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עמוד בית
Fri, 12.07.24

Search results


June 2023
Yaron Niv MD FACG AGAF, Theodore Rokkas MD PhD FACG AGAF FEBGH

Background: Mucins, heavily glycosylated glycoproteins, are synthesized by mucosal surfaces and play an important role in healthy and malignant states. Changes in mucin synthesis, expression, and secretion may be a primary event or may be secondary to inflammation and carcinogenesis.

Objectives: To assess current knowledge of mucin expression in the small bowel of celiac disease (CD) patients and to determine possible associations between mucin profile and gluten-free diet.

Method: Medical literature searches of articles in English were conducted using the terms mucin and celiac. Observational studies were included. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated.

Results: Of 31 articles initially generated by a literature search, 4 observational studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria remained eligible for meta-analysis. These studies included 182 patients and 148 controls from four countries (Finland, Japan, Sweden, United States). Mucin expression was significantly increased in small bowel mucosa of CD patients than in normal small bowel mucosa (odds ratio [OR] 7.974, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] (1.599–39.763), P = 0.011] (random-effect model). Heterogeneity was significant: Q = 35.743, df (Q) = 7, P < 0.0001, I2 = 80.416%. ORs for MUC2 and MUC5AC expression in the small bowel mucosa of untreated CD patients were 8.837, 95%CI 0.222–352.283, P = 0.247 and 21.429, 95%CI 3.883–118.255, P < 0.0001, respectively.

Conclusions: Expression of certain mucin genes in the small bowel mucosa of CD patients is increased and may serve as a diagnostic tool and assist in surveillance programs.

March 2021
Yaron Niv MD AGAF FACG

Hospitalization of ulcerative colitis patients is needed in severe exacerbation of the disease or for managing complications. In this systematic review and meta-analysis the prevalence of hospitalization in ulcerative colitis and possible predictive factors are discussed. A systematic literature search of English language publications that were published before 31 December 2019 was conducted. Retrospective cohort studies describing hospitalizations of UC patients were included. Meta-analysis was performed by using comprehensive meta-analysis software. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated for the number of patients hospitalized. Seven studies and 15 datasets were found that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In total, the studies included 2067 patients from six countries. The event rates for the number of patients hospitalized in a follow-up duration of 42,320 patient-years and for the number of patients underwent operation in a follow-up of 24,650 patient-years were 0.065 (95%CI 0.063–0.068) and 0.019 (95%CI 0.017–0.021), respectively. More studies during the era of biologics need to be performed to identify the factors predictive of hospitalization and surgery with UC. Prevention of inflammation and UC complications may prevent hospitalization and the need for surgical treatment

February 2020
Yaron Niv MD AGAF FACG

Despite advances in therapeutic modalities, especially with biologic treatments, the number of hospitalizations due to complications for Crohn's disease did not decrease. We examined the prevalence and possible predictive factors of hospitalizations in Crohn's disease. A systematic literature search was conducted until 31 October 2018. Relevant studies were screened according to established protocol. Retrospective cohort studies describing hospitalizations of Crohn's disease patients were included. Meta-analysis was performed by using comprehensive meta-analysis software. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated for the number of patients hospitalized. Twelve studies published before 31 March 2018 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were comprised of 23 data-sets and included 4421 patients from six countries. A funnel plot demonstrates a moderate publication bias. We reported the event rates for the number of patients hospitalized, in a follow-up survey of 20,987 patient-years, and for the patients who underwent surgery in a follow-up of 5061 patient-years, with ORs of 0.233 with 95%CI 0.227–0.239, and 0.124 with 95%CI 0.114–0.135 (P < 0.001), respectively. Thus, when collecting the data from 12 cohort studies we found that hospitalization takes place in 23.3% of the patients, and operation in 12.4% along their disease duration. Patients with Crohn's disease may be hospitalized due to exacerbation of their inflammatory disease, because of non-inflammatory disease (such as fistula or stricture), or due to medical complications. The goal of therapy should be to keep the Crohn's disease patients in their natural environment and out of the hospital and to prevent surgery as much as possible.

September 2016
Rotem Sivan-Hoffmann MD, Benjamin Gory MD MSc, Muriel Rabilloud MD PhD, Dorin N. Gherasim MD, Xavier Armoiry PharmD PhD, Roberto Riva MD, Paul-Emile Labeyrie MD MSc, Udi Gonike-Sadeh MD, Islam Eldesouky MD and Francis Turjman MD PhD

Mechanical thrombectomy with stent retrievers is now the reference therapy for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in the anterior circulation in association with thrombolysis. We conducted an extensive systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the clinical and angiographic outcomes of stent-retriever thrombectomy in patients with acute anterior circulation stroke. Available literature published to date on observational studies and three randomized trials (MR CLEAN, ESCAPE, and EXTEND-IA) involving the stent-retriever device were reviewed. Successful recanalization and favorable clinical outcome were defined by a TICI ≥ 2b and modified Rankin Scale score of ≤ 2 at 90 days following AIS, respectively. A total of 2067 patients harboring an anterior circulation stroke were treated with a stent retriever: 433 patients from 3 randomized trials involving the device and 1634 patients from observational studies. Mean NIH Stroke Scale score on admission was 16.6, and mean time from onset to recanalization was 300 minutes. Successful recanalization was achieved in 82% (95%CI 77–86, 31 studies). The 90 day favorable outcome was achieved in 47% (95%CI 42–5.2, 34 studies) with an overall mortality rate of 17% (95%CI 13–20, 31 studies). Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage was identified in 6% (95%CI 4–8, 32 studies). In patients with AIS caused by a proximal intracranial occlusion of the anterior circulation, stent-retriever thrombectomy is safe and restores brain reperfusion in four of five treated patients, allowing favorable clinical outcome in one of two AIS patients with large vessel occlusion. 

April 2016
Howard Amital MD MHA

The increasing use of computerized medical records has made the clinical data of the entire population available for epidemiological research. The resultant accessibility to this information mandates careful adaptions of ethical guidelines regarding the handling of clinical data. At the same time it grants a unique opportunity to explore the clinical nature of health and disease in large populations across all of society’s strata, socioeconomic levels, ethnicities, and geographic locations regardless of their vicinity or distance to tertiary care centers. Analysis of large databases allows us to learn the public‘s behavior towards medical services and to investigate how medical interventions affect outcomes over time. Moreover, interaction between different co-morbidities can also be better understood by large population studies. The huge numbers of patients involved in these studies provide a good model of multivariate analysis, a statistical tool that by following proper population adjustments underlines the true independent associations between different conditions. Nevertheless, the limitations of these studies should be borne in mind, such as in-built imprecision of diagnoses, incompleteness of the medical data, and the fact that these databases were initially planned for clinical and not investigational use. 

February 2011
G. Rubin, S. Krasnyansky, I. Gavish, I. Elmalah, O. Ben-Lulu and N. Rozen

Background: Routine histopathological analysis of bone extracted during total joint replacement is controversial.

Objectives: To evaluate the utility of routine histopathological analysis in total joint replacement.

Methods: We calculated the risk for discrepant diagnosis between the pre- and postoperative histopathological results by performing a meta-analysis of 11 studies (including our data). We also calculated the risk for significant discrepancies.

Results: The discrepant diagnoses analysis showed a random effect of 3% discrepancies (95% confidence interval 1.2–3.7%). Funnel plot indicates a publication bias; consequently, the conclusions from this analysis should be interpreted with caution. Regarding the significant discrepancy in diagnosis, we performed a meta-analysis of nine studies. Fixed-effects analysis of all the studies resulted in 0.16% significant discrepancies (95% CI[1] 0.02–0.30%) with no heterogeneity (Q = 3.93, degrees of freedom = 9, P = 0.14, I2 = 49.2%), and appropriate fixed-effects models.

Conclusions: We recommend no further routine histological examination, reserving this tool for cases with a controversial primary diagnosis and unexpected findings during the operation.






[1] CI = confidence interval


March 2001
Imad R. Makhoul, MD DSc, Osnat Zmora, MD, Ada Tamir, DSc, Eli Shahar, MD and Polo Sujov, MD

Background: Congenital subependymal pseudocysts are incidental findings that are found in 05-5.2% of neonates during postmortem examination or head ultrasonography. In our institution we detected 10 neonates with CSEPC.

Objective: To investigate associated etiological factors, morphologic characteristics and outcome of CSEPC.

Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of the literature on CSEPC (1967-98), including our 10 cases.

Results: A total of 256 cases of CSEPC were analyzed. Ultrasound diagnosed 77.6% of CSEPC 48.8% were bilateral and 53.4% were located in the caudothalamic groove or head of caudate nucleus. Altogether, 93.5% resolved during 1-12 months of ultrasonographic follow-up. Compared to the general neonatal population, the following features were more prevalent in the CSEPC population: prematurity, maternal vaginal bleeding, preeclamptic toxemia, intrauterine growth restriction, asphyxia, fetal cytomegalovirus and rubella infec­tions, congenital malformations, chromosomal aberrations, infant mortality, and neurodevelopmental handicap. The risk for neurodevelopmental handicap was significantly higher when CSEPC were associated with fetal infections, IUGR, malformations and chromosomal aberrations, or persistence of CSEPC during follow-up. CSEPC infants without any of these four conditions had a low risk for neurodevelopmental handi­cap.

Conclusions: CSEPC are morphologic features of various underlying conditions encountered in the fetus. Association of CSEPC with IUGR, fetal infections, malformations and chromosomal aberrations or persistence of CSEPC indicates a higher risk for future neurodevelopmental handicaps, probably because of the deleterious effects on the fetal brain that are inherent in these conditions. A favorable outcome is expected in the absence of these risk factors.
 

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