS and LOS as a function of stroke side.

Results: RS stroke patients had higher CRP and monocytes than LS stroke patients. In RS stroke patients, CRP, total WBC, and lymphocyte levels positively correlated with both NIHSS and LOS, whereas levels of neutrophils were positively correlated with NIHSS alone. No correlations were found for LS stroke patients.

Conclusions: Immune-inflammatory markers correlated with stroke severity and LOS only in patients with RS stroke. Neuroimmunological processes influence short-term clinical outcomes after stroke, especially considering the differential effects of the hemispheres on immunity. Prospective studies that evaluate long-term clinical outcomes are needed. Testing the effects of anti-inflammatory treatments on prognosis of RS stroke patients should be considered.

Yishai Mintzker MD, Limor Adler MD, Linoy Gabay MPH, Tamar Banon MSc

Background: Intrathoracic cancer can cause hyponatremia, but it is uncertain whether mild hyponatremia in the outpatient setting should be regarded as an early sign of intrathoracic cancer.

Objectives: To evaluate the risk of undiagnosed intrathoracic cancer in patients with new persistent mild hyponatremia.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the electronic health record database of a large healthcare organization. The hyponatremia group included patients with sodium concentration of 130–134 mmol/L twice, after a previous normal value and without previous history of cancer or diseases related to hyponatremia. A control group with normal sodium concentration was matched by sex, age, and year of testing. We measured specific intrathoracic cancer incidence during 3 years of follow-up after sodium concentration test date. A logistic regression was used to adjust for further clinical information including smoking history, symptoms, and medications.

Results: The study comprised 1539 participants with mild hyponatremia and 7624 matched controls. New intrathoracic cancer diagnosis was more common in the hyponatremia group during a 3-year follow-up; 1.49% in the hyponatremia group and 0.39% in the control group, crude odds ratio (OR) 3.84, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 2.22–6.63. After adjustment, hyponatremia remained a significant risk factor for the diagnosis of intrathoracic cancer; adjusted OR 3.61, 95%CI 2.08–6.28.

Conclusions: New mild persistent hyponatremia might be a significant predictive marker to a yet undiagnosed intrathoracic cancer.

Gad Shaked MD, Yoav Bichovsky MD, Guy Golani MD, Adi Segal BMedSc, Ilia Replyanski MD, Moti Klein MD, Yair Binyamin MD, Amit Frenkel MD MHA

Background: Massive, non-compressible bleeding is a leading cause of preventable trauma mortality. Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) is a minimally invasive procedure in which a balloon catheter is maneuvered into the aorta to temporarily occlude large vessels and enable stabilization of the exsanguinating patient.



Objectives: To present experiences in assimilating REBOA at a single level 1 trauma center in Israel, to evaluate the technical aspects of the procedure, and to describe patient characteristics and outcomes.


Methods: This retrospective cohort study comprised civilians admitted with hemorrhagic shock to our trauma department who were treated with REBOA between November 2017 and July 2021. Descriptive statistics of the patients, characteristics of the injuries and patient outcomes are presented.


Results: The study included 22 patients (median age 30.1 years, 21 male). The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) before REBOA inflation was 59.6 ± 11.4 mmHg, and the mean SBP measured after the procedure was 115.2 ± 26.3 mmHg. In 20 patients (91%), the SBP was normalized (> 90 mmHg) shortly after inflation of the balloon, and they survived the treatment in the trauma department; 15 (75%) survived the first 30 days.



Conclusions: REBOA is an effective method for the initial resuscitation and hemorrhage control of patients with massive, non-compressible bleeding and is relatively easy to assimilate in a hospital. The achievement of immediate normalization of SBP enables medical personnel to correct physiological parameters and obtain accurate imaging before proceeding to the operating theater.

March 2023
Elena Chernomordikov MD, Keren Rouvinov MD, Wilmosh Mermershtain MD, Konstantin Lavrenkov MD PhD

Background: Bicalutamide monotherapy (BMT) is an option for androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer (LIR-PC). Painful gynecomastia (PG) is a common side effect of BMT. Few therapeutic options are available for preventing BMT-induced PG.

Objectives: To assess the efficacy and side effects of single fraction (SF) prophylactic breast irradiation (PBI) to prevent painful gynecomastia (PG) in patients LIR-PC treated with BMT.

Methods: We reviewed the results of bilateral PBI in a prospective cohort of LIR-PC patients who received 150 mg bicalutamide daily as a first-line treatment for at least 12 months. A single fraction of 8 Gy was administered to both breasts by a stationary field of 10 × 10 cm, using 10–15 MeV electron beam. PBI was commenced on the same day as BMT, but prior to the first dose of bicalutamide. A radiotherapy treatment plan was designed to cover breast tissue by the 90% isodose line. Subsequent monthly physical examinations were scheduled for all patients during the first year of BMT to evaluate any PG symptoms.

Results: Seventy-six patients received BMT and PBI, 80% (61/76) showed no signs of PG; 20% (15/76) experienced mild gynecomastia. The main adverse effect of PBI was grade 1 radiation dermatitis.

Conclusions: PBI using a SF of 8 Gy is an effective, safe, and low-cost strategy for the prevention of BMT-induced PG in LIR-PC patients.

Eyal Leibovitz MD, Mona Boaz PhD, Israel Khanimov MD, Gary Mosiev MD, Mordechai Shimonov MD

Background: Despite its wide use, evidence is inconclusive regarding the effect of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in patients with chronic diseases and dementia among hospitalized patients with malnutrition.

Objectives: To examine the effect of PEG insertion on prognosis after the procedure.

Methods: This retrospective analysis of medical records included all adult patients who underwent PEG insertion between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013 during their hospitalization. For each PEG patient, two controls similar in age, sex, referring department, and underlying condition were randomly selected from the entire dataset of patients admitted. The effect of PEG on mortality and repeated admissions was examined.

Results: The study comprised 154 patients, 49 referred for PEG insertion and 105 controls (mean age 74.8 ± 19.8 years; 72.7% females; 78.6% admitted to internal medicine units). Compared to controls, the PEG group had a higher 2-year mortality rate (59.2% vs. 17.1%, P < 0.001) but the 2-year readmission rate did not differ significantly (44.9% vs. 56.2% respectively, P = 0.191). Regression analysis showed PEG was  associated with increased risk of the composite endpoint of death or readmission (hazard ratio 1.514, 95% confidence interval 1.016–2.255, P = 0.041). No specific characteristic of admission was associated with increased likelihood of death or readmission. Among readmitted patients, reasons for admission and baseline laboratory data, including albumin and cholesterol, did not differ between the PEG patients and controls.

Conclusions: In-hospital PEG insertion was associated with increased mortality at 2 years but had no effect on readmissions.

Dorit Shitenberg MD, Barak Pertzov MD, Moshe Heching MD, Yael Shostak MD, Osnat Shtraichman MD, Dror Rosengarten MD, Moshe Yeshurun MD, Yury Peysakhovich MD, Yaron Barac MD, Mordechai R. Kramer MD

Background: Late-onset pulmonary complications can occur following hematological stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In allogeneic HSCT these complications are often associated with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Lung transplantation (LTx) often remains the only viable therapeutic option in these patients.

Objectives: To describe our experience with LTx due to GVHD after HSCT and to compare the long-term survival of this group of patients to the overall survival of our cohort of LTx recipients for other indications.

Methods: We retrospectively retrieved all data on patients who had undergone LTx for end-stage lung disease as a sequela of allogeneic HSCT, between 1997 and 2021, at Rabin Medical Center in Israel.

Results: A total of 15 of 850 patients (1.7%) from our cohort of LTx recipients fulfilled the criteria of LTx as a sequela of late pulmonary complication after allogeneic HSCT. The median age at the time of HSCT was 33 years (median 15–53, range 3–60). The median time between HSCT and first signs of chronic pulmonary GVHD was 24 months (interquartile range [IQR] 12–80). The median time from HSCT to LTx was 96 months (IQR 63–120). Multivariate analysis showed that patients transplanted due to GVHD had similar survival compared to patients who were transplanted for other indications.

Conclusions: LTx for GVHD after allogeneic HSCT constitutes an important treatment strategy. The overall survival appears to be comparable to patients after LTx for other indications.

Sergei Elber-Dorozko MD, Yackov Berkun MD, Abraham Zlotogorski MD, Alexander Maly MD, Ariel Tenenbaum MD

IgA vasculitis, formerly known as Henoch–Schönlein purpura (HSP), is the most common systemic vasculitis in children. It is defined as palpable purpura in the absence of coagulopathy or thrombocytopenia and one or more of the following criteria: abdominal pain, arthritis or arthralgia, biopsy of affected tissue demonstrating predominant IgA deposition, and renal involvement with proteinuria and hematuria or red cell casts [1].

February 2023
Elchanan Parnasa MD, Ofer Perzon MD, Aviad Klinger, Tehila Ezkoria MA, Matan Fischer MD

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has severe consequences in terms of mortality and morbidity. Knowledge of factors that impact COVID-19 may be useful in the search for treatments.

Objectives: To determine the effect of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency on morbidly and mortality associated with COVID-19.

Methods: All patients admitted to Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center between 01 March 2020 and 03 May 2021 with a diagnosis of COVID-19 were included. We retrospectively retrieved demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from the hospital’s electronic medical records. The main outcomes were mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and severity of COVID-19.

Results: The presence of G6PD deficiency emerged as an independent protective predictor for ICU admission (odds ratio [OR] 0.258, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.077–0.619, P = 0.003) and the development of critical illness (OR 0.121, 95%CI 0.005–0.545, P = 0.006). Moreover, patients with G6PD deficiency had a trend toward lower mortality rates that did not reach statistical significance (OR 0.541, 95%CI 0.225–1.088, P = 0.10).

Conclusions: Patients with G6PD deficiency were less likely to have a severe disease, had lower rates of ICU admission, and trended toward lower mortality rates.

Gilad Rotem MD, Jordan Lachnish MD, Tomer Gazit MD, Gal Barkay MD, Dan Prat MD, Gil Fichman MD

BackgroundSeveral approaches are used to access the hip joint; most common are the direct lateral and posterior. Little consensus exists on which to use when treating hip fractures.

Objectives: To compare short-term complications, postoperative ambulation, and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMS) of direct lateral vs. posterior approaches in hemiarthroplasty for acute hip fractures.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective clinical trial with 260 patients who underwent bipolar hemiarthroplasty in the direct lateral or posterior approach (166 and 94, respectively) between January 2017 and December 2018. The clinical data included short-term complications: prosthetic dislocation, periprosthetic fractures, and infection. Postoperative ambulation was collected 6 weeks postoperatively; PROMS were collected for 173 patients at 2 years follow-up.

Results: There were six dislocations overall, average time to dislocation was 22 days postoperative (range 4–34). Five dislocations were after the posterior approach (5.3%) and one after direct lateral (0.6%) (P = 0.01). At 6 weeks follow-up, inability to walk was found in 16.9% of the direct lateral group and 6.4% of the posterior approach group (P = 0.02). In the posterior approach group, 76% could walk more than 20 meters; only half of the direct lateral group could (P = 0.0002). At 2 years follow-up, PROMS did not show a statistically significant difference between the groups.

Conclusions: Posterior approach for hemiarthroplasty following femoral neck fractures allows superior ambulation to the direct lateral approach only for the short-term. However, no long-term clinical advantage was found. This short-term benefit does not justify the increased dislocation rate in the posterior approach.

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